-492125-304800UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL EXPERIMENTAL<br />“FRANCISCO DE MIRANDA”<br />AREA CS. DE LA EDUCACION<br />PROGRAMA DE DESARROLLO INTEGRAL DEL PERSONAL ACADEMICO<br />(PRONDINPA)<br />83820332105PHRASAL VERBS<br />GUÍA DIDÁCTICA<br />920750189230Real use and Practice<br />1604010326390<br />PRESENTATION<br />Phrasal Verbs: Real Use and Practice is a student’s guide specially design for EFL students in an intermediate /upper-intermediate level. This guide is intended for use either in a classroom or when working independently in your own time. As its name suggests, this material deals with the practice of phrasal verbs, also known as multi-word verbs, by giving extensive explanations of each particular type of phrasal verb, as well as, providing examples in order to illustrate the real use of this so common structures in communicative English situation. Why phrasal verbs? This kind of verbs are, sometimes, easy to understand by interpreting the meaning of its parts individually; but some other times, its meaning its idiomatic, they cannot be understood by getting the meaning of its parts because they all have a new and complete different meaning. Due to this particularity, this verbs tend to be difficult to learn and to use in appropriate contexts, however, knowing some basic rules it is possible to get to use a rich variety of them weather in spoken or written English.<br />You may want to choose the order in which you prefer to study these verbs; however, this guide follows a logical order that increases in difficulty progressively. You will find first some explanations and examples followed by its specific practice exercises. Phrasal Verbs: Real Use and Practice offers three practices, each one with different activities concerning with each type of phrasal verb, but it also offers a significant appendix containing a list of phrasal that may help you to learn them, and it may also be useful in the future for any consulting. <br />INDEX<br />Presentation<br />Objectives <br />Phrasal verbs: basic Rules <br />Understanding Phrasal verbs<br />Word order with Phrasal verbs<br />Prepositional verbs<br />Some common Prepositional Verbs<br />Adverb meaning<br />Appendix: Multi- Word Verb list<br />446405-598170PHRASAL VERBS<br />Phrasal verbs are part of a large group of verbs called "
. Phrasal verbs and other multi-word verbs are an important part of the English language. Multi-word verbs, including phrasal verbs, are very common, especially in spoken English. A multi-word verb is a verb like "
get on with"
. For convenience, many people refer to all multi-word verbs as phrasal verbs. These verbs consist of a basic verb + another word or words. The other word(s) can be prepositions and/or adverbs. The two or three words that make up multi-word verbs form a short "
—which is why these verbs are often all called "
.<br />Basic Rules <br />Words such as in or on which are used as prepositions before noun phrases (1) can also be used as particles after verbs (2). We can also use other words such as away, back or out as particles (3). These verb + particle combination (sleep in, go out) are called multi-word verbs or phrasal verbs. <br /> I usually drink coffee in the morning * He said he left the keys on the table<br /> I slept in this morning and missed my bus * He put on his boots and over coat<br /> I tried to catch the dog but it ran away * When will she come back?<br />Other phrasal verbs include: fall over, get through, go ahead, sit down, stand up, take off.<br />Some phrasal verbs are used without an object (4) and others are used with an object. When the object is a noun phrase, we can usually put it before (5) or after the particle (6). When the object is a pronoun, we put it before the particle (7).<br />It’s time to get up * I wish these files would go away* watch out.<br />Don’t turn on the light * You’ll wake up the baby * He took of his shoes.<br />Don’t turn the light on* You’ll wake the baby up * he took his shoes off. <br />Don’t turn it on* You’ll wake him up * he took them off.<br />After a phrasal verb we can also use a gerund (8) or a clause (9). We don’t usually put clauses or very long phrases between the verb and the particle.<br />Have you given up smoking? * They told us to carry on working. (NOT… to carry on work)<br />Andy pointed out that we didn’t have enough time * you should read over what you’ve written ( NOT… you should read what you’ve written over)<br />We can use phrasal verbs with prepositions. These combinations of verb +particle + prep are sometimes called three-word verbs. We put pronouns after the preposition.