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Basic Hand Tools


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An example of a storyboard that employs Merrill's First Principles of Instruction model to structure the learning. This is for a lesson on Basic Hand Tools for Electricians.

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Basic Hand Tools

  1. 1. Basic Hand Tools Topic 3
  2. 2. Types, Uses and Care of Hand Tools Unit 2.3
  3. 3. Unit Objective Identify hand-tools and describe their use
  4. 4. Tools for Projects One can read through the list of hand tools covered in this unit, (see links right), but to get to grips with basic hand tools its important that you use them and become familiar with them. We therefore encourage you to view the demonstrations and then take on three projects and actually build something using the tools! Basic Hand Tools Hand Saws and Cutters Hammers Screw Drivers Chassie Punch Pliers Wire strippers Fastening Tools Files Vice Chisel Tinsnips Project 1 Fit a new plug to an appliance Project 2 Replace a wall socket Project 3 Wire an out building
  5. 5. 1. Activation of Prior Knowledge First let’s see what you already know. Identify the following tools. Describe the best technique to best use them. The facilitator will ask members of the class to volunteer the information. For online students you will need to provide your insights using the online forum. a b c d e
  6. 6. 2. Demonstration - Tools Index Saws & Cutters Hacksaw Retractable Knife Wire Strippers Hammers Claw Ball Peen Rubber Mallet Pliers Long Nose Crimping Side Cutters Fasteners Ring spanner Flat spanner Socket wrench Adjustable Torque wrench Files Rasp Rough Coarse Bastard Smooth Wire brush Screwdrivers Flat Phillips / Star Vices Vice Grips Pipe vice Engineer vice Measuring Steel rule Tape measure Other Tin snips Stocks and Dies Chisel Chassie Punch Fish Tape Earth Moving Spade Pick Axe The facilitator will take you through the process of using each of the following tools. For online students click each tool name and review the resources on different tools and the techniques of best practice
  7. 7. 3. Application: Fit a new plug to an appliance 1. Using the correct screwdriver for the screw type used on the plug unscrew the cover and remove. 2. Use the screw driver to loosen terminal screws (L) and (N) to provide sufficient space to receive the wires. 3. Inspect the wires on the appliance’s power cable and strip back the cable sheath using the retractable knife, or the wire strippers, to expose the three wires (Blue – Neutral, Brown – Live and Green/yellow – Earth) 4. Use the wire strippers to strip off a small section of the plastic insulation to expose the copper wire on each wire. 5. Insert the correct colour wire to the correct terminal in the plug. (look for the letters ‘N’, [bottom left ] and ‘L’ [bottom right] on the terminals. While Earth is the top terminal.) and using the screw driver tighten the terminal clamp to hold the wire firmly in place. 6. Push the core cable firmly into the core bracket 7. Once all three wires and the cable is secure screw the plastic cover back onto the plug. Materials Plug An appliance (e.g. toaster, washing machine.) Tools Screwdriver Retractable knife Side cutters Wire strippers Video tutorial WsDR4I See if you are able to use the tools correctly to complete this project. If you are in a physical class you will be supervised by the facilitator, online students need to study the video resources
  8. 8. New Plug Project: Video
  9. 9. 4a. Activation: Replace a wall socket 1. Before you start ensure the power has been turned off at the distribution board (DB)! (Plug in a lamp to test if there is still power being distributed to the socket.) 2. Use the correct screw driver and remove any screws that hold the face plate and the receptacle/bracket to the wall socket box. 3. When loose pull the receptacle/bracket forward to expose the wires and note how it is wired. The new socket will need to be wired in exactly the same way. 4. Use the correct screwdriver to loosen the wires connected to the receptacle. If you cannot release the wires use the side cutters and cut it free. Then use the wire strippers to expose some of the copper wires, ready for connection to the new receptacle . 5. Insert the wires into the correct terminals on the new socket. Blue (N - bottom left terminal) and Brown (B - bottom right terminal ). Earth is often demarcated as 6. Fold the wires so that you can insert the receptacle back into the wall and then screw the face plate back on. 7. Turn on the power at the DB box. Materials Replacement Socket Outlet Tools Insulated screwdriver Retractable knife Side cutters Wire strippers Pliers Video tutorial NP44gvo Let see if you can take these skills further and adapt them to new contexts! Try this project
  10. 10. Wall Socket: Video Demonstration
  11. 11. 4b. Activation: Wire an out building Materials 2.5mm2 two core & earth cable 20mm Conduit pipe Straight and elbow connectors Solvent-weld adhesive Insulation tape Enclosure Metal clad socket and mounting box Power drill 20mm masonry drill bit Tools Tape Measure Side cutters Hammer Spade Hacksaw Retractable knife Screw drivers Fish Tape 1. Plan and prepare a cable route from the house to outside. Excavate earth where necessary with spade and conceal where possible. 2. Where the cable will exit the house use a 20mm masonry dill bit to create a hole 150mm above the damp course angled slightly upwards to discourage moisture entering the house. Mortar in a short length of conduit. 3. Mount the new RCD unit on a board close to the meter. Remove knockouts from the base of the unit to admit the incoming meter tails and circuit cable. Clip the RCD and the MCB9s) onto the metal busbar, ready for connection later Inside Outside 1. Check the trench is at least 500mm deep. And remove any sharp stones and insert dry sand to protect the cable. 2. In 3m sections built a conduit run. Make sure the outside conduit links up to the interior conduit run. Then pull the cable through the conduit.
