Successfully reported this slideshow.
Activate your 14 day free trial to unlock unlimited reading.
People who are part of the workforce are called
human resource. By contributing in productivity,
the human resource plays a significant role in the
economy of a country. Any other resource
becomes useful only because of the input by the
Investment in human capital yields a return like
investment in other resources. Investment in
human capital is done through education, training
and healthcare. A person with better education
usually earns better than an uneducated person.
Moreover, a healthy person is more productive
Educated parents understand the value of
education and hence invest in their child’s
education to secure a better future for the
child. Educated parents also take extra care
of the health and nutrition of their child. This
creates a virtuous cycle of creating a better
Uneducated parents are unable to invest on
education and healthcare of their children.
This creates a vicious cycle in which the
coming generation is often forced to remain
Economic activities can be categorized into
three types ;
3.Territory Activities: Economic activities which
support the primary and secondary activities are
called tertiary activities. Banking, transport,
finance and different types of services come
under tertiary activities.
Economic activities which are related to
agriculture, poultry farming, fishing, horticulture,
animal husbandry, mining, quarrying, etc. are
called primary activities. Natural resources are
just extracted in primary activities
Manufacturing is called secondary activity.
Natural resources are properly modified in
When some product or service is
produced to be sold in the market, it is
called market activity.
NON MARKET ACTIVITIES
When some product or service is produced for self
consumption, it is called non-market activity. If a
farmer produces just enough to meet his family
needs, then his activity is a non-market activity.
Similarly, the work of a housewife is a non-market
activity; because she is working for the benefit of her
QUALITY OF POPULATION
Literacy rate, health and skills
determine the quality of a population.
Illiterate and unhealthy population can
be a liability for the economy. Literate
and healthy population can be made into
an asset for the economy. Literate and
healthy population contributes towards
GDP of a country.
Education enhances the literacy level and skill
level of a person. It also helps in enriching the
culture of the society. Presence of educated
persons in the society indirectly benefits the
illiterate persons as well.
Government has taken various steps to spread
education among the people. Government strives
to provide universal access to education. It also
makes various plans to increase the retention of
students. Special emphasis is given on girl’s
The plan outlay on education in the first plan
was Rs. 151 crore. It has increased to Rs.
43,825 crore in the tenth plan. The
expenditure on education was 0.64% of the
GDP in 1950-51 and has increased to 3.98% of
the GDP in 2002-03.
Due to constant efforts, the literacy rate has
grown from 18% in 1951 to more than 70% in
2011. Literacy rate is higher among males
compared to among females. Kerala is a state
with more than 90% literacy, while some
states have a very low literacy level.
Government has recently launched Sarva
Siksha Abhiyan to spread education to
remotest parts of the country. Under this
programme, all children under 6 to 14 years of
age are given elementary education.
Government also provides Mid-Day Meal in
government schools so that children of poor
people can attend the school. Mid-day Meal
has helped many children from the poor family
to attend school.
The Tenth Plan has focused on increasing the
enrolment in higher education from 6% to 9%.
The strategy is to increase access, quality and
adoption of state-specific curriculum to
motivate enrolment in higher education.
Vocational courses are also offered and use of
Information Technology is being maximized to
attain the goal. The Tenth Plan also focuses on
distant education, convergence of formal, non-
formal and IT education.
SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), is an Indian
Government programme aimed at the
universalisation of elementary education "in a
time bound manner", as mandated by the 86th
amendment to the Constitution of India
making free and compulsory education to
children of ages 6–14 (estimated to be 205
million in number in 2001) a fundamental right.
The programme was pioneered by Atal Bihari
HISTORY OF SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN
As an intervention programme, SSA has been
operational since 2000-2001.However, its roots go
back to 1993-1994, when the District Primary
Education Programme (DPEP) was launched, with the
aim of achieving the objective of universal primary
education. DPEP, over several phases, covered 272
districts in 18 states of the country. The expenditure
on the programme was shared by the Central
Government (85%) and the State Governments. The
Central share was funded by a number of external
agencies, including the WORLD BANK,DFID
and UNICEF. By 2001, more than US$1500 million had
been committed to the programme, and 50 million
children covered in its ambit. In an impact assessment
of Phase I of DPEP, the authors concluded that its net
Nevertheless, they concluded that the
investment in DPEP was not a waste,
because it introduced a new approach to
primary school interventions in India.
The Right to Education Act (RTE) came
into force on 1 April 2010. Some
educationists and policy makers believe
that, with the passing of this act, SSA
has acquired the necessary legal force
for its implementation.
PRESENT GOALS OF
SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN
Its goals of 2015 were to:
Open new schools in areas which do not have
them and to expand existing school
infrastructures and maintenance.
Address inadequate teacher numbers, and
provide training a development for existing
Provide quality elementary education including
life skills with a special focus on the education
of girls and children with special needs as well
as computer education
A healthy person can fully realize his potential
and can be an asset for the economy. An
unhealthy person shall not be able to realize his
potential and can be a liability for the economy.
The national health policy of India is aimed
towards improving access to health services and
improving nutrition; especially among the
The government health system is composed of
many tiers of hospitals. The Primary Health
Centres are the bottom of this tier, and provide
general medical care to rural people.
This is followed by Community Health Centres
in bigger Tehsils or Block level towns. The
District Hospitals are at district level.
Further, medical colleges are present in major
cities where doctors of all specialties are
The reach of healthcare services is still too
little but reduction in infant mortality and
improvement in life expectancy over the years
have shown that the healthcare system has
indeed helped in improving the quality of
When a person is actively seeking a job but is
unable to get employed, he is called an
unemployed person. People in the working age
(15 to 59 years) only can be termed
unemployed if any one of them is without a
gainful employment. Additionally, if a person
voluntarily does not want to work he cannot be
termed as unemployed.
This type of unemployment is more
prevalent in rural areas. The
farming cycle is season based.
There are certain months which are
quite busy for a farm worker. There
are many other months when a farm
worker is without a work.
This type of unemployment is also more prevalent
in rural areas. To understand this, let us take the
example of a family with 8 working members. All
of them are working on their farm. The size of
the farm makes it possible to be efficiently
managed by 5 persons only. The extra three
persons are not contributing towards any growth
in productivity. They are working because they
have no other gainful employment. Their potential
could have given better results if utilized
elsewhere. Similar situation can also be seen in
some family owned shops where all the family
members may be working in the same shop but not
The problem of unemployment among the
educated youth is very high in urban areas. Now-
a-days, even highly educated youths; like
graduates and postgraduates; are unable to find a
job. Some analysts suggest that most of the
highly educated youth do not possess
employability. But most of the analysts say that it
is because of demand supply gap.
While many technically qualified people are
unemployed, there are many jobs remaining vacant
because of lack properly trained person.
Effects of Unemployment
Unemployment can be emotionally draining on
the unemployed person.
It can be a financial and emotional drain on his
A large number of unemployed people is
ultimately a liability for the society.
High rate of unemployment can also increase
the crime rate.