Fresh Produce Safet1hour2007


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  • Fresh Produce Safet1hour2007

    1. 1. As A Grower, How Can You Make Fruits and Vegetables Safer For Your Consumer
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>OSU Food Safety Team created in 2007 to address rising food safety concerns in Ohio. </li></ul><ul><li>Grant received to educate fruit and vegetable growers in Ohio producing a commodity for sale to the public. </li></ul><ul><li>The objective of OSU Food Safety Team is combine critical food safety knowledge and real world tools into action on your farm to protect you and your customers. </li></ul><ul><li>In partnership with CIFT, Center for Innovative Food Technology </li></ul>
    3. 3. Where should you begin? <ul><li>Become better educated concerning microbial food safety risks </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct a farm audit, or hire it done </li></ul><ul><li>Implement audit recommendations. </li></ul><ul><li>At least, start with a few changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Document, document, document! </li></ul>
    4. 4. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption <ul><li>Between 1974 -2004, the U.S. per </li></ul><ul><li>capita consumption of fruits and </li></ul><ul><li>vegetables increased 20% ! </li></ul><ul><li>578 lbs to 694 lbs per year. </li></ul>In the same time period , fresh fruit and vegetable consumption increased by 37% 242 lbs to 331 lbs per year.
    5. 5. Consumers are Confused <ul><li>Message # 1 </li></ul><ul><li> - - Eat more fruits and </li></ul><ul><li>vegetables - - </li></ul><ul><li>Message # 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- - People die from fresh </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>produce - - </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks, United States, 1982–2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases, April 2005. Josefa M. Rangel,*†Comments Phyllis H. Sparling,‡ Collen Crowe,* Patricia M. Griffin,* and David L. Swerdlow*,*Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; †Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA; and ‡U.S. Department of Agriculture, Athens, Georgia, USA
    7. 7. Proportion of Outbreaks and Cases are Rising As presented by Dr. Michael Lynch, CDC, Global GAPs Conference, 2005
    8. 8. E. coli Outbreak Spurs Lawsuits and FDA Letter Marler Clark files third E. coli lawsuit against Dole November 1, 2005 Marler Clark MINNEAPOLIS, MN – Marler Clark filed a third E. coli lawsuit against Dole late Tuesday in United States District Court for the District of Minnesota. The lawsuit was filed on behalf of Lori Olson, a Minneapolis resident, and her two minor daughters.
    9. 9. CA Marketing Agreement <ul><li>Leafy Greens </li></ul><ul><li>A Regulatory Mechanism for the State of CA based on CA State Demand. </li></ul><ul><li>A Marketing Seal. </li></ul><ul><li>Not required, but selling without the Seal is difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>Approved by the CA Dept Ag </li></ul>
    10. 10. How Big is the Problem? <ul><li>Every year foodborne illnesses result in an estimated: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>76 million cases of foodborne illness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>325,000 people hospitalized for foodborne illness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5,200 needless deaths each year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic losses between 10-83 billion dollars. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Foodborne outbreaks traced to fresh produce, 1990-1996 <ul><li>Year Pathogen Vehicle Cases States </li></ul><ul><li>1995 S. Stanley Alfalfa sprouts 242 17 </li></ul><ul><li>1995 S. Hartford Orange juice 63 21 </li></ul><ul><li>1995 E. coli O157:H7 Leaf lettuce 70 1 </li></ul><ul><li>1996 E. coli O157:H7 Leaf lettuce 49 2 </li></ul><ul><li>1996 Cyclospora Raspberries 978 20 </li></ul><ul><li>1996 E. coli O157:H7 Apple juice 71 3 </li></ul>Tauxe. 1997. Emerging Infectious Diseases 3:425-434.
