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Introduction to Geotechnical
Engineering

ground
N. Sivakugan
SIVA

Duration: 13 mins

1
Typical Geotechnical Project
Geo-Laboratory
~ for testing

soil properties

Design Office
~ for design & analysis

m
l sa
...
Shallow Foundations
~ for transferring building loads to underlying ground
~ mostly for firm soils or light loads

firm
gr...
Shallow Foundations

SIVA

Copyright © 2001
Deep Foundations
~ for transferring building loads to underlying ground
~ mostly for weak soils or heavy loads

P
I
L
E

w...
Deep Foundations

SIVA

Driven timber piles, Pacific Highway
Copyright © 2001

7
Pier Foundations for Bridges

Millau Viaduct in France (2005)




SIVA

Cable-stayed bridge
Supported on 7 piers, 342 m...
Pier Foundations for Bridges

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

Millau Viaduct in France (2005) 9
Retaining Walls
~ for retaining soils from spreading laterally

retaining
wall
Road
Train

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

10
Earth Dams
~ for impounding water

reservoir
clay
core

shell

soil

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

11
Concrete Dams

reservoir

concrete dam

soil

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

12
Concrete Dams

Three Gorges Dam, Hong Kong
SIVA

Copyright © 2001

13
Concrete Dams

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

14
Earthworks
~ preparing the ground prior to construction

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

Roadwork, Pacific Highway

15
Construction hazard
~ an unwelcome visitor at an earthwork site.

What does it have
to do with Geo?#!

SIVA

Copyright © 2...
Geofabrics
~ used for reinforcement, separation, filtration and
drainage in roads, retaining walls, embankments…

SIVA

Co...
Reinforced Earth Walls
~ using geofabrics to strengthen the soil

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

18
Tunneling

MSE (Mechanically
stabilised Earth) wall

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

Chile (2006) – during my sabbatical leave
19
Tunneling

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

20
Soil Nailing
~ steel rods placed into holes drilled into the walls
and grouted

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

21
Retaining Walls

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

Rock anchors to support the vertical walls
22
Sheet Piles
~ sheets of interlockingsteel or timber driven into
the ground, forming a continuous sheet

warehouse

ship

s...
Sheet Piles
~ resist lateral earth pressures
~ used in excavations, waterfront structures, ..

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

24
Sheet Piles
~ used in temporary works

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

25
Sheet Piles
~ interlocking sections

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

26
Cofferdam
~ sheet pile walls enclosing an area, to
prevent water seeping in

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

27
Cofferdam
~ sheet pile walls enclosing an area, to
prevent water seeping in

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

28
Landslides

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

29
Shoring
propping and supporting the exposed walls to
resist lateral earth pressures

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

30
Excavations

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

Chile (2006) – during my sabbatical leave
31
Mining

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

32
Blasting

For ore recovery in mines

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

33
Earthquake Engineering

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

Loma Preita Earthquake, San Francisco (1989)
34
Ground Improvement

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

Impact Roller to Compact the Ground
35
Ground Improvement

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

Sheepsfoot Roller to Compact Clay Soils
36
Ground Improvement

Smooth-wheeled Roller
SIVA

Copyright © 2001

37
Ground Improvement
Big weights dropped
from 25 m, compacting
the ground.

SIVA

Craters formed in compaction
Copyright © 2...
Environmental Geomechanics

Waste Disposal in Landfills
SIVA

Copyright © 2001

39
Instrumentation
~ to monitor the performances of earth and
earth supported structures
~ to measure loads, pressures, defor...
Soil Testing

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

Vane Shear Test
Standard Penetration Test
More Field Tests
Soil Testing

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

Triaxial Test on Soil Sample in Laboratory
42
Soil Testing

SIVA

Variety of Field Testing Devices
Copyright © 2001

43
Soil Testing
Purdue University, USA

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

Being Pushed around by my Supervisors44
Typical Safety Factors
Type of Design

Earthworks

1.3-1.5

1/500

Retaining
structures

1.5-2.0

1/1500

Foundations 2.0-...
Some Civil Engineering marvels ….

