This brochure was produced with consideration for the environment. It is printed on paper that is100% recycled and has an ...
Contents                                         	 2	    About GL Garrad Hassan	                                          ...
Services and products                                                                                                     ...
Global credentials                                                                                     GL Garrad Hassan   ...
Global credentials                                                                                                        ...
Research & Development     Dedicated to delivering the future                                                             ...
Technical excellence                                                                                                      ...
Supporting the project developer                                                                                          ...
Case Study: Energy production assessment for the first wind farm in Sénégal -        Case Study: Onshore and offshore site...
Supporting the project developer                                                                                          ...
Supporting the owner/ operator                                                                                            ...
GL Garrad Hassan Onshore Wind Services 2012
GL Garrad Hassan Onshore Wind Services 2012
GL Garrad Hassan Onshore Wind Services 2012
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GL Garrad Hassan Onshore Wind Services 2012

  1. 1. This brochure was produced with consideration for the environment. It is printed on paper that is100% recycled and has an FSC accreditation. Renewable energy consultantsAll information correct at time of print February 2012 Technical by nature... ONSHORE WIND SErvices
  2. 2. Contents 2 About GL Garrad Hassan About GL Garrad Hassan 4 Services and products 6 Global credentials 1 0 Research and development 12 Technical excellence 1 4 Supporting the project developer The acknowledged technical 1 9 Supporting the owner/ operator 2 4 Supporting the investor/ lender 2 6 Strategic and policy advice authority on onshore wind 27 Training couses 2 7 More GL Garrad Hassan brochures Put quite simply, GL Garrad Hassan has advised on more onshore wind projects around the world than any other organisa- tion. Its experts have been leading the technical understanding related to generating power from wind from the outset and this, combined with a heavy investment in R&D, has secured its position as the authority on wind energy. GL Garrad Hassan’s client list boasts all of the wind industry’s major players whether they be developers, owners, operators, investors, lenders or manufacturers. It also regularly provides strategic and policy advice THE WORLD’S LARGEST DEDICATED to Governments, NGOs and industry bodies. “Wind energy is no longer an eccentric observer of the electricity industry; it RENEWABLE ENERGY CONSULTANCY has arrived in the main stream. The technology has changed – wind GL Garrad Hassan is the world’s largest dedicated renewable energy consultancy, offering independent technical turbines are now the world’s largest and engineering services, products and training to the wind, wave, tidal and solar sectors. From a network of local offices right across the globe, its experts deliver unrivalled breadth and depth of service to clients at all stages of the rotating machines; the owners and renewable energy project lifecycle. manufacturers have changed – no longer are they farmers and landowners supplied by backyard companies; they are A rich heritage now the same suppliers and the same GL Garrad Hassan is the renewable energy division of the GL Group and has a rich heritage. It was created by the customers as in conventional generation. integration of Garrad Hassan and the GL renewables entities of Noble Denton, Helimax and WINDTEST. Each of these organisations was at the forefront of its respective specialism and combined, they offer solutions that meet the current and future needs of the burgeoning renewable energy industry as it becomes main stream. GL Garrad Hassan has been involved from the outset and so has taken the very same journey. The organisation is now designed to provide a comprehensive Independent advice guaranteed global service to a sophisticated GL Garrad Hassan is a consulting company. It has no equity stake in any device or project. This rule of operation is client base whilst drawing on the last central to its philosophy which sets it apart from many competitors and underlines its independence. 30 years of experience, which underpins everything that we do.”2 3 Dr. Andrew Garrad, President
  3. 3. Services and products World-classComprehensive stakeholder solutions for productsthe life of the project Project development Operational projects Investors/lenders Government/NGOs Project development partner Asset management consulting Banks’ Engineer Market intelligence Strategic and policy advice Performance and condition monitoring Project/portfolio due diligence Policy and regulatory studies Training courses Fault diagnostics Company due diligence Specialist strategic studies Operational energy assessment Construction monitoring Feasibility Short-term forecasting Pre-construction energy assessment WindFarmer Constraints review Turbine inspection Turbine due diligence Wind farm design software Conceptual wind farm design Power performance measurements Interconnection review WindFarmer has been developed to ease Wind mapping