    12. 12. Recent Foodborne Outbreaks traced to Fresh Produce <ul><li>Year Pathogen Vehicle Cases States </li></ul><ul><li>2004 Cyclospora Basil/Mesculin 95 2 </li></ul><ul><li>2004 S. b ovismorbificans Alfalfa Sprouts 12 2 </li></ul><ul><li>2004 Salmonella Roma Tomatoes 289 5 </li></ul><ul><li>2005 E. coli O157:H7 Packaged lettuce 11 1 </li></ul><ul><li>2006 E. coli O157:H7 Spinach 199 26 </li></ul><ul><li>2006 S. typhimurium Tomatoes 183 21 </li></ul><ul><li>2006 E. coli O157:H7 Lettuce 71 5 </li></ul><ul><li>S. Plimpton-2007 </li></ul>
    13. 13. US Produce Outbreaks: 1990 - 1998 Source: CDC Foodborne outbreak surveillance system Salad Bar Salad Bar 35.4% 35.4% Fruit Fruit 20.8% 20.8% Lettuce Lettuce 16.7% 16.7% Unknown/Other 7.3% Cabbage 5.2% Carrots 3.1% Tomatoes 2 .1% Sprouts Sprouts 9.4% 9.4%
    14. 14. Fruit and Vegetable Outbreaks by Origin of Produce: 1990 - 1998 Domestic 75.3% Imported 7.5% Unknown 17.2% Source: CDC Foodborne outbreak surveillance system
    15. 15. Why are Foodborne Illnesses Increasing? <ul><li>Complexities of the Food System </li></ul><ul><li>Aging of the Population </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic Illnesses / Compromised Immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of Hygiene & Risks Changing </li></ul><ul><li>Changing Microorganisms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More Virulent Strains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapting to Stresses </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. A Little Microbiology <ul><li>In the right environment, bacteria replicate ~ every 20 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>An head of lettuce has 1 bacteria on it. </li></ul><ul><li>How long will it take to multiply to 100 cells? </li></ul>The Infective Dose of E.coli O157: H7 could be as few as 10 cells . 140 minutes or 2 hrs & 20 min
    17. 17. Enteric (Fecal) Pathogens Bacteria Protozoa Bacteria Virus
    18. 18. Washing Produce Does Not Eliminate Pathogens <ul><li>Therefore !!! </li></ul><ul><li>At every step in the food chain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Limits of pH for Growth of Key Bacteria Microbe pH range Candida spp. 2.3-8.8 Clostridium botulinum 4.7-8.5 Escherichia coli 4.4-9.0 Escherichia coli O157:H7 4.2-9.0 Erwinia carotovora 5.6-9.3 Lactobacillus spp. 3.8-7.2 Pseudomonas marginalis 6.0-8.5 Salmonella spp. 4.8-8.0 Salmonella DT104 4.2-8.0
    20. 20. How E. coli adheres to and penetrates Apple Tissues <ul><li>Attachment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to the Surfaces and Internal Structures of Apples as Detected by Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy. Scott L. Burnett, Jinru Chen, and Larry R. Beuchat* </li></ul><ul><li>Center for Food Safety and Quality Enhancement, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, Griffin, Georgia 30223-1797 ; AEM, August, 2000. </li></ul>A - Cells adhering to cleft in waxy cuticle B - Cells clustered in Intact Cuticle
    21. 21. Taking Aim at Microbial Safety for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables: Where do we shoot the silver bullet?
    22. 22. Where Microbial Pathogens Live <ul><li>Common in soils… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listeria monocytogenes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacillus cereus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clostridium botulinum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clostridium perfringens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Residents of human and animal intestinal tracts… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salmonella species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E. coli O157:H7 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shigella species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Campylobacter jejuni </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viruses and parasites </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Food Safety Systems <ul><li>Systems that assure the safety of fruits and vegetables during growing, harvesting, postharvest handling, fresh-cut processing, and distribution: </li></ul><ul><li>Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) </li></ul><ul><li>Good Handling Practices (GHPs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. What really matters .. <ul><li>… . is protecting the consumer and your business. </li></ul><ul><li>Implement GAP/GHP </li></ul><ul><li>Tailor a Food Safety Program to your Unique Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Manage to Reduce Risk </li></ul>
    25. 25. Implement a Food Safety .. What? <ul><li>Map out your operation </li></ul><ul><li>Identify potential sources of contamination in your unique operation </li></ul><ul><li>Document procedures for reducing risk </li></ul><ul><li>Establish Traceability </li></ul>
    26. 26. Evaluate the Whole Operation <ul><li>Field Sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Manure and Municipal Biosolids </li></ul><ul><li>Worker Health and Hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Sanitary Facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Packing Facility Sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Trace-back/Trace-forward/Recall </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer Education </li></ul>Evaluate the Whole Operation to include Key GAPs/GHPs
    27. 27. Physical Hazards <ul><li>Glass </li></ul><ul><li>Staples </li></ul><ul><li>Metal Shavings </li></ul><ul><li>Wood Splinters </li></ul><ul><li>Nuts/bolts/nails </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic </li></ul><ul><li>Twist Ties </li></ul>
    28. 28. Chemical Hazards <ul><li>Pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizers </li></ul><ul><li>Paints/Thinners </li></ul><ul><li>Non-food grade lubricants </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine </li></ul><ul><li>Flaking Paint </li></ul>
    29. 29. Land Use & History
    30. 30. <ul><li>Prior use: </li></ul><ul><li>Current use </li></ul><ul><li>Slope </li></ul><ul><li>Porosity </li></ul><ul><li>Source of aerosols </li></ul><ul><li>Pests and vectors </li></ul><ul><li>Seasonal water contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Characterize: </li></ul><ul><li>Farm Layout </li></ul><ul><li>Adjacent Land </li></ul><ul><li>All Land-Use Activities </li></ul>
    31. 31. Water: The Critical Control Point?
