Name the country
When I was away - Water supply problems
How do irrigation programmes effect human
welfare and economic growth?
Water Supply Problems
• Secure water supplies are essential to life and
• It supports irrigation, food production and
• However water supplies need to be carefully
managed to prevent negative impacts on
human welfare and economic growth
• UK annual
• Imagine what
would happen if
the UK split into
a eastern and
• When demand for water overtakes supply there
is the potential for conflict.
• Competing demands for irrigation, power
generation, domestic use, recreation and
conservation can also create tension both
between and within countries.
• Conflict is more likely in developing nations
where water is vital to feed struggling growing
populations and promote industrial development.
Example: USA – inter-regional issues
Question of miss-match between
precipitation and usage
• The UN estimate that there is potential for
over 300 water conflicts around the world, as
rivers, lakes and aquifers struggle to provide
sufficient supplies for neighbouring countries.
• Politicians and map makers have not helped as
boundaries and boarders do not fit with river
Increasing conflict in transboundary hotspots
The Murray / Darling basins. Salinisation of farmland,
drought – area produces three-quarters of Australia's
Mexico City is now at serious risk of running out of clean
water. 40% of the city's water is lost through leaky pipes
built at the turn of the century.
The Zambezi river basin in southern Africa is one of the most
overused river systems in the world.
Mali is dependent on the river Niger, which flows from
Guinea through Mali to Nigeria. Long stretches of the river
are now facing environmental catastrophe as a result of
Catalonia, where authorities are pressing for the
construction of a pipeline to divert water from the Rhone in
France to Barcelona, plus diversion of the Ebro to the south
Yellow River - All three rivers feeding China's Northern Plain
are severely polluted, damaging health and limiting
The Ganges is so depleted that the Sundarban wetlands and
mangrove forests of Bangladesh are seriously threatened.
Between 1962 and 1994, the level of the Aral Sea fell by 16
Major tensions over the River Jordan and River Litani and
the aquifers under Israel and Palestine
Dams building along the Euphrates and Tigris is a source of
conflict in the Middle East.
Trans-boundary water Conflicts
• Approximately 40% of the world’s population
lives in river and lake catchments that fall
across two or more countries, and over 90 %
live in countries that share basins.
• About 2 billion people worldwide depend on
groundwater, which includes approximately
300 trans boundary aquifer systems.
Trans-boundary water Conflicts
• The trans boundary basins and aquifers link
populations of different countries and support
the incomes and livelihoods of hundreds of
millions of people worldwide
Agriculture will be the
future biggest demand
• A big concern is that
shortages in water will
intensify the already
rising trend of global
• This is linked to climate
change and changes in
the predictability of
supply, i.e. the rainfall
Your Turn - Research
• From the table below choose ONE issue and produce a one
sided fact file on the case study. These can then be shared
with the rest of the class. Try to include a map
Location Reason for conflict / pressure point
Turkeys GAP project will take a lot of water before it goes
downstream and Syria also building dams along the river.
Faraka barrage has reduced flow into Bangladesh from India
Different states demand different uses and therefore volumes of
water from the river. (WITHIN)
Nile Basin Varied use of water by different countries effecting the flow.
Danube Flows through 17 different countries and provides drinking water for
10million people. How do you manage it?
Huge issues in Australia of over abstraction by farmers in NSW
along the river