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# Univariate Data

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### Univariate Data

1. 1. Univariate Data <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>What are categorical and numerical data? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a bar chart and when is it used? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a histogram and when is it used? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a stem-and-leaf plot and when is it used? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the mean, median, range, interquartile range, variance and standard deviation? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the properties of these summary statistics and when is each used? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we construct and interpret boxplots? </li></ul>
2. 2. Types of Data <ul><li>What question might have generated this data? </li></ul><ul><li>Red, Black, Blue, Red, Grey, Pink, Blue, Green </li></ul><ul><li>4, 1, 0, 2, 2, 1, 5, 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, Yes, No, Maybe, Yes, Maybe </li></ul><ul><li>56, 60, 49, 50, 53, 63 </li></ul><ul><li>12.4, 13.1, 10.6, 15.0, 11.9 </li></ul>
3. 3. Types of Data <ul><li>We can classify data as being either: </li></ul><ul><li>Numerical </li></ul><ul><li>Categorical </li></ul>
4. 4. Types of Data <ul><li>We can classify data as being either: </li></ul><ul><li>Numerical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discrete – can be counted, e.g. number of pets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous – can be measured, e.g. height, time etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Categorical </li></ul>
5. 5. Your task <ul><li>In pairs or groups of 3, you will create a podcast to explain types of data. </li></ul><ul><li>You will need to take photos using your phone and upload them to your computer. Use as many examples as you can find around the school site. </li></ul><ul><li>Use iMovie to create your podcast. </li></ul><ul><li>Once finished, transfer your podcast to your teacher’s computer via USB stick. </li></ul><ul><li>Your podcast must be finished by the end of next lesson. </li></ul>
6. 6. Frequency tables <ul><li>Can be used to organise data. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people were asked ‘How many siblings do you have?’ </li></ul><ul><li>The results were 3,2,3,4,1,2,0,1,1,1,4,0,2 </li></ul><ul><li>This can be better displayed as: </li></ul>Number of siblings Frequency 0 1 2 3 4
7. 7. Frequency tables <ul><li>Can be used to organise data. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people were asked ‘How many siblings do you have?’ </li></ul><ul><li>The results were 3,2,3,4,1,2,0,1,1,1,4,0,2 </li></ul><ul><li>This can be better displayed as: </li></ul>Number of siblings Frequency 0 2 1 4 2 3 3 2 4 2
8. 8. Frequency tables <ul><li>Some people were asked ‘What did you have for breakfast?’ </li></ul><ul><li>The results were ‘cereal, toast, nothing, cereal, bacon and eggs, toast, nothing, nothing, toast’ </li></ul><ul><li>This can be better displayed as: </li></ul>Breakfast Frequency cereal toast nothing bacon and eggs
9. 9. Frequency tables <ul><li>Some people were asked ‘What did you have for breakfast?’ </li></ul><ul><li>The results were ‘cereal, toast, nothing, cereal, bacon and eggs, toast, nothing, nothing, toast’ </li></ul><ul><li>This can be better displayed as: </li></ul>Breakfast Frequency cereal 2 toast 3 nothing 3 bacon and eggs 1
10. 10. Frequency tables <ul><li>Some people were asked ‘How old are you?’ </li></ul><ul><li>The results were ’11, 31, 57, 48, 17, 18, 50, 36’ </li></ul><ul><li>This can be better displayed as: </li></ul>Age Frequency 11 1 12 0 13 0 14 0 15 0 16 0 17 1 18 1 19 0 20 0 21 0
11. 11. Frequency tables <ul><li>Some people were asked ‘How old are you?’ </li></ul><ul><li>The results were ’11, 31, 57, 48, 17, 18, 50, 36’ </li></ul><ul><li>This can be better displayed as: </li></ul>Age Frequency 10-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59
12. 12. Frequency tables <ul><li>Some people were asked ‘How old are you?’ </li></ul><ul><li>The results were ’11, 31, 57, 48, 17, 18, 50, 36’ </li></ul><ul><li>This can be better displayed as: </li></ul>Age Frequency 10-19 3 20-29 0 30-39 2 40-49 1 50-59 2
13. 13. Frequency tables <ul><li>This is called a grouped frequency table. </li></ul><ul><li>We group our age ranges to suit our data. </li></ul><ul><li>These groups are called class intervals . </li></ul>Age Frequency 10-19 3 20-29 0 30-39 2 40-49 1 50-59 2
14. 14. Frequency tables <ul><li>What if people were asked to give their date of birth to the nearest day? E.g. 19 years and 163 days </li></ul><ul><li>For continuous data, we need to be specific. </li></ul>Age Frequency 10-19 3 20-29 0 30-39 2 40-49 1 50-59 2
15. 15. Frequency tables <ul><li>What if people were asked to give their date of birth to the nearest day? E.g. 19 years and 163 days </li></ul><ul><li>For continuous data, we need to be specific. </li></ul>Age Frequency 10<20 3 20<30 0 30<40 2 40<50 1 50<60 2
16. 16. Frequency tables Click on the link below to access the current rainfall data for this month in Melbourne. http://www.melbournewater.com.au/content/water_storages/water_report/rainfall_data.asp?bhcp=1 Copy just the rainfall data in the second column and paste it into Excel. Sort the data into order. Choose appropriate class intervals and create a Grouped Frequency Table in Excel. Give your table a title which explains what the table shows. Save your file in your Maths folder. Rainfall (mm) Frequency
17. 17. Frequency tables