    32. 32. Water Management <ul><li>Know the source of the water and intended use. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the irrigation method. </li></ul><ul><li>Test water quarterly for fecal coliforms and keep records of all water test results. </li></ul><ul><li>Be active in local watershed groups. </li></ul>
    33. 33. Ground Water Pumped to Impoundments are Exposed to Surface Effects <ul><li>Blending with delivered water </li></ul><ul><li>Blending with tail water </li></ul><ul><li>Animal influences </li></ul><ul><li>Storm related effects </li></ul><ul><li>Illicit discharge </li></ul>
    34. 34. Are there Microbial Standards for Irrigation Water ? <ul><li>Adequate for intended purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot result in adulterated food </li></ul><ul><li>Potable standards are applied </li></ul><ul><li>Available science not supportive </li></ul><ul><li>Standard methods not available </li></ul>
    35. 35. To Test or Not to Test?
    36. 36. Pre-irrigation May Impact Adjacent Crops
    37. 37. Spray Water Quality <ul><li>Use potable (drinking) water for sanitation sprays. </li></ul><ul><li>When potable water is not available, test water quality and keep records. </li></ul><ul><li>Low water volumes reduce risk. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Manure and Soil Amendments
    39. 39. Manure = Fecal Matter = Microbes <ul><li>Human or animal: DO EVERYTHING you can to keep manure off produce. </li></ul><ul><li>Preventing contamination is THE goal. </li></ul>
    40. 40. Manure <ul><li>Manage compost piles to achieve high temperatures to kill potential pathogens. </li></ul><ul><li>Time application properly . </li></ul><ul><li>Know the source. </li></ul>
    41. 41. Worker Hygiene
    42. 42. Farm Worker Hygiene <ul><li>Provide clean restrooms with soap, water, and single-use towels. </li></ul><ul><li>Teach workers about food safety and their role in preventing microbial contamination of fresh fruits and vegetables. </li></ul><ul><li>Enforce proper use of facilities. </li></ul>
    43. 43. Is worker training really a priority? <ul><li>Farm workers are sometimes the last/only people to handle the produce before the consumer. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers are capable of learning about food safety issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective training results in better employees and safer produce. </li></ul>
    44. 44. What is Proper Handwashing?
    45. 45. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 <ul><li>Proper Handwashing </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces infection 35 to 50% </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces GI-illness up to 80% </li></ul>
    46. 46. Unwashed Rinsed hand Washed 20 sec using soap and water Washed 20 sec and then sanitized From: University of Georgia
    47. 47. Harvest Considerations <ul><li>Ideally pick dry fruit or vegetable. </li></ul><ul><li>Leave fruit that has bird droppings on it. </li></ul><ul><li>Clean and sanitize totes daily. </li></ul><ul><li>Cool product quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>Teach workers about proper handwashing. </li></ul>
    48. 48. Avoid Introducing Pathogens to your Harvest <ul><li>Do Not Harvest Dropped Fruit. </li></ul><ul><li>Heavily Bruised, Punctured or Decaying Fruit should not be used for fresh market </li></ul><ul><li>or processing. </li></ul>
    49. 49. Movement of equipment and workers Traffic patterns for employees and equipment should be established to avoid cross contamination between raw manure and compost or crops
    50. 50. Field conditions may increase risks
    51. 51. Growers Are Innovating Their Own On-Farm Sanitation Routines
    52. 52. Promote Cleanliness at U Pick <ul><li>Invite customers to wash their hands prior to entering the fields. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide clean and convenient restrooms for customer use. </li></ul><ul><li>Supply soap, clean water, and single -use towels for hand washing. </li></ul>
    53. 53. Wash Water Quality <ul><li>Use potable water for all produce washing, cooling, dipping, icing, and processing. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a sanitation method to reduce the risk of microbial contamination. </li></ul>
