Common Core Understanding


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Monitoring the Development of Reading Processes is vital to student success.

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Common Core Understanding

  1. 1. Core Understanding 13:Monitoring the Development of Reading Processes is vital to student success.
  2. 2. Monitoring Students Progress in reading•Monitoring students progress involvesassessment and evaluation.• Assessment is the ongoing progress ofgathering information about what studentscan and cannot do.•Evaluation takes into account all assessmentsand observations in order to make instructionaldecisions.
  3. 3. Standardized Test•Due to the current accountability enforced by No ChildLeft Behind, teachers are forced to teach to variousstandardized tests.•Because of NCLB emphasis on universal testing,many students are being retained in grades because ofthe scores of this single test. •“The test shows where an individual falls within a peer group however it does not show what an individual can do as a reader” (Braungner &Lewis p. 131).•What teachers should use to inform readinginstruction is authentic assessment.
  4. 4. Authentic Assessment Involves:•Is the best way to evaluate whata reader can do.•Observing students reading and writing toevaluate whether they are using the three cueingsystems.•Assessing reading in real contexts andsituations.•Using many forms of diagnostic proceduresto assess students growth.
  5. 5. Activity: Runny Rabbit Silverstein, S. (2005). Runny Babbit. Marion Boyars Publishers Ltd.
  6. 6. Directions Form groups of four. Read the poem alone and then together aloud. Discuss what you notice about the poem with your group. Discuss what the poem was about with your group. Think of the strategies you used to understand and read the poem.
  7. 7. Aspects of Reading to Monitor
  8. 8. 1. Comprehension•Meaning Making is at the heart of reading(Braunger & Lewis pg.133).•Students must learn variouscomprehension skills and strategies so theyare able to understand what they arereading. Checklist #6: “Do students regard reading as meaning making at all times? That is, do they construct meaning as they read?”
  9. 9. 2. Processing Words and Text Features•The way students process words and other textfeatures interrlated with their comprehension andunderstanding of text.Checklist #7 and #8“Are students effective readers? That is, do they make abalanced use of all three cueing systems?”(Freeman & Freeman, 2000, p. 68)“Are students efficient readers? That is, do they makeminimal use of cues to construct meaning?(Freeman & Freeman, 2000, p. 68)
  10. 10. 3. Fluency•Process of reading aloud words in an accurateand well paced manner.•Fluency effects reading comprehension.•The less readers need to spend on decodingwords the more they can make meaning with thetext.
  11. 11. 4. Metacognition and Reading Strategies•Student need to be able to draw from specific readingstrategies when they come across difficulties in theirreading.•Teachers need to model appropriate strategies thatstudents can use while reading.Checklist #9“Are students provided with appropriate strategylessons if they experience difficulties in their reading?”(Freeman & Freeman, 2000, p. 83)
  12. 12. 5. Environment and Instruction•Reading is a transaction between the reader,the text, and the environment (Braunger &Lewis p. 138).•The environmental factors that effect literacydevelopment include the home, school, andcommunity.
  13. 13. 6. Personal Perceptions, attitudes, and Interests.•Students perceptions help teachers see whether studentsvalue reading and consider themselves as readers.Checklist #1 & #4“Do students value themselves as readers, and do theyvalue reading?”(Freeman & Freeman, 2000, p. 31)“Do students have a wide variety of reading materials tochoose from and time to read?(Freeman & Freeman, 2000, p. 52)
  14. 14. Core Understanding 13 Monitoring the development of reading processes is vital to student success. In the past teachers would monitor a students progress by using standardized testing. Being that not all children are the same, this is not an accurate way to monitor a students development. The move is towards using authentic assessments and evaluations. Teachers observe children in their everyday work, students are aware of their reading processes, and students monitor themselves. Teachers can use portfolios with all the students work and evaluations to monitor their reading development. Below are some authentic ways to monitor and asses different areas of a students reading development. How core understanding 13 relates to the observation analysis Monitor.... Ways to monitor... paper... Responses - writing logs, writing responses, presentations, Students comprehension book