E Learning Primer


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A presentation used as an initial primer. Its intention is to offer a basket of possibilities from which an informed strategic discussion can ytake place about the role e-learning might play

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E Learning Primer

  1. 1. Developing e-Learning Materials Johannesburg: 22 nd July 2005
  2. 2. Past Reflection <ul><li>Negatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time! training / skill acquisition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial enthusiasm decreases when the ‘reality’ hits home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security – Accessibility to resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ICT seen as ‘add-on’ / removed from normal teaching and learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of Robustness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor use of ICTs (lacks human element) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plagiarism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexist / Ageist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ICT people lack social skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you don’t use, you lose! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliance on the ‘Champion’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not Reliable! Disk failure. Lose work! </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Past Reflection <ul><li>Positives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulations (volcanoes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learners force teachers to learn ICT skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free MS Licenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typing exam papers (?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life is easy! / Productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to enormous amount of information! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases access to your intellect! Break the barriers of geography </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Key Questions <ul><li>Does the technology suit the audience? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the technology support the material? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the technology add value? </li></ul>Shopping Basket <ul><li>List those aspects that you ‘Like’ </li></ul><ul><li>Identify what you think does not ‘Work’ </li></ul><ul><li>Identify ‘your’ content that might benefit </li></ul>
  5. 5. Computer Attributes <ul><li>Stimulus-Response </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Re-enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Deductive Reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Discovery learning’ </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognition </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><li>… impact on the way we teach? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Styles, Methods & Techniques <ul><li>Teaching style </li></ul><ul><li>(Behaviourist Constructivist) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Behaviourist Methods <ul><li>Tutorials </li></ul><ul><li>Drill and Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Games </li></ul>
  8. 8. Tutorials <ul><li>Predetermined order </li></ul><ul><li>Student is exposed to the stimulus sequentially </li></ul><ul><li>The student is channelled through a number of stages and develops specific skills of ever increasing sophistication. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Tutorials <ul><ul><li>Allows students to progress according to their ability. The individual paces the lesson. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for both remedial and extension studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These programs can track progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some tutorials can provide simple assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not student centred. Students have very little say over content and method. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not suitable for courses that require ‘thinking outside the box.’ </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Drill & Practice <ul><li>These programs allow the user to practice a skill until he has mastery </li></ul><ul><li>They offer copious examples of the exercise </li></ul><ul><li>They encourage individual users by offering remedial, normal and extension levels of difficulty </li></ul><ul><li>None or limited tutoring is provided </li></ul><ul><li>The basic principles still need to be taught by the teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Not student centred </li></ul>
  11. 11. Simulations <ul><li>Low cost alternative to the real thing (e.g. Flight simulators) </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual reality approximates the real world </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Lends itself to courses that require a complex yet specific skill to be learned by the user. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Games <ul><li>High Motivation Levels </li></ul><ul><li>Mixes both game play and serious learning </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed content </li></ul><ul><li>Students can ‘miss the point’ </li></ul><ul><li>Time consuming for the amount of learning that takes place. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Constructivist Methods <ul><li>Scaffold </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Construct own knowledge </li></ul>
  14. 14. Constructivism <ul><li>Computer can provide learning scaffold </li></ul><ul><li>Base sources prepared </li></ul><ul><li>Student needs to discover information </li></ul><ul><li>Student needs to analyse information for usefulness </li></ul><ul><li>Student needs to manipulate information </li></ul><ul><li>Student needs to present and teach the information </li></ul>
  15. 15. Techniques <ul><li>Drag and drop </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple choice (numerous derivatives) </li></ul><ul><li>Fill in the missing word </li></ul><ul><li>Graphing tools </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic environments for simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Mouse-overs for layers </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
  16. 16. Learner Management Systems <ul><li>Advanced Communication tools </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking of learner progress </li></ul><ul><li>Results archive </li></ul>
  17. 17. Learner Management System Navigation Communication tools Course Material
  18. 18. LMS: Chat
  19. 19. LMS: Forum
  20. 20. LMS: Reports
  21. 21. Key Questions <ul><li>Does the technology suit the audience? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the technology support the material? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the technology add value? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Possibilities? <ul><li>LMS – ‘community of practice’ </li></ul><ul><li>Video – Scenarios for discussion @ monthly meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Videos – Sexual harassment, conflict management </li></ul><ul><li>Assignments – Build PowerPoint/Web Page for assessment (Can be done at a distance) </li></ul><ul><li>CD – Materials for Reader </li></ul><ul><li>LMS – Enhance the distance learning contacts sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Use to train facilitators </li></ul><ul><li>Create electronic portfolio/journal. </li></ul><ul><li>Policy/learning – Build archive of electronic versions of policies and legislation available on support CD </li></ul>Materials? <ul><li>School Manager – Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Skills – </li></ul><ul><li>Human Resources module simulations can be done online. </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations for new principals. Different situations </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate responses from computer </li></ul>Materials must be contextual Materials must not cut out physical contact (70% face to face vs 30% online) Portfolio evidence must be done traditionally