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Visual Learning Lab


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Summary of studentship with the Visual Learning Lab (VLL) at the University of Nottingham. Focus on role in Thunder / SBE research project. Presented to the VLL 16 July 2008.

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Visual Learning Lab

  1. 1. 1. VLL Activities 2007-8 <ul><li>Andy Coverdale 16-7-08 </li></ul><ul><li>General </li></ul><ul><li>Monthly Meetings </li></ul><ul><li>VLL Events </li></ul><ul><li>Conferences (BETT 2008, CETLs) </li></ul><ul><li>Thunder / School of Built Environment (SBE) Research Project </li></ul><ul><li>Literature Review: The Crit in Architectural Education </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire Survey Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting Student Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Video Data Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Journal Article (co-authorship) </li></ul>
  2. 2. 2. Thunder / SBE Video Data <ul><li>Andy Coverdale 16-7-08 </li></ul><ul><li>The Study </li></ul><ul><li>Postgraduate Architectural Students’ Crit Presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Research Questions Key Foci </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Non-linear Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Video Corpus </li></ul><ul><li>16 Presentations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Session 1: 4 presentations (large groups of 5-9 students) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Session 3: 12 presentations (small groups of 2-3 students) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Up to 30 Minutes Duration </li></ul>
  3. 3. 3. Video Capture <ul><li>Andy Coverdale 16-7-08 </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Loaded’ Data Source </li></ul><ul><li>“ Video recordings replace the bias of the researcher with the bias of the machine” (Jordan and Henderson, 1995, p.51). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Videotape is not a completely phenomenologically neutral document, for the cameraperson shooting it has a point of view” (Erickson, 2006 p.178). </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations of Video Recording – Field of View etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions of Video Camera Operator (zooming, panning etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Some Key Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Participant Reactivity – ‘Camera’ Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Technological – Quality, Audio, Digitising etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical – Confidentiality etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Erickson, F. (2006) Definition and analysis of data from videotape: Some research procedures and their rationales. In J. L. Green, G. Camilli & P. B. Elmore (eds.), Handbook of Complementary Methods in Educational Research . Washington, D.C., American Educational Research Association. pp.177-191. </li></ul><ul><li>Jordan, B. & Henderson, A. (1995) Interaction Analysis: Foundations and Practice, Journal of the Learning Sciences , 4(1), pp. 39-103. </li></ul>
  4. 4. 4. Video Data Analysis <ul><li>Andy Coverdale 16-7-08 </li></ul><ul><li>Volume and Complexity </li></ul><ul><li>“ This flooding of information instantly overwhelms the analyst, and there is a tendency for novice researchers to ‘zone out’” (Erickson, 2007 p.148). </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical Frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnomethodological Analysis (Garfinkel, 1967) </li></ul><ul><li>Conversation Analysis (Sachs et al., 1974) </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction Analysis (Jordan & Henderson, 1995) (Video Analysis) </li></ul><ul><li>Key Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative vs. Quantitative </li></ul><ul><li>Generalizability and Representativeness </li></ul><ul><li>Scope vs. Granularity </li></ul><ul><li>Recursive Process (between Data Capture and Analyses) </li></ul><ul><li>Erickson, F. (2007) Ways of Seeing Video: Toward a Phenomenology of Viewing Minimally Edited Footage. In Goldman, R., Pea, R., Barron, B. & Derry, S. J. (eds.) Video Research in the Learning Sciences . Mahwah, Lawrence Erlbaum, pp.145-156. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 5. Coding Methods <ul><li>Andy Coverdale 16-7-08 </li></ul><ul><li>Coding </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary analysis to identify key coding elements </li></ul><ul><li>Categories, definitions and exemplars to guide coding practice </li></ul><ul><li>Transcribing </li></ul><ul><li>Transcribing – Verbal, Non-verbal and Video Capture (Zoom, Pan etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Coding Method – Direct from Videotape or Transcript </li></ul><ul><li>Data Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling within Timeframe </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Incident Technique / Significant Events </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to Content Logs / Field Notes (created during video capture) </li></ul>
  6. 6. 6. Coding Categories <ul><li>Andy Coverdale 16-7-08 </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviours </li></ul><ul><li>Position </li></ul><ul><li>Eye Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Incidents </li></ul><ul><li>Gesturing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To Easel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To Thunder Wall </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Annotation (use of Pen Tool) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Draw Attention to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhancement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create New Information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Familiarisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tutor Feedback </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. 7. Coding Sheets <ul><li>Andy Coverdale 16-7-08 </li></ul><ul><li>Key Features </li></ul><ul><li>Divided per Student Contribution </li></ul><ul><li>Student Identification </li></ul><ul><li>Key </li></ul><ul><li>Colour-Coding of Categories </li></ul><ul><li>Time Frame </li></ul><ul><li>Notes </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative Data: Statistics </li></ul>
  8. 8. 8. Analytical Methods <ul><li>Andy Coverdale 16-7-08 </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Viewing </li></ul><ul><li>“ Erickson (1982) suggests the strategy of using the technological affordances of video to shift one’s perceptual stance by choosing a focus of attention (e.g. gesture or talk) for each replay of a segment” (Barron, 2007 p.174). </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Viewers </li></ul><ul><li>Access to Coding Sheets (Need for Inter-coder Variability) </li></ul><ul><li>Tips </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal Affordances - Use Pause, Rewind etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Sensory Overload (Play without sound etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Diagrammatical / Visual Datasets </li></ul><ul><li>Remember Research Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee Breaks! </li></ul><ul><li>Barron, B. (2007) Video as a Tool to Advance Understanding of Learning and Development in Peer, Family, and Other Informal Learning Contexts. In Goldman, R., Pea, R., Barron, B. & Derry, S. J. (eds.) Video Research in the Learning Sciences . Mahwah, Lawrence Erlbaum, pp.159-188. </li></ul>
  9. 9. 9. Repurposing <ul><li>Andy Coverdale 16-7-08 </li></ul><ul><li>Recall Stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Trigger’ Video – e.g. Participant Interviews etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Video as Reflective Tool </li></ul><ul><li>Reflected Practice (e.g. Teacher Training) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Objectification’ of Data </li></ul><ul><li>Dissemination </li></ul><ul><li>Presentations, Seminars etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Open Access to Video Data Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Standardising Protocols, Formats and Tools (for Collecting, Archiving and Sharing Digital Video Data) </li></ul>
  10. 10. 10. Technological Developments <ul><li>Andy Coverdale 16-7-08 </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis Software </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of Video playback in Analysis Software – e.g. NVivo 8, Atlas.ti </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated Video Analysis Software – e.g. MacShappa (University of Illinois) </li></ul><ul><li>Video Collaboratories </li></ul><ul><li>Online Synchronous Video Data Analysis (Research Communities) e.g. ORION </li></ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul><ul><li>Web Based Open Access – e.g. Video Traces (Arizona State University) </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Annotation and Visualisation Analysis Tools </li></ul>