foundations

soil
exploration
tunneling

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

… buried right under y...
Soil Testing

SIVA

Cone Penetration Test Truck – Lavarach Barracks, Townsville
Copyright © 2001
Dynamic Compaction

JCU site visit to Townsville Port in 2003
SIVA

Copyright © 2001

49
Sheet pile at Woolcock St

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

50
Soil Nailing at Strand

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

51
JCU Dynamic cone penetration rig

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

52
JCU Dynamic cone penetration rig

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

53
Pile driving rig – Ross River Dam

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

54
Pile driving rig – Ross River Dam

A pile group

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

55
Sea wall in Brisbane (2005)

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

56
Courtesy: Coffey Geosciences Pty Ltd.
Great Contributors to the Developments
in Geotechnical Engineering
Karl Terzaghi
1883-1963

L. Bjerrum
1918-1973

C.A.Coulomb
1736-1806

A.W.Skempton
1914-

WJM Rankine
1820-1872

Siva’s te...
Purdue University (USA), 1986

Mini-Me

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

Geotechnical Group: Postgrads & staff

59
Geotechnical Engineering Landmarks
Leaning Tower of Pisa
Our blunders become monuments!

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

61
Hoover Dam, USA

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

62
Tallest (221 m) concrete dam
Petronas Tower, Malaysia

Tallest building in the
world
SIVA

Copyright © 2001

63
Monuments

and….

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

64
Geo-engineering at JCU
CS2005
Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering

CS3002
Soils & Foundations

CS4001
Foundations & R...
Practicals
~ five practical sessions
~ closed footwear must be worn in the
lab

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

67
Safety

Rio de Janeiro

SIVA

We have pride in our high safety standards
68

Copyright © 2001
Quizzes
How?




Why?




SIVA

Copyright © 2001

about 4-6, 50 minutes each
open book
reinforce main points
provide ...
Past CS2005 Grades
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
HD

5

1

1

3

3

0

D

4

2

3

2

9

6

C

15

12

6

7

7

2

P
...
Some Suggestions
Attend the lectures.
It takes longer to understand
from the lecture notes

Develop a good feel for the su...
Some Suggestions

Work in groups.
SIVA

Copyright © 2001

72
Some Suggestions

Thou shall not wait till the last minute.
SIVA

Copyright © 2001

73
Exams

My mama always said, “Exam is like a box
of chocolates; you never know what you
gonna get”

SIVA

Copyright © 2001
...
Recipe for Success

I like soils… I like soils….I like soils….

