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Aircraft Portable Fire Extinguishers


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People travelling in airplanes should have some knowledge of the type of fire extinguishers they may find onboard passenger aircrafts so that in case of a fire emergency, they know how to use the extinguishers to put out fires during the early stage of fire development.

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Aircraft Portable Fire Extinguishers

  1. 1. Aircraft Portable Fire Extinguishers Andrew W. Wong
  2. 14. Function of the ARFF <ul><li>To create a survivable environment for the escape of aircraft passengers. </li></ul>
  3. 17. Applicable Standards <ul><li>International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian Aviation Act (CAA) </li></ul><ul><li>National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) </li></ul>
  4. 18. Applicable Standard NFPA 408 Standard for Aircraft Hand Portable Fire Extinguishers 1999 Edition
  5. 19. Basic Fire Chemistry
  6. 20. Fire
  7. 21. Fire Tetrahedron
  8. 23. Typical Materials
  9. 24. Extinguisher Listing
  10. 25. Halon 1211 <ul><li>A halogenated agent whose chemical name is bromochlorodifluoromethane, CBrClF2 </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>that is a multipurpose, Class ABC-rated agent effective against flammable liquid fires. </li></ul>
  11. 26. Halon 1301 <ul><li>A halogenated agent whose chemical name is bromotrifluoromethane, CBrF 3 , and </li></ul><ul><li>that is recognized as an agent having Class ABC capability in total flooding systems. </li></ul>
  12. 27. Halon
  13. 28. Halon Extinguisher Construction
  14. 29. Halon Extinguisher w/ tube
  15. 30. Temperature Rating <ul><li>All aircraft hand portable fire extinguishers shall function properly at temperature ranges from </li></ul><ul><li>-40°F to 120°F (-40°C to 49°C). </li></ul>
  16. 31. Water Type Extinguishers <ul><li>Water extinguishers having a capacity of 1 3/8 qt (2 L) </li></ul><ul><li>have a minimum rating of 1-A and shall be equipped with either </li></ul><ul><li>a spray or straight stream nozzle. </li></ul>
  17. 32. Store Pressure Type Water Extinguisher
  18. 33. Water Mist
  19. 34. Store Pressure Water Extinguisher
  20. 35. Class A Extinguisher Performance Wood Crib FireTest 7 litres 324 (27x12) 38x38x1100 13 sec. 6 m (50%) 10A 2.8 litres 144 (18x8) 38x38x735 13 sec. 3.5 m (50%) 3A 2 litres 112 (16 x7) 38x38x635 13 sec. 3 m (50%) 2A n-Heptane charge No. of wood members Min. Duration Min. Range Rating
  21. 36. Dry Chemical
  22. 37. Property of Dry Chemical <ul><li>ABC Type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mono-Ammonium Phosphate </li></ul></ul>
  23. 38. Properties of Dry Chemical <ul><li>BC Type (Alkaline Base) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potassium Bicarbonate (Purple K) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium Bicarbonate </li></ul></ul>
  24. 39. Dry Chemical Extinguishers
  25. 40. Information About Mono-Ammonium Phosphate <ul><li>Yellow crystal and odourless. </li></ul><ul><li>pH 4.5 of 1% solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposes if heated above 121 o C. Ammonia, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen are produced. </li></ul><ul><li>At high dust concentrations, irritation of eyes, skin and mucus membranes by chemical or mechanical action may occur. </li></ul>
  26. 41. Information About Purple K <ul><li>Purple crystal and odourless. </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposes if heated above 100 o C, carbon dioxide and potassium oxide produced. </li></ul><ul><li>At high dust concentrations, irritation of eyes, skin and mucus membranes by chemical or mechanical action may occur. </li></ul>
  27. 42. Information About Sodium Bicarbonate <ul><li>White crystal and colourless. </li></ul><ul><li>Gaseous carbon dioxide produced when raised to 87 o C. Will result in irritation to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. </li></ul><ul><li>Overexposure: Doses over 5 g/kg body weight can cause alkalosis and expansion in extracellular fluid volume and edema. </li></ul>
  28. 43. Operating Instruction
  29. 44. Safety Pin and Tie
  30. 45. Secured & Unsecured Handle
  31. 46. Sequence of Operation
  32. 47. Safety Considerations <ul><li>Use a fire extinguisher after warning the Captain and other flight attendants. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep calm. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep a safe distance from the fire – at least 10 feet. </li></ul><ul><li>Operate the extinguisher by P.A.S.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Always keep an eye on the fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not turn your back on the fire even after putting out the fire. </li></ul>
