Bioethics and the Olympic Games: Human Enhancement (Lecture 4 of 5)


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  • We have entered a new era, where body modifications have become lifestyle products and where our use of technology is transforming what it means to be human.
  • Nowhere are these transformations more pronounced and more advanced than in the world of elite sport.
  • DEA nets largest steroid bust By Dick Patrick, USA TODAY The case has everything but big names — so far. The largest steroid bust in U.S. history took 18 months, involved nine other countries and included raids on 56 drug labs that resulted in the confiscation of 11.4 million doses of steroids and the development of a database of thousands of customers. Don't count on big names being exposed in the near future by the Drug Enforcement Administration, which spearheaded Operation Raw Deal. Will the DEA eventually share info with major sports organizations?"We don't know yet," DEA spokesman Rusty Payne said. "It's going to take time to work these issues out. We're still evaluating what the heck we have. "Everybody's hung up on names, I realize, but these are decisions that just aren't going to be made in the next 48 hours or the next week, really.” David Howman, the director general of the World Anti-Doping Agency, and Travis Tygart, the CEO of the U.S. Anti-Doping Agency, said they were confident of U.S. government cooperation, based on past experience, including the BALCO doping case. More than MLB, the NFL or Olympics, the DEA is focused on China. "We're targeting the source of supply for all the steroids and human growth hormone in the U.S., and 99.9% of it is coming from China," Payne said. Chinese authorities have shut down one lab. The DEA has given China information on 37 other companies supplying banned performance-enhancing drugs. "We decided rather than indicting these companies and publicly naming them, it would be more productive to work with the Chinese," Payne said. "The cooperation has been unprecedented. I'm not going to say China is shut down. We've got a lot more to do." The repercussions of Raw Deal could be felt for years. "We have a huge amount of names to go through," Payne said. "We've intercepted hundreds of thousands of e-mails. We've infiltrated the underground steroid market in the U.S. We have names, labs, sources of supply — every step of the chain from China to the U.S." Steroid expert Gary Wadler said the bust indicates "how pervasive" steroids are: "This goes beyond elite sport. The magnitude of the problem is huge." Contributing: Donna Leinwand
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  • How does this fundamentally transform its relationship to the Olympic Movement - it is now a stakeholder, perhaps the primary stakeholder it is governed by making good television, but this only partially coheres with reporting the news In fact the Games time media is predominantly not a news media, but a sport media. However, in Beijing this year, the BBC news anchor will be there
  • Bioethics and the Olympic Games: Human Enhancement (Lecture 4 of 5)

    1. 1. 17 th INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR ON OLYMPIC STUDIES FOR POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS, 2009 July Professor Andy Miah, PhD University of the West of Scotland, UK Applied Ethics & the Olympic Movement Lecture 4 of 5 BIOETHICS AND HUMAN ENHANCEMENT
    2. 4. Miah, A. (2008, 3 August) Enhanced Athletes? It’s Only Natural, The Washington Post, B1, B5.
    3. 5. Moving from philosophical questions about the environment and ecosystem, this lecture explores a different form of biological concern – that of human biology – and how it is contextualised within the philosophy of Olympism. It also connects these concerns with the broader project of bioethics, which has found recent attention from work within anti-doping. Various issues are considered, from the prospect of gene doping to bionic prosthesis, described in the recent case of Oscar Pistorius, the South African disabled sprinter who campaigned to compete in the Olympics, rather than the Paralympics. LECTURE 3: BIOETHICS: HUMAN ENHANCEMENT TECHNOLOGIES AT THE OLYMPICS
    4. 6. <ul><li>Doping Concerns as Olympic Concerns </li></ul><ul><li>The Demise of Anti-Doping & the Rise of Human Enhancement Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>The Genetically Modified Athlete </li></ul><ul><li>The Bionic Paralympian </li></ul><ul><li>The Right to Human Enhancement </li></ul>
    5. 7. Doping Concerns as Olympic Concerns
    6. 8. The Demise of Anti-Doping & the Rise of Human Enhancement Ethics What is the role of anti-doping? How has Anti-Doping developed? What future does it have? Is this role being fulfilled?
