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An introduction to analysing and writing Argument ofr KS3 / GCSE students with past paper examples from AQA & OCR at the end.

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  1. 1. Argument
  2. 2. Argument
  3. 3. What is argument?
  4. 4. What is the difference between persuasion and argument?
  5. 5. Under what circumstances might a person need to present a well-formed argument?
  6. 6. What text types tend to be used to present argument?
  7. 7. What are the features of an effective argument?
  8. 8. How to structure a well-formed and convincing argument
  9. 9. Language (words) Structure (organisation & order of ideas) Form (techniques) Convincing argument uses rhetoric and suitable discourse markers Well-formed argument is carefully ordered and presented
  10. 10. well-formed argument
  11. 11. The opening statement will clearly present a point of view
  12. 12. The first paragraph will go on to offer a first clear reason why that point of view has credibility
  13. 13. The main body of your writing will then present at least 2 or 3 additional points which reinforce the point of view offered, using hard & soft evidence
  14. 14. Make full use of the rhetorical techniques you are now familiar with in each of your paragraphs to ensure that the CONTENT and STRUCTURE complement one another
  15. 15. In order to show that the text is ‘balanced’ a counter argument should then be acknowledged and presented in brief
  16. 16. The text will then irrefutably counter the counter ! Think of this as inoculating the reader against other possible views that might be presented
  17. 17. The final paragraph summarises the argument that has been presented and reiterates the logic, strength and validity of your view point
  18. 18. Convincing argument
  19. 19. The tone will be formal and polite yet forceful where necessary.
  20. 20. The techniques of rhetoric are likely to appear in convincing argument – after all, you are trying to persuade an audience to align themselves with your view point.
  21. 21. Argument is signposted by discourse markers – words and phrases which guide the reader as you navigate through the issue being investigated.
  22. 22. In my opinion… It is my long held belief that… It is evident that… Clearly… It cannot be denied that… Moreover… Furthermore… What is more, ... That having been said, …
  23. 23. An additional consideration… Without doubt… It is surely apparent that… Evidently… Thus… Having established that… As if this were not enough,… Consequently…
  24. 24. Some might argue that… It has been suggested that… There are those who say…
  25. 25. However, this is not the case… This, I am afraid, is flawed thinking! Clearly this is an idea without merit! While such views are earnestly held, they are unfounded…
  26. 26. In actual fact… The truth is that… We come to see however that… In reality… The obvious conclusion must be… The facts however refute this…
  27. 27. Past paper questions GCSE
  28. 28. Work experience is now compulsory for most students. Write an article for an education magazine, in which you argue for or against compulsory work experience.
  29. 29. ‘ We should concentrate on the present and the future; we have little to learn from the past.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Argue your case clearly
  30. 30. ‘ TV and radio are as much for education as entertainment’ Write an article for a teenage magazine arguing your opinion on this issue.
  31. 31. ‘ The best way to protect endangered species is to keep them in zoos.’ Write a speech arguing for or against the view expressed in this statement.
  32. 32. ‘ The best things in life are free’ Write a speech arguing for or against this viewpoint in preparation for a class debate on the topic.
  33. 33. ‘ We should refuse to be worried by scare stories from the media about wars and global disasters and concentrate instead on taking care of our studies, career and family’ Write a speech responding to this issue for a local radio debate.
  34. 34. ‘ The best way to see far-away places through television programming’ Write an article for a current affairs magazine, arguing for against this viewpoint.