SIVA

Copyright © 2001

75
Introgeo
Introgeo
Introgeo
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Introgeo

  1. 1. Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering ground N. Sivakugan SIVA Duration: 13 mins 1
  2. 2. Typical Geotechnical Project Geo-Laboratory ~ for testing soil properties Design Office ~ for design & analysis m l sa soi ple ils eta nd sig de s SIVA Copyright © 2001 construction site 2
  3. 3. Shallow Foundations ~ for transferring building loads to underlying ground ~ mostly for firm soils or light loads firm ground SIVA Copyright © 2001 bed rock 4
  4. 4. Shallow Foundations SIVA Copyright © 2001
  5. 5. Deep Foundations ~ for transferring building loads to underlying ground ~ mostly for weak soils or heavy loads P I L E weak soil bed rock SIVA Copyright © 2001 6
  6. 6. Deep Foundations SIVA Driven timber piles, Pacific Highway Copyright © 2001 7
  7. 7. Pier Foundations for Bridges Millau Viaduct in France (2005)    SIVA Cable-stayed bridge Supported on 7 piers, 342 m apart Longest pier (336) in the world A separate slideshow on the construction is in the bottom drawer 8 Copyright © 2001
  8. 8. Pier Foundations for Bridges SIVA Copyright © 2001 Millau Viaduct in France (2005) 9
  9. 9. Retaining Walls ~ for retaining soils from spreading laterally retaining wall Road Train SIVA Copyright © 2001 10
  10. 10. Earth Dams ~ for impounding water reservoir clay core shell soil SIVA Copyright © 2001 11
  11. 11. Concrete Dams reservoir concrete dam soil SIVA Copyright © 2001 12
  12. 12. Concrete Dams Three Gorges Dam, Hong Kong SIVA Copyright © 2001 13
  13. 13. Concrete Dams SIVA Copyright © 2001 14
  14. 14. Earthworks ~ preparing the ground prior to construction SIVA Copyright © 2001 Roadwork, Pacific Highway 15
  15. 15. Construction hazard ~ an unwelcome visitor at an earthwork site. What does it have to do with Geo?#! SIVA Copyright © 2001 A dead Anaconda python (courtesy: J. Brunskill) 16
  16. 16. Geofabrics ~ used for reinforcement, separation, filtration and drainage in roads, retaining walls, embankments… SIVA Copyright © 2001 17 Geofabrics used on Pacific Highway
  17. 17. Reinforced Earth Walls ~ using geofabrics to strengthen the soil SIVA Copyright © 2001 18
  18. 18. Tunneling MSE (Mechanically stabilised Earth) wall SIVA Copyright © 2001 Chile (2006) – during my sabbatical leave 19
  19. 19. Tunneling SIVA Copyright © 2001 20
  20. 20. Soil Nailing ~ steel rods placed into holes drilled into the walls and grouted SIVA Copyright © 2001 21
  21. 21. Retaining Walls SIVA Copyright © 2001 Rock anchors to support the vertical walls 22
  22. 22. Sheet Piles ~ sheets of interlockingsteel or timber driven into the ground, forming a continuous sheet warehouse ship sheet pile SIVA Copyright © 2001 23
  23. 23. Sheet Piles ~ resist lateral earth pressures ~ used in excavations, waterfront structures, .. SIVA Copyright © 2001 24
  24. 24. Sheet Piles ~ used in temporary works SIVA Copyright © 2001 25
  25. 25. Sheet Piles ~ interlocking sections SIVA Copyright © 2001 26
  26. 26. Cofferdam ~ sheet pile walls enclosing an area, to prevent water seeping in SIVA Copyright © 2001 27
  27. 27. Cofferdam ~ sheet pile walls enclosing an area, to prevent water seeping in SIVA Copyright © 2001 28
  28. 28. Landslides SIVA Copyright © 2001 29
  29. 29. Shoring propping and supporting the exposed walls to resist lateral earth pressures SIVA Copyright © 2001 30
  30. 30. Excavations SIVA Copyright © 2001 Chile (2006) – during my sabbatical leave 31
  31. 31. Mining SIVA Copyright © 2001 32
  32. 32. Blasting For ore recovery in mines SIVA Copyright © 2001 33
  33. 33. Earthquake Engineering SIVA Copyright © 2001 Loma Preita Earthquake, San Francisco (1989) 34
  34. 34. Ground Improvement SIVA Copyright © 2001 Impact Roller to Compact the Ground 35
  35. 35. Ground Improvement SIVA Copyright © 2001 Sheepsfoot Roller to Compact Clay Soils 36
  36. 36. Ground Improvement Smooth-wheeled Roller SIVA Copyright © 2001 37