and energy analysis Electrical measurements Inspections and audits the design of wind farms. It maximises the energy production of the farm whilst Financial analysis Acoustic measurements Market intelligence minimising its environmental impact. Users of WindFarmer gain the competitive Grid connection review Strategic and policy advice Strategic and policy advice advantage and accuracy of 30 years of Training courses Training courses expert wind energy know-how. Development Advanced, validated models for informed decision-making Environmental impact assessment Robust, reliable software with local technical Comprehensive wind monitoring service support Wind farm layout design Multiple language versions Energy yield and site conditions assessment Grid connection support Turbine selection Pre-construction Contract tendering and procurement Civil and electrical design reviews Management of grid connection Formal energy yield assessment Technical due diligence WindHelm Construction Portfolio management solution Project management WindHelm puts users firmly in control of their wind farm portfolio, regardless of its Construction monitoring scale or the different turbine models used. Owners’ Engineer Using SCADA data, WindHelm providesFeasibility Development Preconstruction Construction Operation advanced analysis and reporting to facilitate optimisation of assets. Sophisticated SCADA control of any multiple of mixed manufacturer turbines Tracks availability, efficiency and resource targets Daily, weekly and monthly statistics plus customised reportsTailored project development services for the lifetime of your project 5Feasibility Development Preconstruction Construction Operation
  4. 4. Global credentials GL Garrad Hassan GL Garrad Hassan GL Garrad Hassan Americas Asia & Pacific Europe, Middle East & Africa Austin Bangalore Barcelona Montreal Beijing Bristol Ottawa Melbourne Cairo Peterborough Navi Mumbai Cape Town A unique global perspective Portland Newcastle Copenhagen Porto Alegre Seoul Cork Querétaro Shanghai Glasgow San Diego Tokyo Hamburg based on experience Santiago Wellington Heerenveen Vancouver Hinnerup Imola Izmir Kaiser-Wilhelm-Koog Leiden Lisbon London Madrid Energy assessment Oldenburg analysing 20,000 MW of new projects per year Paris 25% of all projects worldwide Sint Maarten 70% of UK installed capacity Slough 75% of Irish installed capacity Warsaw Zaragoza 60% of Indian installed capacity 52% of Italian installed capacity 50,000 MW in US 98% of Australian installed capacity Operational assessment 15% of the world’s installed capacity 38% of Canadian installed capacity Due diligence over 25% of the world’s project financed wind farms world’s largest wind farm portfolio acquisition world’s first wind energy bond deal Independent engineer 45% of US wind farms the world’s five largest wind farm financings 42% of Italian installed capacity 65% of Spanish installed capacity 34% of Portuguese instaleld capacity 39% of Canadian installed capacity 67% of Latin American installed capacity 62% of Australian installed capacity the first project financed offshore wind farm Short-term forecasting over 20% of the world’s operational wind capacity Measurements power curve measurements on 500+ turbines load measurements on 100+ turbines founding member of MEASNET first ever load measurements on offshore wind farm Products/ software solutions world’s largest independent SCADA supplier operating 6,000 MW industry standard wind turbine design and simulation software - Bladed Bladed used to design world’s largest turbine 950+ staff, in 42 locations, across 24 countries6 7
  5. 5. Global credentials Case Study: Multiple services across the lifecycle for projects in UK, Spain, France and Italy Client: Falck Renewables PLC, UKA trusted partner providing GL Garrad Hassan has provided a wide range of services to Falck Renewables PLC, a large independent developer, tendering support, owner’s engineering services, due diligence for project finance, asset management andsolutions internationally owner and operator of wind farms in Europe. Projects are located in the UK, Spain, France and Italy. optimisation, measurement services, inspection and portfolio management software. The services provided have been associated with all stages of the project life cycle and include energy assessment, Case Study: Technical due diligence and construction monitoring in multiple countries including UK, Ireland, France and Germany Client: Nord/LB - UK/Germany Case Study: Provision of global energy development services to theAfter structuring financing for UK wind farms in 2005, From issues associated with contractual coverage world’s largest operatorNord/LB further expanded its coverage in international of project risks, potential project delay events andrenewable energy project finance in 2006 with addressing construction related remedial works on site, Client: Iberdrola, Spaininvestments in the Bindoo wind farm project in Ireland. through to input for a bankability advisory for a newThis was a significant step in establishing its relationship turbine entering the market , experts from GL Garrad Iberdrola is the world’s largest operator of wind power around the world, both onshore and offshore. Its expertswith Airtricity Renewables and in confirming its place Hassan have provided Nord/LB with reliable technical plants with a capacity of over 12,000 MW. GL Garrad have now worked in this technical advising capacity forin the wind financing market. Since then, Nord/LB has advice – and, importantly, have proven that they are Hassan works closely with Iberdrola’s