  12. 12. 4b. Activation: Wire an out building Materials 2.5mm2 two core & earth cable 20mm Conduit pipe Straight and elbow connectors Solvent-weld adhesive Insulation tape Enclosure Metal clad socket and mounting box Power drill 20mm masonry drill bit Tools Tape Measure Side cutters Hammer Spade Hacksaw Retractable knife Screw drivers Fish Tape Outside (continued) 1. Use a short length of conduit with an elbow solvent welded on one end to connect to the conduit in the house wall and a large radius elbow to connect to the underground conduit. 2. Secure with clips to the clips. 3. Use a hacksaw to cut the last section to the correct length . 4. When you have joined all the lengths of conduit together, lower the conduit into the trench and use a large radius bend to take the run up to the point where it enters the out building 5. Pass a short length of conduit through the outbuilding wall and connect it to the underground run with a standard elbow. 6. Feed enough cable into the out building to allow it to be connected to the wiring accessories that will complete the sub-circuit. 7. In the trench place a line of bricks on the sand bed at each side of the conduit and lay narrow paving slabs over conduit resting on the bricks to protect it from gardening . 8. Back fill the trench to cover and tramp down firmly.
  13. 13. Conclusion You will need to get as much practice as possible using the hand tools before you go to a centre. Look for additional projects and see if you can start assembling your own tool box. Such a toolbox is an investment in your future and these tools will be with your for your entire career.
  14. 14. Basic Hand Tools Hack Saw Evan Amos / Public Domain (via Wikipedia) Description: A hacksaw is a fine-toothed saw, originally and mainly made for cutting metal. Most hacksaws are hand saws with a C-shaped frame that holds a blade under tension. Video demonstration: Tools Index
  15. 15. Basic Hand Tools Utility Knife (Retractable) unknown/ Public Domain (via Wikimedia) Description: A utility knife is a knife used for general or utility purposes. The utility knife was originally a fixed blade knife with a cutting edge suitable for general work such as cutting hides and cordage, scraping hides, butchering animals, cleaning fish, and other tasks. Craft knives are tools mostly used for crafts. Today, the term "utility knife" also includes small folding or retractable-blade knives suited for use in the general workplace or in the construction industry. (Wikipedia) Video demonstration: Tools Index
  16. 16. Basic Hand Tools Wire Strippers Windell Oskay / CC BY (via Flickr) Description: A wire stripper is a small, hand-held device used to strip the electrical insulation from electric wires. (Wikipedia) Video demonstration: Tools Index
  17. 17. Measurement Tools Tape Measure Schwede66 / CC BY SA (via Wikimedia) Description: A tape measure or measuring tape is a flexible ruler and used to measure distance. It consists of a ribbon of cloth, plastic, fibre glass, or metal strip with linear- measurement markings. It is a common measuring tool. Its design allows for a measure of great length to be easily carried in pocket or toolkit and permits one to measure around curves or corners. (Wikipedia) Video demonstration: Tools Index
  18. 18. Basic Hand Tools - Side Cutters (Wire Cutting Tool) Raimond Spekking / CC BY-SA 4.0 (via Wikimedia Commons) Description: A hand tool resembling pliers, intended for cutting wires using a ‘pinching’ action to cut wires. Video demonstration: Tools Index
  19. 19. Basic Hand Tools Crimping Tool Hundehalter/ CC BY SA (via Wikimedia) Description: An electrical crimp is a type of solderless electrical connection. Crimp connectors are typically used to terminate stranded wire. The benefits of crimping over soldering and wire-wrapping include: •A well-engineered and well-executed crimp is designed to be gas-tight, which prevents oxygen and moisture from reaching the metals (which are often different metals) and causing corrosion. •Because no alloy is used (as in solder) the joint is mechanically stronger. •Crimped connections can be used for cables of both small and large cross-sections, whereas only small cross-section wires can be used with wire-wrap. (Wikipedia) Video demonstration: Tools Index