<br /> This book is valuable and you should hold on to it (NOT… hold on it to) * Go ahead and I’ll catch up with you later (NOT … I’ll catch up you with)<br />Others include: face up to, get round to, go along with, look forward to, watch out for, take care of.<br />We often use phrasal verbs such as put off or leave out in informal situations (11) rather that other verbs with similar meanings such as postpone or omit which may sound more formal (12)<br />Let’s put the meeting off till next week * Don’t leave out the author’s name.<br /> We should postpone the meeting until next week * You must not omit the author’s name.<br />Understanding Phrasal Verbs<br />Tom asked Melanie to come in. *** The man in front turned round and stared at me<br />The meanings are clear if you know the words come, in, turn and round. But many phrasal verbs are Idiomatic. The verb + the particle has a special meaning:<br />Fortunately the plan came off (= succeeded)<br />Why did you turn down such a good offer? (= refuse)<br />Sometimes a phrasal verb has the same meaning as a one-word verb:<br />Send out -> distributeThrow away -> discardTurn up -> arriveBlow up -> explode Leave out -> omitMake up -> invent a storyPut off -> postponeLook into -> investigate Find out -> discoverGo back -> returnGo on -> continueFigure out -> realize <br />The important thing to remember is that a multi-word verb is still a verb. "
is a verb. "
, is also a verb, a different verb. "
are two different verbs. They do not have the same meaning. So you should treat each multi-word verb as a separate verb, and learn it like any other verb. Look at these examples. You can see that there are three types of multi-word verb:<br />Single-Word verblookdirect your eyes in a certain directionYou must look before you leap.multi-word verbsprepositional verbslook aftertake care ofWho is looking after the baby?phrasal verbslook upsearch for and find information in a reference bookYou can look up my number in the telephone directory.phrasal-prepositional verbslook forward toanticipate with pleasureI look forward to meeting you.<br />Practice #1<br />Put in a phrasal verb that means the same as the verb in brackets. Use the correct form of the phrasal verb.<br />Rachel: I‘ve ___________________ (discovered) what the problem is with the exam.<br />Vicky: Oh, good. Tell me.<br />Rachel: when they printed the papers, they ____________________(omitted) a page. No one noticed until the papers had all been _______________(distributed). Now they’ll have to _______________(discard) all the papers and ____________________(postpone) the exam.<br />Vicky: are you sure you haven’t ___________________(invented) this whole story?<br />Rachel: it’s true, I tell you. And isn’t it good news?<br />Vicky: I don’t know about that. It means that we’ll have to ______________ (continue) revising.<br />Using a Dictionary if necessary, rewrite the following sentences in a more informal style, using appropriate forms of the following phrasal verbs: cut back on, fill in, give up, go in, send back, do away with, find out, go along with, take off<br />You should complete this form and return it with your payment<br />You have to______________________________________________________<br />My father has abandoned his attempt to get the university to abolish tuition fees.<br />My dad_________________________________________________________<br />It was necessary to reduce our spending after we discover that our rent was increasing.<br />We had to________________________________________________________<br />Please observe local customs at the temple and remove your shoes before entering.<br />Please__________________________________________________________<br />Work out the meaning of these phrasal verbs and put them in the right sentences: come back, come in, cut out, fall over, get on, give away, go away, lay in, lay down, pay back, stay in, take back. (Use a dictionary if you need to) <br />Hello. Nice to see you.__________________ and sit down.<br />I didn’t have a key, but luckily someone was there to _____ me ____in.<br />Can’t we go out somewhere? I don’t want to ___________________all evening.<br />Could you lend me ten pounds? I’ll _____________you ______________ on Friday. <br />The pavement is very icy. Be careful you don’t _________________________. <br />I was feeling so tired I had to ___________________ on the bed for a while. <br />There was an article in the newspaper that I wanted to ________________ and keep. <br />Mark’s gone out and I don’t know when he’s going to _______________________. <br />The driver unlocked the coach so that the passengers were able to ______________. <br />I’ll have to _______________ these books_______________ to the library. <br /> Your brother was being a nuisance, so I told him to ________________________. <br />I order to get publicity, the company decided to _____________________ some of the new sweets free to children. <br />Word order with Phrasal Verbs.