technical team to around 5000 MW of Iberdrola’s wind projects.maintained its presence as a leading renewables lender able to react quickly and effectively in time pressured provide energy resource analysis for their wind farmsand debt advisor in Europe and North America, and GL transaction closings.Garrad Hassan has provided technical due diligence and The relationship that has developed with Nord/LBconstruction monitoring to support it throughout the demonstrates GL Garrad Hassan’s commitment to itsjourney. clients, as well as its ability to deliver the first-class qualityThe effort and time in arranging finance for a small scale review product needed when making large investmentwind farm can be comparable to that of a large wind decisions. Its expert presence on the transaction teamsportfolio and GL Garrad Hassan’s due diligence activity contributes to a smooth review process, and supports thefor Nord/LB has been across the spectrum of investments. ongoing performance of the asset once the investment is Case Study: Provision of services across the project lifecycle to a large North made. American developer/owner/operator Client: Horizon Wind Energy LLC, North America Horizon develops, constructs, owns and operates wind assessment of energy production and provided expert farms throughout North America. Based in Houston, opinion related to specific turbine technology risk; Texas it currently has over 20 wind farms across the operation and maintenance planning and commercial United States and has developed more than 3,400MW contracts. and operates over 2,800MW of wind farms. GL Garrad In addition, GL Garrad Hassan evaluated the foundation Case Study: Provision of multiple services for development projects in Japan, Hassan has acted as a technical advisor to Horizon across design and the electrical substation and collection its portfolio, providing a range of services across the South Korea, USA, UK, Italy, Spain, Norway project lifecycle, including: energy assessment, technical system design to identify related risks. It also provided construction monitoring services whilst verifying Client: Eurus Energy Holdings Corporation, Japan due diligence, construction monitoring and end of substantial completion of the wind farm in accordance warranty inspection. with the project documents and is responsible forEurus Energy is one of the pioneers of wind energy and now has 1,902MW of operational capacity globally Experts from GL Garrad Hassan have delivered a range verifying the condition of the turbine equipment indevelopment. Eurus stepped into the world of wind with projects in the USA, the UK, Italy, Spain, Japan, of specific studies and reports to Horizon. They have relation to expiring turbine supply, warranty, andenergy in 1987 in Mojave, California, USA. Since then, it South Korea and Norway. acted as technical advisors to support debt and equity operating and maintenance (O&M) contracts.has been continually expanding its wind farm portfolio participation in the project, conducted independent 9
  6. 6. Research & Development Dedicated to delivering the future A selection of internal R&D projects Wind energy is developing very rapidly. The start of the recent In parallel to these engineering developments has been era can be dated back to the late 1970’s and hence is only the development of standards and certification. GL Garrad Lost production estimation during turbine downtime really 30 years old. In that time, turbines have grown from Hassan has been a big contributor to this activity and remains Ongoing development of methodology to accurately calculate the production impact of significant downtime diameters of 10 to 15m with power levels of 50 to 100 kW to committed to it as a central part of the development of the and investigate the applicability of nacelle anemometer wind speed for lost energy estimation. the present size of 120-130m with power levels of 5,000 to industry as a whole. 7,000 kW - a growth of many orders of magnitude in just a ............................................................................................................................................................................................. A commitment to the science of wind energy is evident in few decades. At the same time, wind farms have grown from Investigation of the use of remote sensing in complex terrain - LIDAR every aspect of GL Garrad Hassan’s work. It is the driving 1 MW to 1000 MW! Such growth combined with a major force behind many of the IEC committees and EU initiatives Ground-based remote sensing measurements in wind resource assessment has been gaining pace in the last few improvement in reliability has only been achieved as a result and was a founding member of the specialized wind turbine years. Other than price, which is likely to change, the main obstacle to its widespread use is the full of a huge research and development effort. Meteorology, measurement group known as Measnet. It is also recognised understanding of its behaviour in complex terrain. This ongoing project aims to address that topic. aerodynamics, dynamics, control and civil, electrical and for its pioneering work on all aspects of wind turbine and wind mechanical engineering and material science have all played a ............................................................................................................................................................................................. farm modelling both onshore and offshore. part. In order to retain its position at the forefront of the industry, Health monitoring of wind