  20. 20. Basic Hand Tools Spade CIA/ Public Domain (via Wikimedia) Description: A spade is a tool primarily for digging, comprising a blade – typically narrower and less curved than that of a shovel – and a long handle. Early spades were made of riven wood or of animal bones (often shoulder blades). After the art of metalworking was developed, spades were made with sharper tips of metal. Before the introduction of metal spades manual labour was less efficient at moving earth, with picks being required to break up the soil in addition to a spade for moving the dirt. With a metal tip, a spade can both break and move the earth in most situations, increasing efficiency. (Wikipedia) Video demonstration: Tools Index
  21. 21. Basic Hand Tools Fish Tape Lucius Kwok / CC BY-SA 2.0 (via Wikimedia Commons) Description: A fish tape (also known as a draw wire or draw tape) is a tool used by electricians to route new wiring through walls and electrical conduit. (Wikipedia) Video demonstration: Tools Index
  22. 22. TIN SNIPS Tin snips are either straight or curved blades • The straight type being used for cutting a straight lines • The curved type for cutting curved edges AVIATION SNIPS: for intricate, circular and radii cutting STRAIGHT CUTTING SNIPS: for all straight, inside and outside corner cutting. NOTE: Always protect the blades from corrosion by applying a thin layer of oil especially to the cutting edge. Do not use tin snips for cutting wires or other material beyond their capacity Fig. 1.8 NOTE: Always protect the blades from corrosion by applying a thin layer of oil especially to the cutting edge. Do not use tin snips for cutting wires or other material beyond their capacity Tools Index
  23. 23. STOCKS AND DIES • Dies are used for external threads • Dies are very slightly adjustable • There is a nut, which is used to clean threads • Or fix damaged threads and must not be used to cut new threads Tools Index
  24. 24. Basic Hand Tools Screw Driver (Flat Blade) unknown/ Public Domain (via Wikimedia) Description: A screwdriver is a tool, manual or powered, for screwing and unscrewing (inserting and removing) screws. A typical simple screwdriver has a handle and a shaft, ending in a tip the user puts into the screw head before turning the handle. The shaft is usually made of tough steel to resist bending or twisting. The tip may be hardened to resist wear, treated with a dark tip coating for improved visual contrast between tip and screw—or ridged or treated for additional 'grip'. Handles are typically wood, metal, or plastic and usually hexagonal, square, or oval in cross-section to improve grip and prevent the tool from rolling when set down. (Wikipedia) Video demonstration: Tools Index
  25. 25. Basic Hand Tools Screw Driver (Phillips) unknown/ Public Domain (via Wikimedia) Description: Phillips screwdrivers come in several standard sizes, ranging from tiny ‘jeweler's’ to those used for automobile frame assembly—or #000 to #4 respectively. This size number is usually stamped onto the shank (shaft) or handle for identification. Each bit size fits a range of screw sizes, more or less well. Each Phillips screwdriver size also has a related shank diameter. The driver has a 57° point and tapered, unsharp (rounded) flutes. The #1 and smaller bits come to a blunt point, but the #2 and above have no point, but rather a nearly squared-off tip, making each size incompatible with the other. (Wikipedia) Video demonstration: Tools Index
  26. 26. Basic Hand Tools Hammer Evan Amos / Public Domain (via Wikipedia) Description: A hammer is a tool that delivers a blow to an object. Most hammers are hand tools used to drive nails, fit parts, forge metal, and break apart objects. (Wikipedia) Video demonstration: Tools Index
  27. 27. Chassis Punch A chassis punch is a tool used for punching holes in sheet metal up to 1.6mm in thickness. Thereafter generally a cone drill of hole saw is normally used. An example of using a chassis punch Tools Index
  28. 28. DRESSING & SHARPENING OF CHISELS The cutting edge and the striking head of a chisel need to be repaired Damaged cutting edge and mushroomed head Cold Chisel in good condition Chisels blunt through usage. It is important to keep them sharp and at the correct angles. This is done by grinding them when they are worn. Check the chisel’s tip to see if it is sharp, even and at the correct angle. Correct Incorrect Incorrect Correct Fig. 3.6 CUTTING EDGE OF A COLD CHISEL Tools Index