<br />When the phrasal verb has an object, the object can go either before or after the particle.<br />VERBOBJECTADVERBMelanieTookHer coatOff.IWroteThe numberDown.WhoLet The catOut.<br />VERBADVERBOBJECTMelanietookoffHer coatIwrotedownThe number.WhoLet outThe cat.<br />A long object goes after the adverb.<br />Ex. The gangs have carried out a number of bank raids in the last few months.<br /> Why don’t you try on that dress in the window?<br />A pronoun (it, them, you) always goes before the adverb.<br />Melanie felt hot in her coat, so she took it off.<br />NOT she took off it<br />There have been a number of raids. The police know who carried them out.<br />NOT the police know who carried out them<br />Practice #2 <br />Complete the sentences by putting in the phrasal verbs. Some of the spaces you have to leave empty. Sometimes more than one answer is correct.<br />The sweater was full of holes. So I _____________________ (threw away)<br />I’ve ___________ (put up) that picture we bought last week.<br />There’s always litter here. No one ever _____________ it _________ (pick up)<br />It’s quite cold now. I think I’ll ____________my coat ____________( put on)<br />I haven’t heard from Rita lately. I might ___________her ____________(ring up)<br />Daniel has to go into college to ____________his project___________(hand in)<br />I can’t remember the address. I wish I’d __________it__________(write down)<br />Nicky is trying to ________________all the money he’d just lost ___________ (win back)<br />I am not going to have time to _____________these dishes_____________ wash up).<br />I you don’t know the number, you can _________it_______ (look up) in the phone book.<br />Write a short dialogue between two friends using as many phrasal verbs as you can.<br />_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________<br />Prepositional Verbs<br />As part of the group of verbs called phrasal verbs we can find prepositional verbs. A prepositional verb is a verb + preposition.<br /> I’m waiting for you the dog belongs to our neighbours<br />The preposition always goes before the object<br />NOT I’m waiting you for<br />In questions the preposition usually goes at the end of the sentence.<br />Who are you waiting for?<br />Some verbs can go with a number of different prepositions.<br />I’m looking at these photos. They are really good.<br />I’m looking for my ticket. I can’t find it anywhere.<br />I’m looking after the children while their parents are out.<br />The police are looking into the matter<br />Some common prepositional verbs<br />Here are some more examples:<br />Yes, I agree with you.<br />Do you believe in God?<br />Tom’s neighbours apologized for the noise.<br />Have you applied for the job?<br />Please concentrate on your work.<br />Did you pay for the coffee?<br />I’m sorry but I don’t care about your problems.<br />The patient asked for a glass of water.<br />Everyone laughed at the joke.<br />I can deal with this.<br />Mary finally decided on a holiday in Turkey.<br />You can’t rely on the weather forecast.<br />Vicky suffers from headaches.<br />The US consists of fifty states.<br />Lots of people care for elderly relatives.<br />Whether we go out will depend on the weather.<br />I was listening to the radio<br />We do not normally use a preposition after these verbs: answer, approach, control, demand, enter, expect, leave, reach, request.<br />The president is entering the building<br />NOT The president is entering into the building.<br />Practice #3<br /> Complete the conversation between Laura and her friend Olivia. Put in after, at, for and into.<br />Laura: Did you say you were looking _____ a nanny?<br />Olivia: yes, I was just looking _____ this advertisement. We need someone to look ______ our children.<br />Laura: Do you have to pay a nanny?<br />Olivia: I’m not sure. I have to look _____ how it all works.<br />This is some news that Melanie has received from an old friend. Put in these verbs and add a preposition after each one: agree, applied, ask, care, caring, concentrate, decided, pay, suffering.