turbines using SCADA data GL Garrad Hassan has been at the forefront of this GL Garrad Hassan champions R&D internally, as well as An assessment of the potential for using component temperature information typically available from a SCADA development on the theoretical front and also via validation of externally. In addition to its collaborative work with specialist system to conduct health monitoring of wind turbines. new computational tools through its measurement activities. institutions and consortia on externally funded R&D projects, it The advent of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) as a ............................................................................................................................................................................................. also has a dedicated internal R&D fund to allow its experts to standard tool in wind farm evaluation and the introduction apply for support to pursue advancement in areas related to Technology watch of grid codes of LIDAR and SODAR remote sensing are good examples their individual specialisms. of the way that science has changed every day life in wind Active monitoring of the development of grid codes in Europe and participation in EWEA harmonisation working farm development and analysis. GL Garrad Hassan has been group. involved in every stage. ............................................................................................................................................................................................. Icing research on operational projects Production losses as a result of icing events can be quite significant in cold climates. Icing events can be identified via site monitoring and weather forecasts and much can be learned to help predict losses during the pre-construction energy assessment by directly comparing the performance of operational turbines during icing events with the icing behaviour of pre-construction anemometry measurements. ............................................................................................................................................................................................. Long-term wind speed trends in North Western Europe Ongoing project since 2006 to record and analyse long-term wind speed trends. ............................................................................................................................................................................................. Mesoscale modelling development Mesoscale wind flow modelling can provide significant value in the early stages of project development. GL Garrad Hassan undertakes continual development of knowledge and tools to support the commercial application of mesoscale modelling with the aim of providing clients with accurate and practically applicable services. ............................................................................................................................................................................................. WInd shear, uncertainities and thermal stability Advanced methods are being developed to improve the vertical extrapolation of wind speed at real world wind farm sites located in very different wind regimes.10 11
  7. 7. Technical excellence A selection of GL Garrad Hassan’s technical papers and presentations • Validity check of numerical site calibration according to IEC 61400-12-1 ED.1 and MEASNET PPMP v4 Technical by nature • Influence of topographic maps on energy production assessments • Enhanced ramp event forecasting using upstream wind measurements • How to determine the portfolio effect based on wind regime dependency: European examples • Wind tunnel measurements of the flow upstream a wind turbine: effects on the power production • New developments in large wind farm modelling GL Garrad Hassan is respected for its technical excellence The internal focus on technical rigour and quality has resulted whether it be its depth of knowledge and service offering, in the development of many of the analytical methods that its detailed measurements and data analysis, its analytical have now become industry standard tools. They are used both modelling capability or market knowledge. The by-words of its by the experts within the company and by the industry as a operation are technical rigour and independence. This stringent whole. Many of the tools which were originally developed to approach is at the core of the business and influences all areas allow GL Garrad Hassan to provide an excellent consultancy of activity. service have now become products for much wider use. Since GL Garrad Hassan has no equity stake in any turbine or Given GL Garrad Hassan’s technical depth and its global wind farm and does not patent its innovations it frequently breadth, it is able to provide solutions to any challenge in publishes technical papers and its staff are regularly invited to the renewable energy field. GL Garrad Hassan only works in speak at conferences and meetings around the world. It is a renewable energy and its management and staff are firmly WindFarmer member of all the relevant associations and professional bodies committed to the fullest possible use of renewables globally – and it serves on all the essential standards committees. harnessing the power of nature around the world. Both their Wind farm design software approach and their impact are truly technical by nature! Case Study: Setting European measurement standards - MEASNET GL Garrad Hassan’s wind farm design software, WindFarmer, This internal focus on detailed technical approach