  29. 29. Basic Hand Tools Mechanical Connectors Uwe Schwöbel / CC BY SA (via Wikimedia) Description: A blade connector is a type of single wire connection using a flat conductive blade which is inserted into a blade receptacle. Usually both blade connector and blade receptacle have wires attached to them either through of the wire to the blade or crimping of the blade to the wire. A common type of blade connector is the "Faston terminal". While Faston is a trademark of TE Connectivity it has come into common usage. Faston connectors come in male and female types. They have been commonly used since the 1970s. Ring style wire end blade connectors are normally sold in lots. Electrical contact is made by the flat surface of the ring or spade, while mechanically they are attached by passing a screw or bolt through them. The spade terminal form factor facilitates connections since the screw or bolt can be left partially screwed in as the spade terminal is removed or attached. (Wikipedia) Tools Index
  30. 30. WRENCHES Wrenches vary considerably in shape to provide ease of operation under differing conditions 1) The Adjustable Wrench: Used extensively for general workshop maintenance PIPE WRENCH (Adjustable) For tightening or loosening pipe and pipe fittings. ADJUSTABLE WRENCH (Shifting) For general workshop maintenance. PIPE WRENCH (Adjustable) Also Known as a Stillson wrench. For tightening or loosening pipes and pipe fittings When using adjustable wrenches the following steps should be adhered to: • Never use a piece of pipe for added leverage. It is safer to use a heavier wrench. • Never strike a wrench with a hard hammer. • Always pull on a wrench, never push on it. You cannot control a wrench when you are pushing on it. Tools Index
  31. 31. 2) Open-Ended Wrenches /Flat Spanner Some open-ended wrenches have two jaws while others only have one • The jaws are usually set at 15º or 30º to the handle’s axis. • The open-ended wrench must fit the head of the bolt or nut snugly Single Open Ended Double Open Ended Fig. 1.11 Correct Incorrect Fig. 1.12 Tools Index
  32. 32. 3) Ring Wrenches / Ring Spanner • The ring wrench encircles the nut or bolt head completely • Straight or offset shafts 4) Combination Wrench / Combination Spanner • One jaw is open and the other is a ring Tools Index
  33. 33. • The torque wrench is used together with the sockets. • Torque is measured in Nm (Newton Metres) When using wrenches the following hints should be followed: a) Use the correct sized wrench. b) Adjustable wrenches should be used only as a last resort because they can slip. c) Always pull a wrench towards you instead of pushing it away from you. d) When using a torque wrench, ensure that the torque wrench with the correct range is used. Tools Index
  34. 34. 6) Socket Wrench and Sockets • Used in restricted areas on bolts that are in recess or an awkward place Tools Index
  35. 35. ENGINEER’S VICE • The size of the vice is according to the width of the jaw. • Must be fixed firmly to the bench top • Should be removed periodically and thoroughly cleaned and oiled • Should be left loose when not in use. When using engineer’s vice, the following steps should be adhered to: 1) Never put a handle extension on a vice 2) Never hammer the handle. 3) When using jaw caps, make sure there are not sharp points or edges 4) Remove all chips and dust with a wire brush every day. 5) Vices should be thoroughly cleaned and oiled and should be left loose when not in use Tools Index
  36. 36. Pipe Vice: Pipe vises are a plumber's tool, often used to hold pipes in place for threading and cutting. There are two main styles: chain and yoke. The yoke type vise uses a screw to clamp down the pipe, and the chain style uses a chain for securing the pipe. (Wikipedia) Tools Index
  37. 37. VICE GRIPS C-Clamp Pliers Flat Welding Grip Welding Grip Vice Grip As with pliers, vice grips are used for gripping, holding Tools Index
  38. 38. • Files are cleaned with file brushes • Stored away from moisture • Must be cleaned when they are clogged • Use a file brush and rub or brush across the file • Not across its length Files NOTE: 1) Oil and grease cause files to slip 2) Files must always have proper handles 3) Files are ruined by use on hard materials 4) Hard metals should be ground not filed. Filing Techniques There are three different types of filing techniques • Heavy Filing • Light Filing • Draw Filing Tools Index
  39. 39. Heavy Filing Proper filing position • This method is used to remove a lot of material • More pressure being used on the ‘push’ stroke • Coarse file is used. Tools Index
