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Music in the 20th Century

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Music in the 20th Century. The basics.

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Music in the 20th Century

  1. 1. MUSIC AS AN ART IN THE 21 ST CENTURY
  2. 2. Musical Movements <ul><li>Romantic </li></ul><ul><li>Impressionism </li></ul><ul><li>Expressionism </li></ul><ul><li>Neoclassicism </li></ul><ul><li>Aleatory Music </li></ul>
  3. 3. Romantic <ul><li>Ended about 1910 </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to make pieces more passionate and expressive </li></ul><ul><li>Experimented with remote keys and modulation </li></ul><ul><li>Dissonance became a primary element </li></ul><ul><li>Claude Debussy </li></ul>
  4. 4. Impressionism <ul><li>Vague in form </li></ul><ul><li>Delicate in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Had a mysterious atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestion </li></ul><ul><li>Moved away from the Romantic movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Claude Debussy </li></ul>
  5. 5. Expressionism <ul><li>Atonal and dissonant. </li></ul><ul><li>German movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Moved away from French impressionism. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional, romantic feeling. </li></ul><ul><li>Arnold Schoenberg </li></ul>
  6. 6. Neo-Classicism <ul><li>Incorporated music of the Classical era. </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed with Renaissance, Baroque, and modern trends as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Sought to re-evaluate the old ways of music. </li></ul><ul><li>Igor Stravinsky and Aaron Copland </li></ul>
  7. 7. Aleatory Music <ul><li>Aleatory = elements of chance. </li></ul><ul><li>Improvisation, randomness. </li></ul><ul><li>No rules. The stranger, the more unique. </li></ul><ul><li>Famous for having the audience improvise along with the performer. </li></ul><ul><li>Jazz as a classic form of aleatory music. </li></ul><ul><li>John Cage Charles Ives </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Composers who defied paradigms of their time. Pushed music beyond the expectations. More than auditory art. </li></ul>What is Music?
  9. 9. Claude Debussy <ul><li>Lived from1862-1918. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most prominent figures in the Impressionist music movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by Bayreuth and Javanese music. </li></ul><ul><li>Music revolved around one key or pitch. </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on Romantic music throughout his life. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I am sure the institute would not approve, for naturally, it regard the path which it ordains as the only right one. But there is no help for it! I am too enamoured of my freedom, too fond of my own ideas.” – Claude Debussy </li></ul>
  10. 10. Debussy <ul><li>Clair De Lune </li></ul>
  11. 11. Arnold Schoenberg <ul><li>Lived 1874-1951. </li></ul><ul><li>Began composing at age 8 w/o formal training </li></ul><ul><li>Founded the Society for Private Musical Performances in 1920. </li></ul><ul><li>Forced to leave Berlin, as a Jew </li></ul><ul><li>Taught music at UCLA. </li></ul><ul><li>Returned to expressionism, and wrote religious choruses in 1945. </li></ul><ul><li>Friends with Kandinsky who was an abstract expressionist </li></ul>
  12. 12. Igor Stravinsky <ul><li>Lived 1882-1971. </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by French Impressionists (ex. Debussy, Maurice Ravel.) </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed clean orchestral music with bright instrumentation and irregular rhythms. </li></ul><ul><li>Firebird’s Infernal Dance of the King Katschei. </li></ul><ul><li>Music was constantly evolving. </li></ul><ul><li>Most famous: Rite of Spring . </li></ul><ul><li>Neoclassical. </li></ul>
  13. 13. John Cage <ul><li>Lived 1912-1992. </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote aleatoric music. </li></ul><ul><li>Had an underlying desire to create. </li></ul><ul><li>Replaced harmony as the basis of his music with rhythm. </li></ul><ul><li>Experienced silence as an aspect of music. Thus his most infamous piece, 4’3’’ was born. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Until I die there will be sounds. And they will continue after my death. One need not fear about the future of music.” –John Cage </li></ul>
  14. 14. John Cage Music <ul><li>4’33’’ </li></ul><ul><li>Imaginary Landscape #4 </li></ul><ul><li>Suite for Toy Piano </li></ul>
  15. 15. Charles Edward Ives <ul><li>Lived 1874-1954. </li></ul><ul><li>Considered greatest American musician. </li></ul><ul><li>Understood the value of vernacular music. </li></ul><ul><li>Combined American and European elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Music represented as a symbol of human life. </li></ul><ul><li>Was never accepted by other musicians. </li></ul><ul><li>“ What has sound got to do with music!” –Charles Ives </li></ul>

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