    54. 54. Postharvest Water Disinfection Strategies <ul><li>Some Options: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorine gas, Sodium hypochlorite, Calcium hypochlorite, Chlorine dioxide, Acidified sodium chlorite, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surfactants, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ozone, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ionizing radicals, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen peroxide, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peroxyacetic acid, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultraviolet Illumination. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitoring effectiveness is paramount to success. </li></ul>
    55. 55. Other Sanitation methods <ul><li>There are other water and surface disinfectants available. </li></ul><ul><li>If you choose a new product, make sure it is effective and be aware of how to properly handle, mix, and store the material. </li></ul><ul><li>Rely on the experts and monitor effectiveness. </li></ul>
    56. 56. Wastewater Discharge <ul><li>Organic compounds from processing </li></ul><ul><li>sugars, complex exudates, insolubles </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical disinfectants </li></ul><ul><li>Disinfection –by-products </li></ul><ul><li>Measured as BOD (O 2 consumption) </li></ul>
    57. 57. Develop your Food Safety Program <ul><li>Find Out What the Auditors Want </li></ul><ul><li>An Overview of Your Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Identify potential sources of Contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Document procedures for reducing risk </li></ul><ul><li>Establish Traceback/Recall Procedures </li></ul>
    58. 58. How much do I really have to Document? <ul><li>Documents for Audits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worker Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Quality and Treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage and Transportation Temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pest Control Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traceback/Recall Program </li></ul></ul>
    59. 59. What a Recall System includes <ul><li>Identifying your Food Safety Coordinator and Chain of Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a Plan and Procedure to quickly locate and remove identified product </li></ul><ul><li>Immediately notify sites of hold giving the pertinent information </li></ul>
    60. 60. You Must…… <ul><li>Notify distributors, retailers and others immediately </li></ul><ul><li>Segregate affected lots </li></ul><ul><li>Identify location and quantify product </li></ul><ul><li>Report data to State/Local and Federal Agencies within 10 calendar days </li></ul>
    61. 61. Food Security <ul><li>Secure Your Perimeter </li></ul><ul><li>Know who is on the premises and why. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep Buildings Secure </li></ul><ul><li>Keep Chemicals Secure. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep Chemical Records up to Date. </li></ul>
    62. 62. Further Indepth Presentation Opportunities <ul><li>Reduce Risks of Microbial Contamination During Production </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced GAPs:Water Sanitation and Third Party Certification </li></ul><ul><li>Food Safety Session-Post Harvest </li></ul>
    63. 63. Websites <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    64. 64. Acknowledgement <ul><li>Re-adapted from presentations developed by Shari L. Plimpton, PhD </li></ul><ul><li>CIFT/EISC, Inc </li></ul>
    65. 65. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Parts of this presentation were created by Elizabeth A. Bihn, Anusuya Rangarajan, Trevor V. Suslow, Robert B. Gravani, Marvin P. Pritts and Randy Worobo. </li></ul><ul><li>Images provided by USDA ( 94c3993, k8666, 96c0783, 92cs0587, 94cs3904, 94c3824, 94c3958, 95cs2808, 96cs1794, 85c0114, 95cs6978), Trevor V. Suslow, </li></ul><ul><li>Anusuya Rangarajan, Elizabeth A. Bihn, </li></ul><ul><li>Robert B. Gravani, Al B. Wagner, Barbara Bellows, Donna L. Scott and Ed McLaughlin. </li></ul>
    66. 66. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Many slides included in this Presentation were created by Trevor V. Suslow , Elizabeth A.Bihn, Anusuya Rangarajan, Robert B. Gravani, and Randy Worobo. </li></ul><ul><li>Images provided by EISC, Inc., USDA (95cs6978, 95c7125), Trevor V. Suslow, Robert B. Gravani, Elizabeth A. Bihn, Anusuya Rangarajan, and Cornell IPM. </li></ul>
    67. 67. Engaging Fruit and Vegetable Growers in Enhanced Food Safety Practices <ul><li>Team members: </li></ul><ul><li>Doug Doohan </li></ul><ul><li>Jeff LeJeune </li></ul><ul><li>Eric Barrett </li></ul><ul><li>Mike Gastier </li></ul><ul><li>Andy Kleinschmidt </li></ul><ul><li>Terry Kline </li></ul><ul><li>Hal Kneen </li></ul>