talks. Checklist #6 Retelling - oral or written retelling of book. “The meaning made by readers is at the heart of the reading Interviews - interview student about text. “Do students regard reading as meaning making at all times? process” Work Samples - any work student has done. That is, do they construct meaning as they read?” (Braunger & Lewis, 2006, p. 133) Conferences - conference with student about books (Freeman & Freeman, 2000, p. 68) Observations - watch student as they read and ask them questions. It is important to know that when students are reading they are Teacher records/student self evaluation - teacher listens to not just reading, they are understanding what they are reading. group discussions and/or student uses comprehension rubric. Checklist #7 and #8 Interview - interview student about concepts of print; i.e. Students processing of words and other text features where is front of book, show me a word, show a sentences. “Are students effective readers? That is, do they make a balanced use of all three cueing systems?” “How students process words and other text features is Identification - Together with student identify letter names (Freeman & Freeman, 2000, p. 68)integrally related to their comprehension and understanding of and sounds. a text.” Word knowledge - have them read familiar words. “Are students efficient readers? That is, do they make minimal Writing - have them write and see what symbols they use. use of cues to construct meaning? (Braunger & Lewis, 2006, p. 135) (Freeman & Freeman, 2000, p. 68) Hearing and recording sounds in words - document phonemic awareness. By using miscue analysis the teacher can see how the student is Miscues - look at miscues to assess their comprehension. processing the words, as well as see if and how they use strategies and cues while reading the text.
  15. 15. Core Understanding 13 How core understanding 13 relates to the observation analysis Monitor.... Ways to monitor... paper... Fluency = reader can read smoothly so that they can detach Students fluency from print and make meaning of the text.“Automaticity in word recognition is important because it frees Read - practice by using familiar text.up the readers attention to the meaning of what is being read.” Listening and oral reading - Teacher reads aloud and asks(Kuhn & Stahl, 2000; LaBerge & Samuels, 1974; Perfetti, 1985; questions to see if students understood. Then student readsPressley, 2002; Stanovich, 1980, as cited in Braunger & Lewis, aloud and retells. While student reads, teacher can track 2006, p. 137) miscues and comprehension. Timed reading of short texts. students can problem solve better if they could think and Checklist #9 Students metacognition and reading strategies discuss what strategies they used. Think aloud while reading “Are students provided with appropriate strategy lessons if they “Students need to be able to understand when, how, and why Metacognitive logs - reflect on reading; ex: I figured out experience difficulties in their reading?” they are applying particular reading strategies and skills and (Freeman & Freeman, 2000, p. 83) what might be important to help them progress in their that... development.” Student self assessment If students learn reading strategies and when to use them it will Interviews to discuss what students read. help them become better readers. Part of the process is (Braunger & Lewis, 2006, p. 138) knowing how and when to use these strategies. Records and observations Document the relationship between reader, text, and Environment and Instruction environment (home, school, community)“It is appropriate to move assessment beyond what is perceived Teacher self assessment - if the students are not succeeding, to be “in” a student. Home, school, and community teacher needs to reflect on classroom environment, lessons, and environments all contribute to literacy development.” needs of students. (Braunger & Lewis, 2006, p. 138) Student self assessment - students reflect on their own obstacles and issues. Interviews - Help reader understand their thoughts on Checklist #1 & #4 Students perceptions, attitudes, and interests reading and what good readers do. “Do students value themselves as readers, and do they value“The importance of reading and the sense of one’s ability to read will affect the choices students make in regard to reading, •Surveys - document attitude towards reading and reading reading?” preferences. (Freeman & Freeman, 2000, p. 31) including types and time of reading” (Braunger & Lewis, 2006, p.133) •Inventories - Find out students interests and their access to “Do students have a wide variety of reading materials to choose books. from and time to read? (Freeman & Freeman, 2000, p. 52) •Observation - The book choices that they make.