  37. 37. Ground Improvement Big weights dropped from 25 m, compacting the ground. SIVA Craters formed in compaction Copyright © 2001 38
  38. 38. Environmental Geomechanics Waste Disposal in Landfills SIVA Copyright © 2001 39
  39. 39. Instrumentation ~ to monitor the performances of earth and earth supported structures ~ to measure loads, pressures, deformations, strains,… SIVA Copyright © 2001 40
  40. 40. Soil Testing SIVA Copyright © 2001 Vane Shear Test Standard Penetration Test More Field Tests
  41. 41. Soil Testing SIVA Copyright © 2001 Triaxial Test on Soil Sample in Laboratory 42
  42. 42. Soil Testing SIVA Variety of Field Testing Devices Copyright © 2001 43
  43. 43. Soil Testing Purdue University, USA SIVA Copyright © 2001 Being Pushed around by my Supervisors44
  44. 44. Typical Safety Factors Type of Design Earthworks 1.3-1.5 1/500 Retaining structures 1.5-2.0 1/1500 Foundations 2.0-3.0 SIVA Safety Factor 1/5000 Copyright © 2001 Probability of Failure 45
  45. 45. Some Civil Engineering marvels …. foundations soil exploration tunneling SIVA Copyright © 2001 … buried right under your 46 feet.
  46. 46. Soil Testing SIVA Cone Penetration Test Truck – Lavarach Barracks, Townsville Copyright © 2001
  47. 47. Dynamic Compaction JCU site visit to Townsville Port in 2003 SIVA Copyright © 2001 49
  48. 48. Sheet pile at Woolcock St SIVA Copyright © 2001 50
  49. 49. Soil Nailing at Strand SIVA Copyright © 2001 51
  50. 50. JCU Dynamic cone penetration rig SIVA Copyright © 2001 52
  51. 51. JCU Dynamic cone penetration rig SIVA Copyright © 2001 53
  52. 52. Pile driving rig – Ross River Dam SIVA Copyright © 2001 54
  53. 53. Pile driving rig – Ross River Dam A pile group SIVA Copyright © 2001 55
  54. 54. Sea wall in Brisbane (2005) SIVA Copyright © 2001 56 Courtesy: Coffey Geosciences Pty Ltd.
  55. 55. Great Contributors to the Developments in Geotechnical Engineering
  56. 56. Karl Terzaghi 1883-1963 L. Bjerrum 1918-1973 C.A.Coulomb 1736-1806 A.W.Skempton 1914- WJM Rankine 1820-1872 Siva’s teacher in USA – Siva’s teacher in USA – deserves gold frame deserves gold frame G.F.Sowers 1921-1996 A.Casagrande 1902-1981 G.A. Leonards 1921-1997
  57. 57. Purdue University (USA), 1986 Mini-Me SIVA Copyright © 2001 Geotechnical Group: Postgrads & staff 59
  58. 58. Geotechnical Engineering Landmarks
  59. 59. Leaning Tower of Pisa Our blunders become monuments! SIVA Copyright © 2001 61
  60. 60. Hoover Dam, USA SIVA Copyright © 2001 62 Tallest (221 m) concrete dam
  61. 61. Petronas Tower, Malaysia Tallest building in the world SIVA Copyright © 2001 63
  62. 62. Monuments and…. SIVA Copyright © 2001 64
  63. 63. Geo-engineering at JCU CS2005 Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering CS3002 Soils & Foundations CS4001 Foundations & Rocks SIVA Copyright © 2001 Postgrad MEngSc/PhD 66
  64. 64. Practicals ~ five practical sessions ~ closed footwear must be worn in the lab SIVA Copyright © 2001 67
  65. 65. Safety Rio de Janeiro SIVA We have pride in our high safety standards 68 Copyright © 2001
  66. 66. Quizzes How?   Why?    SIVA Copyright © 2001 about 4-6, 50 minutes each open book reinforce main points provide a wake up call form of assessment 69
  67. 67. Past CS2005 Grades 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 HD 5 1 1 3 3 0 D 4 2 3 2 9 6 C 15 12 6 7 7 2 P 12 8 8 6 10 8 P- 6 0 2 4 1 5 N 12 10 12 14 9 13 X 0 0 3 3 3 1 33 35 39 42 35 Total 54 SIVA Copyright © 2001 ? 70
  68. 68. Some Suggestions Attend the lectures. It takes longer to understand from the lecture notes Develop a good feel for the subject. It is practical, interesting and makes lot of sense. SIVA Copyright © 2001 71
  69. 69. Some Suggestions Work in groups. SIVA Copyright © 2001 72
  70. 70. Some Suggestions Thou shall not wait till the last minute. SIVA Copyright © 2001 73
  71. 71. Exams My mama always said, “Exam is like a box of chocolates; you never know what you gonna get” SIVA Copyright © 2001 74
  72. 72. Recipe for Success I like soils… I like soils….I like soils…. SIVA Copyright © 2001 75

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