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Ga cloud scaling 3 30-2012


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Ga cloud scaling 3 30-2012

  1. 1. Head in the CloudUnderstanding and Scaling the Cloud for Startups Managing Technology Teams WorkshopAndy Parsons | @andyparsons |
  2. 2. Today We Will Cover What is “The Cloud?” How Does It Work? How Well Does It Work? What Your Dev Team Should Know How Much Does It Cost? Which Provider To Use? * If Time: Hands On Demo
  3. 3. What Is “The Cloud?”
  4. 4. “Cloud Computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided tocomputers and other devices as a utility (like the electricity grid) over a network.” (
  5. 5. Impact to Startups Changed Economics Democratizes Entrepreneurship Changed VC landscape: Then: raise $$ to build something Now: build something to raise $$
  6. 6. Essential Aspects and Some Jargon Self Service On-Demand Provisioning without humans No ownership of servers Pooled Resources Multi-tenant Location independence Processing, Memory, Storage, Bandwidth, Services Rapid Elasticity - provision and destroy Measured & Metered Service Usage transparency Cost transparency * (kinda)
  7. 7. Service Models SaaS = Software As A Service this is Google Apps. Enough said. PaaS = Platform As A Service Drop code, watch magic IaaS = Infrastructure As A Service Building blocks only
  8. 8. Deployment Models Private Cloud Tenants are a single customer Owned or rented On premises or off Public Cloud Off premises Available to anyone Hybrid Cloud 2 or more cloud infrastructure providers bound together OR, hybrid multi-tenant and dedicated resources
  9. 9. PaaS vs IaaS IaaS PaaS Application Code You You Runtime Platform You Provided Security You Provided Databases You Provided Servers Provided Provided Virtualization Provided Provided Hardware Provided Provided Storage Provided Provided Networking Provided Provided
  10. 10. Where is the Cloud Essential? Some examples: Web servers: scaling up and down to meet demand Offline data crunching Recommendation engines Social Graph applications Giant search indexing
  11. 11. AWS Components EC2 - computing EBS - fast-ish storage S3 - storage capacity ElastiCache ELB - load balancing CloudFront - Content Delivery Network on top of S3 Route53 - DNS SNS - notification service SES - email services SQS - queueing Elastic MapReduce - Hadoop Databases Simple DB RDS DynamoDB CloudFormation - templated stacks
  12. 12. Cloud Timeline First General Hypervisor: use Google Dot com FedRAMP, Runs on Internet docs and Multi-cloud, bubble Microsoft US Gov IBM 360 becomes EC2 commoditization, bursts Azure Cloud common launch market growth 1961 1965 1969 1990 1995 2000 2002 2006 2008 2009 2010 2012John IBM and Oracle Intel AZN AWSMcCarthy - Google and other founded, founded launchesCloud introduce clouds, ARPANetComputing their IaaS popularity createdConcept of PaaS
  13. 13. How Does It Work?
  14. 14. Virtualization Hides physical details of hardware Lots of VMs run on a single physical machine VM’s are relocatable
  15. 15. Virtualization Software or “Full” Virtualization: software-only, can virtualize any hardware and unmodified OS Hardware-Assisted: Special capabilities built into processors to assist with running virtual hosts Paravirtualization uses a special “hypervisor” to expose an API to virtual OS Parallels, VMWare
  16. 16. Massive Scale Affordability comes from economies of scale Fault tolerance and soft failing of hardware Automated failover Providers have developed proprietary monitoring, networking, and in some cases virtualization
  17. 17. How Well Does It Work?