has resulted originates from its pioneering wake modelling studies in the in the development of many of the analytical tools which are A collaborative approach late 1980’s. Through spearheading R&D, WindFarmer has used by the experts within the organisation on a day to day maintained its technological leadership in wind farm design basis. They were specfically designed to aid them in the process ever since. Developed as an in-house tool, as early as 1993 of delivering technical excellence to GL Garrad Hassan’s clients. For much of the last decade, the leading European To address this situation, the most experienced WindFarmer featured an automatic layout optimiser, noise wind test centres have been involved in developing European wind energy institutes worked collaboratively Most of GL Garrad Hassan’s industry standard software modelling and a CFD representation of a wind turbine wake. measurement standards to ensure that measurements as MEASNET in order to identify methods and rules to products were also initally developed to support its consultancy In 1998 WindFarmer gained a first class interface, financial performed are of high quality. ensure that high quality measurements carried out by business. There is probably no organisaton better placed modelling and great visualisation tools. The first decade of them were accurate and comparable. to understand the practicalities related to the development Over the same period, several national and international the new millennium saw the release of a continuous stream of and operation of wind farm projects which means that its recommendations, standards and requirements for Today, MEASNET approved measurements are central to powerful new features: shadow flicker, electrical layout, design technological solutions are grounded in years of physical measurement procedures for wind speed and wind international wind turbine and wind farm development. turbulence, data cleaning, long term correlation, uncertainty, consulting experience. turbine systems have been developed or are still in The name MEASNET is associated with the high quality wake models for close spacing, offshore wind farms, very large development. of measurements required by banks and investors to wind farms. There are many others in development to ensure underpin their financing decisions. Results and energy that WindFarmer clients can continue to be assured of a As a result, for certain measurements, there are several predictions based on such measurements diminish the competitive edge. different formal procedures related to the gathering project risks and therefore considerably improve the and evaluating of data and these can lead to different financing conditions of the respective wind farm projects. measurement results. Wind turbine performance and loading measurement Experience also showed that measurements performed experts from GL Garrad Hassan’s WINDTEST services by different institutes did not lead to comparable results, were founder members of MEASNET and remain actively even if they took the same recommendations into engaged in the programme. account.12 13
  8. 8. Supporting the project developer Case Study: Mesoscale Mapping Client: Multiple - India Project development solutions The process of identifying new potential wind farm sites is time consuming and expensive. even before it has been visited. Having analysed wind projects all around the world, GL Garrad Hassan has an unprecedented level of experience, bringing invaluable GL Garrad Hassan supplies wind maps, based on local knowledge to meso-scale work. state-of-the-art meso-scale modelling techniques that can significantly reduce this burden by providing a The map below was developed for the Indian market Flexible support across all phases of the project preliminary prediction of the wind speed over a large and was given as a gift at the launch of one of GL area. These predictions can be delivered before any Garrad Hassan’s Indian offices. Many other national Wind farm developers have varying needs. GL Garrad Hassan recognises this fact and therefore measurement equipment has been installed at a site or wind maps are also available. offers flexible support. It operates a network of experts with specialist technical expertise. Any combination of them will work together on a project dependent on a client’s requirements. Together, their knowledge and skills can cover the entire project lifecycle, allowing clients to mitigate the risks and avoid the delays and increased costs that developers commonly encounter when trying to deliver their projects. An experienced project development partner Where clients require broader support across projects, GL Garrad Hassan offers engineers who are specifically tasked with working across multiple internal specialist teams to deliver developers with a seamless relationship from the feasibility stage right through to an operational project. Case Study: Project development solution across five projects totalling 790MW Client: Cartier Wind, Canada GL Garrad Hassan began its relationship with Innergex programme, met mast installations and remote sensing in 1999, prior to the inception of Cartier Wind, when equipment deployment and commissioning, data quality the two companies involved in the partnership sought control and analysis, federal, provincial and local county assistance in the different phases of project development permitting support, environmental assessments, specialist of several of their projects. As part of its unique studies such as noise, visual, flicker, electromagnetic systemic approach, it assisted, and