Linking expressions


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Linking expressions

  1. 1. Universidad nacional experimental <br />“francisco de Miranda” <br />Language department<br />Teacher: andreina Pereira<br />LINKING EXPRESSIONS<br />DONE BY:<br />CARINA NAVARRO<br />
  2. 2. Linking Expressions:<br /> They are expressions ( words, phrases) which helps to join ideas and sentences.<br /> In its simplest form: Linking words or phrases help you to build a logical argument. <br />They are useful to:<br />
  3. 3. Linking Expressions<br />They are used to show relationships between ideas.<br />They can be used to join 2 (two) or more sentences or clauses.<br />Linking words/phrases can be used to add ideas together, contrast them, or show the reason for something. <br />
  4. 4. Linking Expressions<br />The most common are:<br /><ul><li>Adding Information: it is used to give more information or ideas. It is used to add an extra idea or emphasis.</li></ul>e.g. It´s crowded and expensive.<br /><ul><li>And
  5. 5. In addition
  6. 6. As well as
  7. 7. Also
  8. 8. Too
  9. 9. Furthermore
  10. 10. Moreover
  11. 11. Apart from
  12. 12. In addition to
  13. 13. Besides</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Contrasting Ideas: it is used to express the idea of contrast.</li></ul>e.g. it was raining, but we went to the beach.<br />e.g. In spite of the cold, she went out in shorts.<br /><ul><li>But
  14. 14. However
  15. 15. Although / even though
  16. 16. Despite / despite the fact that
  17. 17. In spite of / in spite of the fact that
  18. 18. Nevertheless
  19. 19. Nonetheless
  20. 20. While
  21. 21. Whereas
  22. 22. Unlike
  23. 23. In theory… in practice…
  24. 24. On the contrary</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Cause and Result: it is used to express the reason for somenthing or the result of something.</li></ul>e.g. because it was raining, we stayed home.<br /><ul><li>Therefore
  25. 25. So
  26. 26. Consequently
  27. 27. This means that
  28. 28. As a result
  29. 29. Because
  30. 30. Because of
  31. 31. Porpuse: it is abaut porpuse.</li></ul>e.g. Melanie was hurrying to catch her bus.<br /> e.g. we are having to borrow money in order to pay our bills.<br />
  32. 32. <ul><li>To
  33. 33. In order (not) to, so as (not)to ( more formal)
  34. 34. So that
  35. 35. For
  36. 36. Comparisons: we use these words to express a comparision between two ideas.</li></ul>e.g. yesterday it was freezing cold,while today it´s quite warm.<br />e.g. I don´t want to be late for the meeting. On the other hand I don´t want to get there too early.<br /><ul><li>Whereas
  37. 37. While
  38. 38. On the other hand
  39. 39. Just As
  40. 40. Showing an Example: we use these words to give examples.</li></ul>e.g. I think Henry is a rude. He shouts at waiters, for example/for instance.<br />
  41. 41. <ul><li>For Example
  42. 42. For instance
  43. 43. Such as
  44. 44. Showing a Condition : it is used to express a conditional idea.</li></ul>e.g. Betty might buy a car if she passes her test<br />e.g. you won´t learn to use a keyboard properly unless you practice<br />e.g. if you drive, don´t drink.<br /><ul><li>If
  45. 45. In the even that
  46. 46. Otherwise
  47. 47. Unless
  48. 48. In case </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Sequencing ideas: it is used to link ideas together. One of the most important ways to link ideas is to sequence them. Sequencing refers to the order in which events happened.</li></ul>e.g.Firstly, I began my education in London.<br />e.g. After that, we knew that there would be no problem!<br />e.g. In the end, he decided to postpone the project.<br />Beginning:<br />Firstly,First of all,To start off with, Initially, <br />Continuing:<br />Then,After that,Next, As soon as / When + full clause,... but thenImmediately, <br />Ending:<br />Finally,In the end,Eventually,Lastly,<br />
  49. 49. <ul><li>Reason: Here some ways of expressing reasons.</li></ul>e.g. the shop was closed due to illness.<br />e.g. the match has been cancelled because of the weather. <br /><ul><li>Because of
  50. 50. Due to
  51. 51. Owing to
  52. 52. in view of</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Time Words: we use thepresent simple forfuturetime,etc.</li></ul>e.g.As soon as Laura hadleftthehouse, itstartedto rain.<br />e.g. My leghurtswhen I walk<br /><ul><li>As soon as = Inmediatelyafter
  53. 53. After = Laterthan
  54. 54. Before= earlierthan
  55. 55. When =At the time
  56. 56. Since= Fromthe time
  57. 57. As/ while =Duringthe time.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Other linking words and phrases( expressions):</li></ul>Rephrasing: In other words.<br />Correcting yourself: I mean/ Or rather <br />Dismissing sometning: Anyway<br />Supporting a statement: After all<br />Changing the subject: By the way<br />Some examples:<br /><ul><li>We play basketball. I mean volleyball.
  58. 58. It is a nice day, isn´t it?...Yes, beautiful.By the way, have you seen Melanie?</li></li></ul><li>Linking Expressions<br />
  59. 59. Linking Expressions<br />
  60. 60. THANKS!<br />