Dhol: The dhol is a barrel-shaped instrument, made from a shell of hollowed-out mango or sheesham wood, with the treble on the right and the bass on the left. Historically,both sides of the drum were made from goatskin, but today, plastic is sometimes used for one of the sides. Two drumsticks are used to beat the drum. The tili is a thin cane stick; the dagga is a crooked wooden stick: their contrasting shapes and sizes suit the different properties of each side of the drum. It is the rhythm they create that is the most significant feature of dhol playing. Sarangi: Sarangi is a popular bowed instrument in Punjab. It is wooden instrument about two feet long, cut from a single log covered with parchment. A bridge is placed in the middle. The sides of the Sarangi are pinched so as to bow it. The instrument usually has three major strings of varying thickness, and the fourth string is made of brass, used for drone. Modern sarangis contain 35-40 sympathetic strings running under the main strings. This is used for accompaniment by artists and is an ideal instrument for producing all types of Gamks and Meends.
Chimta: Chimta is usually used to accompany the Punjabi folk song. This instrument helps to hold the tempo of the song. Mostly Chimta is used in the Bhangra, which is a very popular form of Punjabi music. This Musical Instrument is a type of percussion instrument. It has jingles that are made of metal and thus it produces a metallic sound and helps to keep up the beat of the song. Ektara: Ek means &quot;one&quot; and Tar means&quot;string&quot;. The Ektar or -as it is often called - the Gopi Yantra, is a simple instrument that is mainly used in Bengal as a folk instrument. In some places this instrument is offered in souvenir shops in a very cheap qualitiy. The quality offered by us is much better than that. The Ektara has a spherical resonator made of dried pumpkin, wood or coconut to which a split bamboo cane is attached as a neck. Into an opening at the bottom of the resonator a piece of leather is set and to this a string is attached. This string runs through the inside of the spherical resonator and between the forks of the bamboo cane up to the top end of the neck and is wrapped around a peg there. The string of the Ektara is plucked with one finger, the pitch can be changed continually downwards by more and more pressing the two halves of the neck together. Thus the keynote here is the highest note of the open string.
Tumbi: The tumbi is a traditional Punjabi string instrument. Its one string can produce both high and low tones. The body of the instrument is made from various types of wood over which a skin is stretched and strings are attached. It is played with the continuous flick and retraction of the forefinger. Famous Punjabi singers of traditional songs, such as Mahiya, Challa, Jindua and Jugni, have used the tumbi. 'Mundeya tou bach ke rahi' (Beware of Boys) from Punjabi MC, is a fine example of tumbi music, and was a huge hit in the UK charts and is still used in most international programs. The one-stringed tumbi is the most famous instrument in Bhangra and it is one of the most popular instruments used in folk music. Sitar: Sitar is perhaps the most well known of the Indian instruments. Artists such as Ravi Shankar have popularized this instrument around the world. Sitar is a long necked instrument with an interesting construction. It has a varying number of strings but 17 is usual. It has three to four playing strings and three to four drone strings. The approach to tuning is somewhat similar to other Indian stringed instruments. These strings are plucked with a wire finger plectrum called mizrab . There are also a series of sympathetic strings lying under the frets. These strings are almost never played but they vibrate whenever the corresponding note is sounded. The frets are metal rods which have been bent into crescents. The main resonator is usually made of a gourd and there is sometimes an additional resonator attached to the neck. Tabla: Tabla is a pair of drums. It consists of of a small right hand drum called dayan and a larger metal one called bayan . The tabla has an interesting construction . The dayan (right hand drum) is almost always made of wood. The diameter at the membrane may run from just under five inches to over six inches. The bayan (left hand drum) may be made of iron, aluminium, copper, steel, or clay; yet brass with a nickel or chrome plate is the most common material. Undoubtedly the most striking characteristic of the tabla is the large black spot on each of the playing surfaces. These black spots are a mixture of gum, soot, and iron filings. Their function is to create the bell-like timbre that is characteristic of the instrument. Although the origin of tabla is somewhat obscure, it is generally belived that it evolved from the barrel shaped drum called pakhawaj . This was about three hundred years ago.
Punjab region - North India and Pakistan Celebrations – originally harvest celebration; later New Years’ Parties and other significant events. Dohl drum – a double-headed, barrel-shaped drum. Each drumhead has a different sound. One is much lower than the other. It was named after the hemp crop of the farmers which was known as Bhang, hence Bhangra.
Bhangra was originally a male dance, with strong, energetic steps and actions that represented the movements of the farmers as they worked on the field. Mainly groups – only some solo dances. #
Ihumar – flowing, slow dance; dancers circle around the drummer and dance in time to the beat; sing a quiet chorus to accompany the rhythm of the drum. Giddha – female dance; tell stories or act out events; the dancers control the beat of the music by clapping their hands. Daankara – weddings; men dance in pairs and beat the rhythm using coloured sticks. Scene from ‘Bride and Prejudice’
Bhangra gave Asian migrants the opportunity to maintain their sense of identity within new communities, particularly in Birmingham and London. As traditional bhangra fused with western popular music, it quickly spread throughout the UK. The popular-music influences (hip-hop, disco, drum ‘n’ bass, rap and reggae) and the use of music technology (synthesizers/electric guitars) in modern bhangra turned it into a commercial success, and bhangra became the main style of music to be heard in England’s Asian nightclubs.
FUSION of Punjabi folk music with western popular music. FUSION of Punjabi folk music with western popular music. Bhangra FUSION of Punjabi folk music with western popular music
Background <ul><li>Folk dance in the Punjab region </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers’ songs for entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Celebration – Harvest </li></ul><ul><li>Led by the DHOL </li></ul>Traditional Bhangra
The Dance <ul><li>Originally a male dance </li></ul><ul><li>Movements reflected their work in </li></ul><ul><li>the field </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly groups dances </li></ul><ul><li>Circular formation </li></ul><ul><li>Acrobatic stunts </li></ul>Traditional Bhangra
The Dance Ihumar Giddha Daankara Traditional Bhangra Circular, quiet chorus Female, story-telling Male, coloured sticks
Developments <ul><li>Bhangra = sense of identity </li></ul><ul><li>Fused with pop music (1970s/1980s) </li></ul><ul><li>Music technology </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial success </li></ul>Modern Bhangra
The Dance <ul><li>More recently, a female dance </li></ul><ul><li>Bhangra in the club = individual and improvised. </li></ul>Modern Bhangra
Performers Modern Bhangra First bhangra hit single: Alaap’s Bhabiye Ni Bhabiye (1980s)
Performers Modern Bhangra Malkit Singh Kuldeep Manak Punjabi MC
v Chaal Triplet rhythm; dha = both drum heads played together / na = only the higher-pitched drum is played Dhol Vocal melody Limited range; ornamentation; microtonal intervals; often falls at the end of the phrase; RAGAS Instruments Sitar, tumbi, sarangi. Harmonium, tabla Tempo Fast, crotchet = 140-180 per minute Influences Popular music styles = reggae, hip-hop, disco, rap Music technology = synthesizers, drum machines, mixing, scratching, sampling. ‘ Hoi’ Structure 4 beats in a bar; verse-chorus