    7. 9. AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS (2005) Policy Statement: Use of Performance-Enhancing Substances. Pediatrics, 115, 1103-1106. 2005
    8. 10. With the prohibitive cost of testing and deficiencies associated with a detection based banned list, widespread drug testing of children and adolescents is unlikely to be effective or practical. Drug testing and legal sanctions are intended to be deterrents but have little effect on most children and adolescents involved in sports. Young men and women who are not competitive athletes but who are obsessed with body image and who train intensely primarily to improve their physique are also more likely to use performance- enhancing substances. 2005
    9. 11. Turin Olympics 2006
    10. 12. Turin Olympics Criminal prosecution for doping in Italian law possible 2-year sentence 2006
    11. 13. urine Olympics 2006 The first genetically modified games?
    12. 14. Hypoxic Chambers Stakeholder inquiry (2006) 2006
    13. 15. 2006
    14. 16. Steroids Sold on MySpace (associated with ‘Operation Raw Deal’ steroid bust last month) 2007
    15. 17. Operation Raw Deal Drug Enforcement Administration, USA More than MLB, the NFL or Olympics, the DEA is focused on China. &quot;We're targeting the source of supply for all the steroids and human growth hormone in the U.S., and 99.9% of it is coming from China,” Rusty Payne DEA. 143 federal search warrants 124 arrests and the seizure 56 steroid labs across the United States. 11.4 million steroid dosage units were seized 242 kilograms of raw steroid powder of Chinese origin. $6.5 million was also seized 25 vehicles 3 boats 27 pill presses 71 weapons 2007
    16. 18. 2007
    17. 19. Human Enhancement Technologies in Sports 2007 <ul><li>The potential for different HETs, including drugs, genetic modification and technological devices, to be used legally or otherwise for enhancing sporting performance, now and in the future; </li></ul><ul><li>Steps that could be taken to minimise the use of illegal HETs at the 2012 Olympics; </li></ul><ul><li>The case, both scientific and ethical, for allowing the use of different HETs in sport and the role of the public, Government and Parliament in influencing the regulatory framework for the use of HETs in sport; </li></ul><ul><li>The state of the UK research and skills base underpinning the development of new HETs, and technologies to facilitate their detection. </li></ul>
    18. 20. 2007
    19. 21. The Demise of Anti-Doping & the Rise of Human Enhancement Ethics TED FRIEDMANN (WADA Gene Therapy) H. LEE SWEENEY (IGF-1 mice)
    20. 22. The Genetically Modified Athlete
    21. 23. 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 New Scientist ‘Gene Cheats’ IOC Working Group Banbury Conference Gene Doping Ban ATHENS2004 The ‘Gene’ Games? The Stockholm Declaration 2005 Torino ‘repoxygen’ 2006 GENE DOPING TIME LINE
    22. 24. Maurice Greene cited in Longmann, NYT (2001) “ What if you’re born with something having been done to you….You didn’t have anything to do with it” Johann Olav Koss cited in Associated Press (2001) “ This is not only an issue for sport, it’s a broad ethical issue for human beings” Arthur C. Clarke, The Daily Telegraph (2001) “ The impact of genetic modification will be profound....Athletics, for example, will be transformed. You'll have swimmers with webbed feet and built-in snorkels.” Francis Fukuyama, The Economist , (December, 2002) “ Gene enhancement in sport will be the next big social, moral issue”
    23. 25. World Anti-Doping Agency (2003). International Standard for the Prohibited List 2004 World Anti-Doping Agency (2005). The Stockholm Declaration, World Anti-Doping Agency. 7. The use of genetic information to select for or discriminate against athletes should be strongly discouraged. This principle does not apply to legitimate medical screening or research. M3. GENE DOPING Gene or cell doping is defined as the non-therapeutic use of genes, genetic elements and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance.
    24. 30. The Bionic Paralympian
    25. 31. The Bionic Paralympian: Aimee Mullins
    26. 32. The Bionic Paralympian: Oscar Pistorius ‘ The fastest man on no legs’
    27. 35. The Right to Human Enhancement Next lecture...
    28. 36. Discussion: Choose your position and defend it HUMAN ENHANCEMENT COMFORT WHEEL