  40. 40. Light Filing • This method is used for shallow cuts • Less pressure used in light filing than heavy filing • A smoother file is used Tools Index
  41. 41. Draw Filing Draw filing position• Good technique for removing scratches • Can also be used to polish the surface • Can be used to fix square edges that have been rounded by inadvertent rocking of the file Tools Index
  42. 42. Basic Hand Tools Pick Axe Hyena/ Public Domain (via Wikimedia) Description: pickaxe, pick-axe, or pick is a hand tool with a hard head attached perpendicular to the handle. The head is usually made of metal, and the handle is most commonly wood, metal or fiberglass. The head is a spike ending in a sharp point, may curve slightly, and often has a counter-weight to improve ease of use. The stronger the spike, the more effectively the tool can pierce the surface. Rocking the embedded spike about and removing it can then break up the surface. The counterweight nowadays is nearly always a second spike, often with a flat end for prying. (Wikipedia) Video demonstration: Tools Index
  43. 43. Basic Hand Tools Rubber Mallet Description: A mallet is a kind of hammer, often made of rubber or sometimes wood, that is smaller than a maul or beetle, and usually has a relatively large head. The term is descriptive of the overall size and proportions of the tool, and not the materials it may be made of, though most mallets have striking faces that are softer than steel. (Wikipedia) Video demonstration: Tools Index
  44. 44. Basic Hand Tools Ball Peen Hammer Description: Though the process of peening (surface hardening by impact) has become rarer in metal fabrication, the ball-peen hammer remains useful for many tasks, such as striking punches and chisels (usually performed with the flat face of the hammer). The peening face is useful for rounding off edges of metal pins and fasteners, such as rivets. The ball face of the hammer can also be used to make gaskets for mating surfaces. A suitable gasket material is held over the surface where a corresponding gasket is desired, and the operator will lightly tap around the edges of the mating surface to perforate the gasket material. (Wikipedia) Video demonstration: Tools Index
  45. 45. Basic Hand Tools Wire Brush Description: A wire brush is a tool consisting of a brush whose bristles are made of wire, most often steel wire. The steel used is generally a medium- to high-carbon variety and very hard and springy. The wire brush is primarily an abrasive implement, used for cleaning rust and removing paint. It is also used to clean surfaces and to create a better conductive area for attaching electrical connections, such as those between car battery posts and their connectors, should they accumulate a build-up of grime and dirt. (Wikipedia) Video demonstration:
  46. 46. Basic Hand Tools Rasp Description: A rasp is coarse form of file used for coarsely shaping wood or other material. Typically a hand tool, it consists of a generally tapered rectangular, round, or half-round sectioned bar of case hardened steel with distinct, individually cut teeth. A narrow, pointed tang is common at one end, to which a handle may be fitted. (Wikipedia) Video demonstration:
  47. 47. Basic Hand Tools Files Description: A file is a tool used to remove fine amounts of material from a workpiece. It is common in woodworking, metalworking, and other similar trade and hobby tasks. Most are hand tools, made of a case hardened steel bar of rectangular, square, triangular, or round cross-section, with one or more surfaces cut with sharp, generally parallel teeth. A narrow, pointed tang is common at one end, to which a handle may be fitted. (Wikipedia) Video demonstration: Glenn Mackechnie – CC BY SA on Wikipedia Tools Index
  48. 48. Basic Hand Tools Needle Nose Pliers Description: Needle-nose pliers (also known as pointy-nose pliers, long- nose pliers, pinch-nose pliers or snipe-nose pliers) are both cutting and holding pliers used by artisans, jewellery designers, electricians, network engineers and other tradesmen to bend, re-position and snip wire. (Wikipedia) Video demonstration: User 2000 – CC BY SA on Wikipedia
  49. 49. Basic Hand Tools Steel Rule Description: A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is a straightedge with equally spaced markings along its length. It is used in geometry, technical drawing, engineering and building to measure distances or to rule straight lines.. (Wikipedia) Video demonstration: Ejay – CC BY SA on Wikipedia