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Bioethics and the Olympic Games: Human Enhancement (Lecture 4 of 5)


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Bioethics and the Olympic Games: Human Enhancement (Lecture 4 of 5)

  1. 1. 17 th INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR ON OLYMPIC STUDIES FOR POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS, 2009 July Professor Andy Miah, PhD University of the West of Scotland, UK Applied Ethics & the Olympic Movement Lecture 4 of 5 BIOETHICS AND HUMAN ENHANCEMENT
  2. 4. Miah, A. (2008, 3 August) Enhanced Athletes? It’s Only Natural, The Washington Post, B1, B5.
  3. 5. Moving from philosophical questions about the environment and ecosystem, this lecture explores a different form of biological concern – that of human biology – and how it is contextualised within the philosophy of Olympism. It also connects these concerns with the broader project of bioethics, which has found recent attention from work within anti-doping. Various issues are considered, from the prospect of gene doping to bionic prosthesis, described in the recent case of Oscar Pistorius, the South African disabled sprinter who campaigned to compete in the Olympics, rather than the Paralympics. LECTURE 3: BIOETHICS: HUMAN ENHANCEMENT TECHNOLOGIES AT THE OLYMPICS
  4. 6. <ul><li>Doping Concerns as Olympic Concerns </li></ul><ul><li>The Demise of Anti-Doping & the Rise of Human Enhancement Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>The Genetically Modified Athlete </li></ul><ul><li>The Bionic Paralympian </li></ul><ul><li>The Right to Human Enhancement </li></ul>
  5. 7. Doping Concerns as Olympic Concerns
  6. 8. The Demise of Anti-Doping & the Rise of Human Enhancement Ethics What is the role of anti-doping? How has Anti-Doping developed? What future does it have? Is this role being fulfilled?
  7. 9. AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS (2005) Policy Statement: Use of Performance-Enhancing Substances. Pediatrics, 115, 1103-1106. 2005
  8. 10. With the prohibitive cost of testing and deficiencies associated with a detection based banned list, widespread drug testing of children and adolescents is unlikely to be effective or practical. Drug testing and legal sanctions are intended to be deterrents but have little effect on most children and adolescents involved in sports. Young men and women who are not competitive athletes but who are obsessed with body image and who train intensely primarily to improve their physique are also more likely to use performance- enhancing substances. 2005
  9. 11. Turin Olympics 2006
  10. 12. Turin Olympics Criminal prosecution for doping in Italian law possible 2-year sentence 2006
  11. 13. urine Olympics 2006 The first genetically modified games?
  12. 14. Hypoxic Chambers Stakeholder inquiry (2006) 2006
  13. 15. 2006
  14. 16. Steroids Sold on MySpace (associated with ‘Operation Raw Deal’ steroid bust last month) 2007
  15. 17. Operation Raw Deal Drug Enforcement Administration, USA More than MLB, the NFL or Olympics, the DEA is focused on China. &quot;We're targeting the source of supply for all the steroids and human growth hormone in the U.S., and 99.9% of it is coming from China,” Rusty Payne DEA. 143 federal search warrants 124 arrests and the seizure 56 steroid labs across the United States. 11.4 million steroid dosage units were seized 242 kilograms of raw steroid powder of Chinese origin. $6.5 million was also seized 25 vehicles 3 boats 27 pill presses 71 weapons 2007
  16. 18. 2007
  17. 19. Human Enhancement Technologies in Sports 2007 <ul><li>The potential for different HETs, including drugs, genetic modification and technological devices, to be used legally or otherwise for enhancing sporting performance, now and in the future; </li></ul><ul><li>Steps that could be taken to minimise the use of illegal HETs at the 2012 Olympics; </li></ul><ul><li>The case, both scientific and ethical, for allowing the use of different HETs in sport and the role of the public, Government and Parliament in influencing the regulatory framework for the use of HETs in sport; </li></ul><ul><li>The state of the UK research and skills base underpinning the development of new HETs, and technologies to facilitate their detection. </li></ul>
  18. 20. 2007
  19. 21. The Demise of Anti-Doping & the Rise of Human Enhancement Ethics TED FRIEDMANN (WADA Gene Therapy) H. LEE SWEENEY (IGF-1 mice)
  20. 22. The Genetically Modified Athlete
  21. 23. 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 New Scientist ‘Gene Cheats’ IOC Working Group Banbury Conference Gene Doping Ban ATHENS2004 The ‘Gene’ Games? The Stockholm Declaration 2005 Torino ‘repoxygen’ 2006 GENE DOPING TIME LINE
  22. 24. Maurice Greene cited in Longmann, NYT (2001) “ What if you’re born with something having been done to you….You didn’t have anything to do with it” Johann Olav Koss cited in Associated Press (2001) “ This is not only an issue for sport, it’s a broad ethical issue for human beings” Arthur C. Clarke, The Daily Telegraph (2001) “ The impact of genetic modification will be profound....Athletics, for example, will be transformed. You'll have swimmers with webbed feet and built-in snorkels.” Francis Fukuyama, The Economist , (December, 2002) “ Gene enhancement in sport will be the next big social, moral issue”
  23. 25. World Anti-Doping Agency (2003). International Standard for the Prohibited List 2004 World Anti-Doping Agency (2005). The Stockholm Declaration, World Anti-Doping Agency. 7. The use of genetic information to select for or discriminate against athletes should be strongly discouraged. This principle does not apply to legitimate medical screening or research. M3. GENE DOPING Gene or cell doping is defined as the non-therapeutic use of genes, genetic elements and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance.
  24. 30. The Bionic Paralympian
  25. 31. The Bionic Paralympian: Aimee Mullins
  26. 32. The Bionic Paralympian: Oscar Pistorius ‘ The fastest man on no legs’
  27. 35. The Right to Human Enhancement Next lecture...
  28. 36. Discussion: Choose your position and defend it HUMAN ENHANCEMENT COMFORT WHEEL