<br />I’m working in a hospital now. I ____________________ a nurse’s job last July and started in August. I don’t earn much money, and I even had to ________________ my uniform out of my own money. Perhaps I should ______________________ a rise. But I don’t really _________________________ the money. The work is the important thing. Of course it’s very hard work _______________________ the patients, and at the moment I’m _____________________ backache. But I knew it would be like this when I _______________________ a career in nursing. I just try to forget all the problems and ____________________the job. I think it’s a worthwhile thing to do, and I’m sure you ______________________ me.<br />Write a short letter to a friend, telling some news about your actual life. Use prepositional verbs as much as possible.<br />_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________<br />Adverb meaning<br />Understanding phrasal verbs does not always depend on getting the meaning of the particles individually; in fact, some adverbs that can be part of phrasal verbs have different meanings. The following are some examples of the different meaning of some adverbs that may help you to understand better the idiomatic sense of some phrasal verbs.<br />Down= becoming less<br />Turn down the music.<br />Bring down the cost of living.<br />Down= completely to the ground.<br />Knock a house down<br />Cut down a tree<br />Down= on paper<br />Copy down the words<br />Write down the message<br />Note down the details<br /> Off= away, departing.<br />Set off on a journey<br />Jump in the car and drive off<br />See Emma off at the station<br />The plane took off<br />The pain is wearing off<br />Off= disconnected<br />Switch off the heater<br />Cut off our electricity<br />The caller rang off<br />On= connected.<br />Switch on the kettle.<br />Turn on the TV<br />Leave the lights on all night<br />On= wearing.<br />Put a coat on<br />Try the sweater on<br />On= continuing.<br />Carry on working.<br />Drive on a bit further<br />Hang on/ hold on a minute<br />Out= away/ disappearing.<br />Wash out the dirt<br />Cross out a mistake<br />Blow out the candle<br />Out= to different people.<br />Hand out free tickets.<br />Share out the winnings.<br />Out= aloud.<br />Read out the article<br />Call out anxiously<br />Out= from start to finish.<br />Write out the whole list.<br />Work out the answer.<br />Over= from start to finish.<br />Check your work over<br />Think the problem over<br />Up= increasing.<br />Prices are going up<br />Put up taxes<br />Speak up so we can hear<br />Up= completely<br />Eat up these chocolates<br />Fill up with petrol<br />Count up the money<br />Tear up the paper<br />3937000-520700Appendix: Multi-word verb List.<br />Separable<br />add up - add back up - cause to move backwards; support; blow up; cause to explode; destroy by explosivesbreak down - analyze; list the parts of separatelybreak into - go into a house or room forcibly; suddenly; begin; bring about - cause to happenbring off - accomplishbring on - causebring out - publish; emphasizebring over - bringbring to - revivebring up - raise; care for from childhoodbrush out - brush the inside ofburn down - destroy by burningburn up - consume by firebuy out - by the other person's share of a businessbuy up - buy the whole supply ofcall off - cancel; order awaycall up - telephone; summon for military servicecalm down - become calmcarry on - continuecarry out - fulfil; complete; accomplish; performcarry over - carry; continue at another time or placecheer up - cause to become cheerfulchew up - chew thoroughlychop up - chop into small piecesclean off - clean the surface ofclean out - clean the inside ofclean up - clarify; tidyclear out - clear the surface ofclear up - clear the inside ofclose down - close permanentlyclose up - close temporarilycount in - includecount out - excludecount up - calculate; count; add to a totalcross out - eliminatecut off - interrupt; sever; amputatecut out - eliminate; deletecut down - reduce in quantitydraw up - write; compose (a document)dress up - put clothes on; adorndust out - dust the inside ofeat up - eat completelyfigure out - interpret; understandfigure up - computefill in - complete (a printed form)fill out - complete (a printed form)fill up - fill completely (a container)find out - discoverfix up - repair; arrange in a suitable mannerget across - cause to be understoodgive back - returngive out - distribute; announcegive up - surrender somethinghand down - deliver; pronounce formally; leave as an inheritancehand over - yield control ofhang up - suspendhave on - be dressed inhave over - entertain someone informally at one's homehold off - delay; restrainhold up - delay; rob; threaten