Cell cycle powerpoint


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Cell cycle powerpoint

  1. 1. Cycle of Living Cells
  2. 2. There are two types of Living cells. <ul><li>The first living cell is called a Prokaryotic cell.
  3. 3. Characteristics of a Prokaryotic cell: </li><ul><li>They have NO NUCLEUS!!
  4. 4. DNA is found in a single chromosome.
  5. 5. They have a cell outer wall and chloroplasts that perform photosynthesis.
  6. 6. They are Single-Celled and they are found in Plants. </li><ul><li>A single-celled organism means it is very small, Microscopic, and is using some type of a bacteria. Similar to germs that you can't see! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Single Cell Organisms
  8. 8. A cell wall gives a Plant it's shape. The cell wall is composed of cellulose fiber, polysaccharides, and proteins.
  9. 9. The second type of cell is called a Eukaryotic Cell. <ul><li>Eukaryotic cells HAVE a NUCLEUS. The DNA is found inside the nucleus.
  10. 10. Eukaryotic cells are made up of the following parts: </li><ul><li>Cell Membrane
  11. 11. Nucleus
  12. 12. Cytoskeleton
  13. 13. Rough & Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
  14. 14. Golgi Apparatus
  15. 15. Mitochondria
  16. 16. Lysosomes
  17. 17. Ribosomes </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Animal Cell
  19. 19. <ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic Cells are usually bigger than Prokaryotic Cells. They are also multicellular.
  20. 20. Multicellular Organisms are made up of two or more cells.
  21. 21. Eukaryotic Cells are found in Animals. </li><ul><li>A cell membrane defines the cells border. It control's what travels into and out of the cell.
  22. 22. The cell membrane is similar to a sponge. A sponge has holes to soak in water, but rejects anything else that tries to get stuck in it's holes. The cell membrane only allows what the cell needs through the membrane. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Transport Across the Membrane <ul><li>There are 5 types of transportation across the membrane.
  24. 24. Diffusion: The net movement of a molecule from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration. The membrane is selectively permeable. </li><ul><li>For example: If I would spray my perfume in the back of the room, eventually you would be able to smell my perfume in the front of the room. The smell diffuses it's way through the air from one place to another. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>The second type is Osmosis. </li><ul><li>Osmosis is the movement of water across a permeable membrane. </li></ul><li>The third type is Isotonic. </li><ul><li>This is when two solutions have the same concentration level of solute. </li></ul><li>The fourth Hypotonic. </li><ul><li>Hypotonic is when one solution has less solute than the other, in this case water would move out of the solution with more solute in it. </li></ul><li>The fifth is Hypertonic. </li><ul><li>Hypertonic is one solution has more solute than the other and water moves into the solute with less solution in it. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Cell division <ul><li>Cell division is the process in which one cell is broken down and becomes two cell through growth and repair.
  27. 27. A chromosome consists of a single long strand of DNA and small proteins called histones around which the DNA is wrapped. </li><ul><li>Most cells have 2 of each type of chromosome. </li></ul><li>Humans have 46 chromosomes. One pair of sex chromosomes determines the sex of the person. </li><ul><li>Female Chromosome XX
  28. 28. Male Chromosome XY </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. The Y gene determines the developmental level of the child. 22 genes are identical and the last pair are different.
  30. 30. 3 Types of Cell Division <ul><li>Binary Fusion </li><ul><li>This makes sure each daughter cell gets ONE complete chromosome, instead of two.
  31. 31. This only takes part in Prokaryotic cells, such as Plant cells. </li></ul><li>Mitosis </li><ul><li>This makes sure each daughter cell gets a COMPLETE set of chromosomes.
  32. 32. This takes place in Eukaryotic Cells, such as animals. </li></ul><li>Meiosis </li><ul><li>This process cuts the chromosomes in half and produces 4 cells instead of 2.
  33. 33. This takes place in humans, and is how reproduction is made. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>There are Five Phases of the Mitosis Cycle. </li><ul><li>Interphase </li><ul><li>G1 </li><ul><li>Cell Increases in size and the Number of Organelles
  35. 35. Preparatory step before the actual division of the nucleus takes place. </li></ul><li>Synthesis of DNA -Replication
  36. 36. G2 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>The Second Phase is Prophase </li><ul><li>This is the phase where the chromosomes of a cell are first visible under a microscope. </li></ul><li>The Third Phase is Metaphase </li><ul><li>After prophase, chromosomes will line up at the cell equator. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>The Fourth Phase is Anaphase . </li><ul><li>Phase of mitosis when the sister chromatids separate away from each other. </li></ul><li>The Fifth Phase is Telophase. </li><ul><li>Phase of mitosis when two nuclear membranes are pulling away from each other and are being formed. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. There is also a Meiotic Cell Division <ul><li>The events that occur during prophase of mitosis also occur during prophase I of meiosis. The chromosomes coil up, the nuclear membrane begins to disintegrate, and the centrosomes begin moving apart. The crossing over process of the chromosomes starts to take place which produces double the chromosomes. Instead of four there are eight.
  40. 40. In Metaphase, the cells line up in the middle of the cell, also the same as Mitosis. </li></ul><ul><li>During Anaphase the cells pull away from each other.
  41. 41. Telophase is the same as Mitosis, except Mitosis they only separate once. In Meiosis they separate twice to make 4 identical cells, called reproduction. </li></ul>
  42. 43. Differences in Mitosis and Meiosis
  43. 45. Video on how Mitosis works.. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VlN7K1-9QB0
  44. 46. Video on how Meiosis works.. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D1_-mQS_FZ0
  45. 47. http://www.variety-games.com/CW/Puzzles/77145447898157103234-puzzle.htm Go to this website below and fill in the words on the crossword puzzle related to the lesson we just covered.