is still assisting, this interference and land use issues, GIS mapping and wind developer with several services including wind constraints analysis. engineering and environmental permitting on 6 projects, High In addition GL Garrad Hassan’s experts have provided 5 of which were awarded a PPA following a competitive measurement services to assess pre- and post-construction bidding process. GL Garrad Hassan acted during all noise and electromagnetic fields at the site; they also the phases of project development, construction and provided wind farm layout optimisation, and conducted operation to provide advice and developer’s tailored an independent assessment of the energy production consulting services. at the wind farm, as well as carrying out performance The services that GL Garrad Hassan has provided testing, including power curve measurements and include: site prospecting and identification, design operational performance analysis, and acting as technical and optimisation of the wind resource assessment expert to provide testimony at public hearings.14 15
  9. 9. Case Study: Energy production assessment for the first wind farm in Sénégal - Case Study: Onshore and offshore site prospecting study using GIS tools the largest project in West Africa Country: Canada Client: Sarreole, France In order to assist in identifying viable onshore and of complexity of terrain, conservation reserves, wildlife offshore wind sites in the province, the client hired GL management areas, shipping lanes offshore, amongst Sarreole is developing the Taïba N’Diaye Wind Farm in extrapolation of the wind regime, as well as the impact Garrad Hassan to undertake a detailed site prospecting others. The analysis also included the calculation of the region of Thiès in the west of Senegal and chose GL of significant high temperature shut-down for some Garrad Hassan to carry out an independent analysis of turbine models. study using GIS tools, including spatial analysis. The “land available for development” or “offshore area the wind climate and energy production. 15 months of approach to this study was to use a multicriteria analysis, available for development”, outside constrained areas, Based on the work, GL Garrad Hassan issued several wind data had been recorded at the Taïba N’Diaye site considering environmental, social, and technical factors, in order to identify project sites large enough to host a recommendations in order to reduce uncertainties. from a meteorological mast up to a height of 50 m. to identify viable large-scale sites. The analysis included large-scale project. One of the recommendations was to install a taller The prediction of the variation in long-term wind speed meteorological mast on site in order to improve the the consideration of the wind resource, the proximity Finally, GL Garrad Hassan ranked the selected sites based over the site was challenging and experts from GL energy assessment. A new 100 m meteorological mast is to the grid, and environmental factors such as the Garrad Hassan employed their specialist experience to now in position with further energy assessment planned on the quality of the wind resource, the proximity to the presence of protected areas, settlements, airports, radar assist Sarreole in resolving issues related to the limited for 2011. grid and environmental risk. installations, water bodies, inaccessible areas because source of consistent long-term wind speed data and the uncertainty associated with the vertical and horizontal Case Study: Project Development study and best practice road map for Case Study: Technical advisor for project financing of 56 wind farms in Italy development in India Client: Multiple Lenders to Italian Vento Power Corporation (IVPC) projects Client: Vestas Asia Pacific A team of local and technical experts from GL Garrad execution of land purchase e.g. private land, government GL Garrad Hassan has been the technical consultant to Experts from GL Garrad Hassan have provided technical Hassan assisted Vestas with its Indian development lease land, revenue land, as well as best practice for the Italian developer, IVPC, since it supported the project support for all 56 wind farms, working on behalf of activities and delivered a detailed process road map electrical infrastructure, gaining all necessary approvals finance of its very first wind farm portfolio back in 1998. multiple lenders to the projects by providing a range of that looks at the best practice approach. This road map and permits, and competitive differentiators. Since this initial project, IVPC has developed, constructed services including energy yield assessments, technical due includes special consideration of the different local state and currently maintains wind farms across Southern Italy, diligence reviews for project financing and construction The report outlined multiple best practices in relation to regulations that provide Vestas with the knowledge Sicily and Sardinia with a total capacity of 1040 MW and operation monitoring. electrical infrastructure that included power evacuation to deliver world-class projects in Asia. The road map - approximately 20% of the current total Italian wind schemes, grid availability and compliance, basic layout of addresses land and infrastructure development and capacity. the electrical infrastructure, supply, erection, testing and assesses all the major activities required from conception commissioning as well as required liaison and interaction to development. with local Government, Forest Department, Electrical Utilising a unique systemic approach, GL Garrad Hassan’s Utility, Electrical Inspectorate of the State and State experts provided the best route for a wind farm site Regulatory Commission. development that looks at the different types and 1716