  33. 48. Remember the PASS word <ul><li>Respond quickly and stand about 10 feet away from the fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow the four-step procedure: P ull, A im, S queeze and S weep. </li></ul>
  34. 49. Pull Pin
  35. 50. Aim At Base of Fire
  36. 51. Squeeze Handle
  37. 52. Sweep Across Fuel Surface
  38. 53. Cargo Compartments <ul><li>Cargo compartments shall have a water-based extinguisher(s) with a minimum rating of 2-A. </li></ul>
  39. 54. Occupied Spaces On Aircraft <ul><li>Halon 1211 extinguishers shall be not less than 2 1/2-lb (1.2-kg) capacity nor more than 5-lb (2.3-kg) capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>A minimum rating of 5-B:C </li></ul><ul><li>Not less than an 8-second effective discharge time </li></ul><ul><li>Not less than a 10-ft (3-m) liquid range </li></ul><ul><li>Equipped with a discharge hose. </li></ul>
  40. 57. Carbon Dioxide Extinguisher <ul><li>For occupied spaces on aircraft, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) extinguishers shall not be used. </li></ul>
  41. 58. Dry Chemical Extinguishers <ul><li>For occupied spaces on aircraft, dry chemical extinguishers shall not be used. </li></ul>
  42. 59. Other Extinguishing Agents <ul><li>Hand portable fire extinguishers carrying non-halogenated-type agents that were developed to replace halon shall be listed and labeled. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Montreal Protocal – Elimination of Zone Depleting Substances. </li></ul>
  43. 61. Personal Breathing Equipment (PBE) <ul><li>The PBE shall be provided within 3 ft (0.9 m) laterally of all hand portable fire extinguishers. </li></ul>
  44. 62. Aircraft w/ 31-60 Passengers Each Galley 1 Halon 1211 Cabin 1 Water & 1 Halon 1211 Flight Deck 1 Halon 1301 or 1211 Location Number and Extinguisher Type
  45. 63. Aircraft w/ 276-400 Passengers Each Galley 1 Halon 1211 Cabin 4 Water and 4 Halon 1211 Flight Deck 1 Halon 1301 or 1211 Location Number and Type of Extinguisher
  46. 64. Distribution of Extinguishers <ul><li>Hand portable fire extinguishers shall be placed adjacent to the entrance door of the passenger deck (cargo compartment) </li></ul><ul><li>and adjacent to the rear exit door of the aircraft. </li></ul>
  47. 65. Flight Crew Training <ul><li>Annual instruction on location </li></ul><ul><li>And use of hand portable fire extinguishers on the aircraft for which flight crew members will be qualified shall be provided. </li></ul>
  48. 66. Training Outline <ul><li>(1) Classroom instruction </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Practical use of hand portable fire extinguishers </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Extinguishment of a hot fire </li></ul><ul><li>(4) Movement in a smoke-filled environment </li></ul><ul><li>(5) Wearing of personal breathing equipment, within a replica of an aircraft cabin environment. </li></ul>
  49. 67. Classroom Training <ul><li>(1) Chemistry of fire and fire extinguishment </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Severity potential of aircraft fires </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Types of combustibles available in aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>(4) Identification and choice of proper extinguisher </li></ul>
  50. 68. Classroom Training <ul><li>(5) Consequences of misapplication of extinguishers </li></ul><ul><li>(6) Relative effectiveness of extinguishers </li></ul><ul><li>(7) Inspection requirements </li></ul><ul><li>(8) Health and operational safety concerns </li></ul>
  51. 69. Practical Smoke Training <ul><li>On aircraft types in which it is provided, training shall be given on the use of appropriate personal breathing equipment (PBE) </li></ul><ul><li>when using an extinguisher in a simulated smoke-filled environment. </li></ul>
  52. 71. Manipulative Skills Training <ul><li>Training shall be administered to flight crews sufficient to have each crew member demonstrate </li></ul><ul><li>operation and use of hand portable extinguishers. </li></ul>
  53. 72. <ul><li>Training shall be representative of an interior aircraft fire, using the relevant type of hand portable fire extinguishers carried on the aircraft. </li></ul>
  54. 73. <ul><li>Each flight crew member shall demonstrate the knowledge and skill required to select the appropriate hand portable fire extinguisher for various fire scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>and to properly apply the agent. </li></ul>
  55. 74. Training Fire Scenarios <ul><li>Fire scenarios shall include galley, lavatory or closed compartment, flight deck, open cabins, </li></ul><ul><li>And flammable liquid fires. </li></ul>
  56. 84. Thank You and Good Luck