with a weaponkeep up - continue; keep the same paceleave out - omitlet down - disappointlet out - release from confinement; make larger (in sewing)light up - light; illuminate thoroughlylive down - live in such a way as to cause something to be forgottenmake over - remakemove over - move to the sidepass out - distributepass up - not take advantage of (as an opportunity)pass on - transmitpay back - repaypay off - discharge a debt completely; give someone his final paypick up - come to meet an escort; lift with hands or fingers; learn casually;initiate an association publiclyplay down - minimizeplay up - emphasizepoint out - indicatepull down - pull in a downward direction; razepush across - cause to be understood or acceptedput off - postponeput on - dress in; deceive or foolput up - preserve (food); receive as an overnight guestquiet down - be quietring up - the telephonerinse off - rinse the surface ofrinse out - rinse the inside ofrule out - eliminaterun down - trace; disparage; hit with a vehiclerun off - cause to depart; reproduce mechanicallysave up - accumulatesee through - complete; in spite of difficultiessee off - accompany someone to the beginning of a tripsend back - send to a place where formerly locatedsend over - send to where someone isset up - arrangeshow off - exhibit ostentatiouslyshut off - cause to cease functioningslow up - cause to move more slowlyspell out - enumerate; state in detailstand up - fail to keep an appointment withsweep out - sweep the inside oftake back - return; retract a statementtake down - remove from a high position; write from dictationtake in - understood; fool; deceive; make smaller (in sewing)take over - take; assume command oftear down - destroytear up - tear into small piecestell off - scold; reprimandthink over - considerthink through - consider from beginning to endthink up - create; inventthrow away - discardthrow over - rejecttie up - tie securely or tighttire out - cause to be exhaustedtouch up - repairtry on - put on a garment to verify the fittry out - testturn down - refuse; lower the volumeturn out - produce; force into exile, extinguish (a light)wash off - wash the surface ofwash out - wash the inside ofwear out - use until no longer usable; tire greatlywind up - finish, tighten the spring of a watch or machinewipe off - wipe the surface ofwipe out - wipe the inside of; decimatework out - solvewrite down - recordwrite out - write down every detail; spell outwrite up - compose; prepare (a document)<br />Inseparable<br />back out of - desert; fail to keep a promisebear down on - lean on; browbeatbear on - have to do withbear up under - endurebreak in on - interruptbreak into - interruptcall for - come to get; requirecare for - like; guard; supervise; maintaincarry on with - continuecatch up with - cover the distance between oneself andcheck up on - examine; verifycome across - find accidentallycome along with - accompany; make progresscome by - find accidentallycome down with - become ill withcome out with - utter; producecome up with - utter; producecount on - rely oncut in on - interruptdisagree with - cause illness or discomfort todo away with - abolishdo without - deprive oneself ofdrop in at/on - visit casually without planningdrop out of - leave; quitface up to - acknowledgefall behind in - lag; not progress at required pacefall back on - use for emergency purposefall out with - quarrel withfill in for - substitute forget ahead of - surpass; beatget around - evade; avoidget away with - do without being caught or punishedget by with - manage with a minimum of effortget down to - become serious about; considerget in - enter (a vehicle)get off - descend from; leaveget on - enter (a vehicle); mountget on with - proceed withget through with - terminate, finishgo back on - desert; fail to keep (a promise)go for - like a great dealgo in for - be interested in; participate ingo on with - continuego over - reviewgo with - harmonize with; look pleasing togethergo without - abstain fromhang around - remain idly in the vicinity ofhear from - receive a communication fromhear of - learn about (sometimes accidentally)hit on - discover accidentallyhold on to - grasp tightlyhold out against - resistkeep at - persevere atkeep to - persist in; continuekeep up with - maintain the pace oflie down on - evade; fail to dolive on - support or sustain oneself by means oflive up to - maintain the standard demanded oflook after - take care oflook back on - remember nostalgicallylook down on - feel superior tolook forward to - anticipatelook up to - respect; admiremake up for - compensate forpass on - transmitpick