  10. 10. Supporting the project developer Supporting the owner / operator Operational project solutions A suite of services to deliver operational success In order to maximise the potential of a wind farm, it is essential that an owner / operator monitors the project thoroughly on an ongoing basis and understands and acts upon the wealth of information that is available to him. As the wind energy market matures, there is increasing focus on maximising the energy capture and output from tubines, farms and portfolios in order to support the future financial viability of the sector and its long-term investment appeal. GL Garrad Hassan has been conducting detailed analysis of the resource and the technologies of operational wind farms and portfolios for many years and offers a suite of services to deliver owners and operators with optimal projects. Advanced technical understanding of all operational matters GL Garrad Hassan can facilitate both the collection of information pertinent to a project and an owner/operator’s access to that data. Even more importantly, its experts are highly experienced in translating information related to equipment, site and external events in order to allow an owner / operator to take informed decisions and actions that will ensure that the project continues to be as safe and effective as possible for the whole of its design life. Case Study: Wind measurement campaign for multiple developers bidding to build, own and operate Egypt’s first 250MW private wind power project Client: Various Case Study: Short-term forecasting worldwide In 2008, the Egyptian Government championed first privately owned, 250MW Gulf of Suez Wind Power Client: Various renewable energy by setting itself a target to meet 20% Project. of the country’s electricity requirement from renewables To support the individual bids, nine of the shortlisted by 2020. Of this, 12% is expected to be delivered from GL Garrad Hassan delivers highly accurate and reliable In total, more than 30 clients in 14 countries rely on developers have formed a steering committee to fund a wind energy projects. Egypt currently has an installed wind power forecasting services around the clock forecasts to maximise the value of their wind farm joint wind measurement campaign. GL Garrad Hassan wind energy capacity of 550 MW which it aims to increase with operational availability in excess of 99.9%. It production. They are used by utilities to optimise their was selected by the steering committee as the preferred to 7,200 MW by 2020. To help deliver this goal, there is provides short-term forecasting for more than 33GW of wind power trading, ISOs to help integrate wind energy consultant to specify, install, monitor and assess the joint a commercialisation project underway that is focused operational wind projects worldwide including the whole reliably and efficiently, and by owners and operators to wind measurement campaign. GL Garrad Hassan’s local on engaging the private sector in phases. As part of the of the UK and Greece and, in the USA, California, the schedule their maintenance. experts are scheduled to start work on site in November first phase the Egyptian Electricity Transmission Company ERCOT region of Texas, the MISO region in the Midwest 2010 and the monitoring period is expected to run for a The forecasts adopt a combined physical and statistical issued an invitation to tender and has shortlisted ten and the BPA region of the Pacific Northwest. minimum period of twelve months with wind speed and approach - refining weather model inputs from a potential developers to build, own and operate Egypt’s number of approved suppliers and enhancing the data energy assessment work to follow. to produce wind power predictions. This is done using high resolution wind farm models, to take account of site-specific conditions, and via statistical routines that “learn” - adapting to the measured data. A study published in 2006 revealed the potential benefit of using GL Garrad Hassan’s forecasting service to be a €10/MWh increase in the traded value of wind energy. UK forecasted 24 hours ahead v actual power18 19
  11. 11. Supporting the owner/ operator Sample power curve measurement 2100,0 1900,0 0,50 power coefficient cp []Case Study: Editorial for EWEA’s Wind Directions publication electrical power [kW] 1700,0 1500,0 0,40 | science corner | 1300,0 1100,0 0,30 Optimising 900,0 700,0 0,20 wind farm operating efficiency 500,0 300,0 0,10 100,0 Keir Harman, Head of Asset Management and Optimisation Services (AMOS), Garrad Hassan -100,0 0,00 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 It’s about efficiency, not just availability! Figure 1 illustrates turbine performance through wind speed [m/s] Monitoring and optimising the operating efficiency time lapse animation. This method provides an of conventional power generating plants has been overview of an operating wind farm over a whole common practice for many decades but this has month with the power level, operating state and not been the case with wind farms, where the turbine orientation shown schematically. A turbine main focus to date has been on turbine availabil- operating in an abnormal manner can easily be ity. A modern onshore turbine can be expected detected by comparison with its neighbours. to be available for as much as 97% of the time Where a malfunction is suspected, tracking [1] but the key question is ‘How efficient is the average power curves, based on the nacelle ane- turbine during the time that it is operating?’ mometers, over several months confirms changes Figure 1 – Screenshot from With Europe’s installed wind power capacity in relative operating efficiency and allows produc- a wind farm schematic time now exceeding 65 GW [2], investment in availability tion loss estimation. The nature of a change in lapse animation is ongoing, for example: the EU Reliawind project, shape of the power curve will indicate the type of focused on improving wind turbine reliability, has malfunction. € 7.7 M of funding [3]. However, as the industry becomes mature, profit margins are narrowing, Modern turbines offer more flexible power con- trol with variable speed and active pitch control- Case Study: Power curve verification of multiple Spanish turbines driving the need to monitor and optimise operat- led by complex algorithms. This allows a turbine ing efficiency in order to maximise Return On to remain registered as 100% available while Client: Various Investment (ROI). operating at reduced efficiency as a result of either operator changes or automatically, in order Avoid loss and enhance project value to manage structural loads. Resulting changes in Since 2007, it has been standard practice in Spain to GL Garrad Hassan’s experts have conducted many such The economic benefit of optimising operating ef- operating efficiency are only effectively detected ficiency can be illustrated by the following invest- using trend analyses. verify the power curves of turbines used in large projects. power curve verifications in Spain. Where power curves ment case: a 50 MW wind farm in Northern Europe More detailed forensic analyses may be For complex terrain, a measurement campaign starts with did not meet the contracted values, improvements were with a capacity factor of 30%, and a capital cost of required in cases where the underperformance a site calibration as outlined in IEC 61400-12-1 “Power carried out which increased the power output of the € 72 M has a typical debt-equity leverage of 75%. is more subtle or intermittent. Figure 2 demon- Mean annual revenue from energy sales will be strates a power and blade pitch curve for a turbine Figure 2 – Turbine power and performance measurements of electricity producing wind farms significantly and led to successful power around € 10 M. This means that, if 2% of revenue with an intermittent malfunction of the pitch blade pitch curves based on wind turbines”, and continues with the power curve curve verification for the contracting partners. Where were clawed back through detailed monitoring and system. If this fault had remained undetected, 10 minute average SCADA measurement itself. Such measurements have to be manufacturers could not increase the performance, the optimisation, a 7% (almost € 200 k) increase in revenue loss would have accumulated. data showing intermittent annual equity distribution would be gained; in turn, Analyses that assess faults using parameters pitch malfunction undertaken for hundreds of turbines. measurements resulted in the payout of Liquidated this would increase the ROI from 13% to 14%. The such as blade pitch angle, rotor speed and yaw Damages to reimburse the owner for the missing costs of the monitoring and subsequent repairs angle often highlight the cause of underperform- Once the initial results are produced, a decision can then revenue. would be a fraction of this potential increase in ance. Aspects of the control system that com- project value. monly cause degraded performance include yaw be taken on how to proceed. Naturally, the target for system misalignment, pitch mechanism malfunc- every turbine supplier is to provide a power curve at In the future, for measurements in complex terrain or How to monitor operating efficiency tion, sensor error (temperature, vibration) and least as good as the contracted one. The test may well for turbines with very large hub heights, new techniques Monitoring the operating efficiency of a wind incorrect parameter settings. Once identified, farm and fault-finding, using tools that utilise the faults can usually be rectified by a simple repair or prove that the measured power curve is at or above the will need to be adopted, such as 3D Sonic Anemometry SCADA data and fault logs are essential on a re-calibration. contracted standard. If the contracted power curve is not or LIDAR. In order to retain a high quality approach to modern utility-scale wind farm. Cross-checks with met, the measurement results can provide valuable input measurements, experts from GL Garrad Hassan have maintenance and service reports, and ongoing dia- The future of monitoring and optimisation References logue with the operations technicians, will enable In the future, techniques are likely to be auto- 1. Availability trends observed at for the improvement of the turbines and hence increase participated on an ongoing basis, for over 20 years, in faults to be diagnosed and fixed. mated with low frequency condition monitoring operational wind farms: performance and revenue for the owner. the development and maintenance of both the IEC systems programmed into the turbine controllers guidelines and the MEASNET procedures associated with There are many techniques for identifying oper- and, ultimately, tasked with identifying problems 2. BTM Consult – ating performance issues: at the point that they occur in order to promote 3. EU Reliawind official website – the various different measurement approaches. immediate remediation. WIND DIRECTIONS | July 2009 45 21