  18. 18. Really Well! Until Things Break. Failure of some kind is assured Performance Drops Instance Failures Network Outages EBS RAID bottlenecks
  19. 19. One day this email came in...Hello,One of your instances in the us-east-1 region is on hardware that requires networkrelated maintenance. Your other instances that are not listed here will not be affected.i-3fcdb156For the above instance, we recommend migrating to a replacement instance to avoidany downtime. Your replacement instance would not be subject to this maintenance.If you leave your instance running, you will lose network connectivity for up to twohours. The maintenance will occur during a 12-hour window starting at 12:00amPST on Monday, February 15, 2010. After the maintenance is complete, networkconnectivity will be restored to your instance.As always, we recommend keeping current backups of data stored on your instance.Sincerely,The Amazon EC2 Team
  20. 20. ~ April 21, 2011 ~
  21. 21. ~ April 21, 2011 ~ MASSIVE AWS Service outage Some data loss (< 0.1%) Revealed details about how EBS worked at the time Catastrophic for some Triggered by a router upgrade! Replication stampede
  22. 22. Disk I/O: The Thorn in Your Side Unpredictable No guarantees Bane of Databases And disk-bound operations like app startup Monitor closely Build Around This (coming up)
  23. 23. EBS Filesystem Tests Seq. Reads Seq. Writes Random Random R/W Mix: RW Mix: Filesystem # of Disks (MB/s) (MB/s) Reads (MB/s) Writes (MB/s) Reads (MB/s) Writes (MB/s) EXT3, 3 74.7 102.1 1.3 20.4 21.3 25.1 64K stripe EXT3, 128K stripe, 3 1.6 11.3 2MB readahead buffer XFS, 3 20.7 107.2 1.7 40.2 13.6 12.5 64k stripe XFS, 3 102.2 106.2 1.5 87.8 41.1 24.6 128K stripe XFS, 4 115.8 135.4 2.0 76.4 41.0 24.6 64K stripe XFS, 4 104.8 103.1 1.8 70.8 49.3 30.3 128K stripe XFS, 128K stripe, 4 105.0 102.8 2.0 70.1 55.1 31.5 deadline scheduler
  24. 24. How Will Things Improve? Price drops SSD (already in AWS DynamoDB) Improvements in virtualization Ever more interesting PaaS offerings Convergence of IaaS and PaaS
  25. 25. What Your Dev TeamShould Know
  26. 26. We Don’t Need a Sys Admin! You probably do, actually. But not yet. Ops -> DevOps -> NoOps (Adrian Cockroft, NetFlix) But your SA or DevOps can do more than ever before. David Fletcher
  27. 27. Architecting for the Cloud No SPFs No SLAs Don’t depend on SLA
  28. 28. Architecting for the Cloud Figure out how things will fail. Design for failure. No fire drills. Deal with Friday failures on Monday. Make provisioning new parts trivial Failover Database Replication
  29. 29. Architecting for the Cloud Exact hardware location is decided by the provider Design to Distribute Stateless wherever possible Loosely coupled, redundant systems Redundant data storage Understand Your Dependencies!
  30. 30. Tools: Monitoring/Cost Management Ylastic RightScale Cloudability CloudVertical SensibleCloud Raveld Cloud Cruiser
  31. 31. How Much Does It Cost?
  32. 32. But wait a sec... Cloud Hardware 100% Considers cost of:Utilization ✓Computing, ✓Storage, 80% ✓Bandwidth, ✓Staff 60% $0K $150K $300K $450K $600K Cumulative Cost Over 3 Years (
  33. 33. But wait a sec... YEAR PHYSICAL CLOUD 1 $240,000 $196,000 2 $62,000 $196,000 3 $62,000 $196,000 TOTAL $364,000 $588,000 (
  34. 34. Elasticity is the key YEAR PHYSICAL CLOUD 1 $240,000 $80,000 2 $62,000 $100,000 3 $62,000 $120,000 TOTAL $364,000 $400,000 Now we are managing costs
  35. 35. Price Comparisons The Devil is in the Details Billing is a Means of Differentiation What are you paying for? “Compute Units” + RAM Bandwidth Storage Virtualization (efficient use of metal)
  36. 36. Price Comparisons Example: Instance Types AWS Rackspace Joyent Softlayer Cores 1 1 1 1 RAM 1.7 GB 1 GB 1 GB 1 GB Disk 160 GB 40 GB 30 GB 25 GB $/month $58 $44 $62 $50 But what’s a “core?”
  37. 37. EC2 Reserved Pricing 3-Year Run Cost: 35 small, 10 large instances Own Hardware On-Demand 1-Year Reserved 3-Year Reserved Usage $157,680 $75,411 $48,123 Hardware $20,129 Network gear $4,026 Hardware Maint. $28,986 Datacenter Cost $131,382 Remote Hands $1,014 Data Transfer $10,071 $6138 $6138 $6138 TOTAL $195,608 $163,818 $81,550 $54,263 (
  38. 38. Keys to Controlling Costs Correlate Cloud sizing with application needs Keep things running at close to 100% utilization Fact: for always-on infrastructure cloud is more expensive than hardware Good metrics to consider: CCOGS Cloud cost of goods sold = Cloud Costs/ Revenue % Utilization: Actual Utilization/Total Capacity HOLY GRAIL: Cloud Costs/Active User
  39. 39. Which Provider to Use? David Fletcher
  40. 40. Guess What? It depends.
  41. 41. How Do Providers Distinguish Themselves? Affinity for a language or stack Pricing models Performance Add-on computing services (DNS, Load Balancing ...) Managed Services (backup, humans ...) SLAs
  42. 42. Hands On(If there’s time)
  43. 43. Thanks!Andy Parsons | @andyparsons |