on - tease; bullyplay up to - flatter for personal advantageput up with - tolerateread up on - search out information onrun against - compete against in an electionrun away with - leave; escape fromrun for - campaign forsee about - consider; arrangesee to - arrange; supervisesettle on - decide on; choosestand for - represent; permitstand up for - support; demandstand up to - resiststick to - persiststick up for - support; defendtake after - resembletalk back to - answer impolitelytalk over - discusstell on - report misbehaviour to authoritytouch on - mention brieflyturn into - becomewait on - servewait up for - not go to bed while waiting forwatch out for - be careful for<br />Intransitive<br />back down - retreat from a position in an argumentback out - desert; fail to keep a promiseback up - move backwardsbear up - endureblow in - drop in to visit unexpectedlyblow over - pass without doing harmblow up - explode; lose one's tempercall up - telephonecalm down - become calmcarry on - continue as before; misbehavecatch on - understandcatch up - cover the distance between oneself and a moving goalcheck up - investigatecheck out - leave; pay one's billcheer up - become cheerfulclear out - leaveclear up - become clearclose down - close permanentlyclose up - close temporarilycame about - happencome along - accompany; make progresscome back - returncome by - visit someone in his homecome out - appear; make a social debutcome over - come to someone's house, to where someone iscome through - succeedcome to - regain consciousnesscut in - interruptdie away - fade; diminishdie down - fade; diminishdie off/out - disappear; become extinctdress up - don fancy or unusual clothesdrive back - return by cardrop in - visit someone casually without planningdrop out - abandon some organized activity; leave; quitdrop over - visit someone casuallyfall behind - not progress at required pacefall off - decrease; lose weightfall through - fail; not be accomplishedfill in - substitutefind out - learnfly back - return by airfly over - fly to where someone isget ahead - make progressget along - have a friendly relationshipget around - circulate; move aboutget away - escapeget by - manage; either just barely or with a minimum of effortget in - enterget off - descend from leaveget on - enter (a vehicle); mount (a horse, etc.)get on/along - progress; be compatibleget up - riseget through - finishgive out - become exhaustedgive up - surrender; fail to finishgo back - returngo off - explodego on - happen; continuego out - stop burning; leave one's residencego over - go; succeedgrow up - maturehang around - remain idly; dawdlehang up - replace a telephone receive on its hookhold on - grasp tightly; persevere; wait while telephoninghold out - continue to resist; persevere; persistkeep on - continuekeep up - maintain the required pace or standard; continuelet up - diminish in intensitylie down - reclinelook on - be a spectatormake out - progress; succeedmake up - become reconciledmove over - move to the sidepan out - turn out well; be successfulpass out - become unconsciouspass on - diepick up - grow; increasepull in - arrivepull out - deportpull through - survive (barely)ride over - ride to where someone isrun away - escape; leave; leave quickly without permissionrun down - slowly lose power so as to stop functioningrun off - depart running; drainsell out - sell the ownership or responsibilitysettle up - pay one's bills or debtsshow off - boast by words or actionsshow up - arrive; appear unexpectedlyshut up - stop talkingslow up - reduce speedstand by - wait; be prepared to assiststand up - stand; rise from sitting; last; endurestay over - remain at someone's house overnight or longerstep aside - move to one sidetake off - leave the groundtake over - assume commandtalk back - answer impolitelythrow up - vomitturn around - turn so that one is facing another directionturn in - go to bedturn out - succeed; come; appear, as at a public meetingturn up - arrive; be found unexpectedlywait up - remain awake in anticipationwake up - awakenwalk back - return on foot to where one waswalk over - walk to where someone iswash out - fade or disappear from washingwatch out - be carefulwear off - fade; disappear through use or timewear out - become unusable through use; become used upwork out - be successful<br />REFERENCES<br />Swan y Walter (2001) THE GOOD GRAMMAR BOOK with answers. Oxford University Press.<br />Eastwood (2006) INTERMEDIATE OXFORD PRACTICE GRAMMAR with answers. Oxford University Press.<br />Yule (2006) ADVANCED OXFORD PRACTICE GRAMMAR with answers. Oxford University Press.<br />