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  1. 1. Chapter 2 Theories of Personality Jan. 30, 2014
  2. 2. Theories of Personality, cont. January 30, 2014
  3. 3. Anticipating considerations of privilege, prejudice and stereotypes Be mindful of indices of PERSONALITY-ISMS e.g. “personality dysmorphic disorder”
  4. 4. Personality-ism • The preference of one personality type over another • American (Western) Cultural Preference for: >Leadership >Competitiveness >Extroversion >Dominance
  5. 5. Impetus behind empirical study of personality People respond in different ways to the same stimuli or events.
  6. 6. The Scary Mouse • Can response to prank reveal anything about personality?
  7. 7. 1. Eysenck’s Theory • Eysenck viewed personality as a “hierarchy of traits” (see Figure 2.19). • He placed special emphasis on biological differences that occur along the extraversion-introversion dimension. • Introverts have higher levels of physiological arousal, causing them to avoid overly stimulating social situations. • Extroverts have lower baseline levels of arousal and, thus, seek stimulation from social situations.
  8. 8. Biological Basis of Extroversion/Introversion ARAS system: • Ascending Reticular Activation System • Cortical excitation & inhibition High ARAS arousal: • Predisposes to introversion Low ARAS arousal: • Predisposes to extroversion
  9. 9. Extroverts: Normal & Neurotic Sanguine Normal Extrovert • Low ARAS arousal • Low visceral brain activity Choleric Neurotic Extrovert • Low ARAS arousal • High visceral brain activity
  10. 10. Introverts: Normal & Neurotic Phlegmatic Normal Introvert • High ARAS arousal • Low visceral brain activity Melancholic Neurotic Introvert • High ARAS arousal • High visceral brain activity
  11. 11. Carl Jung (1875-1961) • ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY
  12. 12. Information • • • • • • • • Introvert Energized during alone time Extrovert Energized during social time Intuitive-Gathers info from introspection Sensing-Gathers info from senses Feeling-Operates on info empathetically Thinking-Operates on info by logic Perceiver-Organize life spontaneously Judging-Organize life deliberately
  13. 13. Norms • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Breakdown by Type ISTJ M - 16.4% F - 6.9%T - 11.6% ISFJ M - 8.1% F - 19.4%T - 13.8% INFJ M - 1.3% F - 1.6%T - 1.46% INTJ M - 3.3% F - 0.8%T - 2.1% ISTP M - 8.5% F - 2.4%T - 5.4% ISFP M - 7.6% F - 9.9%T - 8.8% INFP M - 4.1% F - 4.6T - 4.4% INTP M - 4.8% F - 1.8%T - 3.3% ESTP M - 5.6% F - 3.0%T - 4.3% ESFP M - 6.9% F - 10.1%T - 8.5% ENFP M - 6.4% F - 9.7%T - 8.1% ENTP M - 4.0% F - 2.4%T - 3.2% ESTJ M - 11.2% F - 6.3%T - 8.7% ESFJ M - 7.5% F - 16.9%T - 12.3% ENFJ M - 1.6% F - 3.3%T - 2.5% ENTJ M - 2.7% F - 0.9%T - 1.8%
  14. 14. Introverts & Extrovert Equality
  15. 15. Psychodynamic • Psychodynamic theories include a variety of theoretical models derived from the work of Sigmund Freud. • All focus on unconscious mental forces that shape our personalities. • Well-known psychodynamic theorists – Freud – Jung – Adler – Erikson
  16. 16. Freud: The Sex Shrink 1. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory of personality is somewhat controversial and is based on three main assumptions 1. Personality is governed by unconscious forces that we cannot control. 2. Childhood experiences play a significant role in determining adult personality. 3. Personality is shaped by the manner in which children cope with sexual urges.
  17. 17. Freud • The id, ego and superego are distributed across three layers of awareness 1. The conscious – “material we are fully aware of at a particular time”. 2. The preconscious – “material just below the surface of awareness”. 3. The unconscious – “material well below the surface of conscious awareness, but that greatly influences behavior” (see Figure 2.2).
  18. 18. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory • Freud argued that personality is divided into three structures 1. The id is “ the primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle”. 2. The ego is “the decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle”. 3. The superego is “the moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong”.
  19. 19. Figure 2.2 Freud’s model of personality structure. Freud theorized that we have three levels of awareness: the conscious, the preconscious, and the unconscious. To dramatize the size of the unconscious, it has often been compared to the portion of an iceberg that lies beneath the water’s surface. Freud also divided personality structure into three components—id, ego, and superego—that operate according to different principles and exhibit different modes of thinking. In Freud’s model, the id is entirely unconscious, but the ego and superego operate at all three levels of awareness.
  20. 20. Freud • Freud believed that behavior is the result of ongoing internal conflict among the id, ego, and superego. • Conflicts stemming from sexual and aggressive urges are especially significant. • Such conflicts arouse anxiety, so we use defense mechanisms – “largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from painful emotions such as anxiety and guilt”.
  21. 21. Freud • Personality development – Freud believed that the basic elements of adult personality are in place by age five and result from the outcome of five psychosexual stages (see Figure 2.6). – In each stage, children must cope with distinct immature sexual urges that influence adult personality. – Fixation results if the child fails to move forward from one stage to another and is usually caused by excessive gratification, or frustration of needs at a particular stage.
  22. 22. Figure 2.6 Freud’s stages of psychosexual development. Freud theorized that people evolve through the series of psychosexual stages summarized here. The manner in which certain key tasks and experiences are handled during each stage is thought to leave a lasting imprint on one’s adult personality.
  23. 23. Adler 3. Adler’s Individual Psychology • Adler believed that the most important human drive is not sexuality, but our drive for superiority. • Adler stated that we use compensation “efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing one’s abilities”. • If we are unsuccessful, we may develop an inferiority complex – “exaggerated feelings of weakness and inadequacy”. • Adler also believed that birth order may contribute to personality.
  24. 24. Ego Defense Mechanisms • Largely unconscious and protects from painful emotions like anxiety/guilt/shame. 1. Rationalization 2. Repression 3. Projection 4. Displacement 5. Reaction Formation 6. Regression 7. Identification 8. Sublimation
  25. 25. • Psychodynamic theory has also been criticized 1. Poor testability – it is too vague to subject to scientific tests. 2. Inadequate evidence – the theories depend too much on case studies of clients whose recollections may have been distorted to fit the theory. 3. Sexism – the theories have a male-oriented bias and do not adequately address women’s issues.
  26. 26. 1. Rogers’s Person-Centered Theory – Personality contains only one construct, the self, or self-concept – “a collection of beliefs about one’s own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior”. – If our ideas about ourselves match our actual experiences, our self-concept is congruent with reality. – However, if our ideas about ourselves do not match reality, this disparity is called incongruence, which undermines our well-being (see Figure 2.13).
  27. 27. 2. Maslow’s Theory of Self-Actualization – Human motives are organized into a hierarchy of needs – “a systematic arrangement of needs, according to priority, in which basic needs must be met before less basic needs are aroused” (see Figure 2.15). – Humans have an innate drive toward personal growth and the greatest need is the need for self-actualization – the fulfillment of one’s potential.
  28. 28. Figure 2.15 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. According to Maslow, human needs are arranged in a hierarchy, and individuals must satisfy their basic needs first, before they progress to higher needs. In the diagram, higher levels in the pyramid represent progressively less basic needs. People progress upward in the hierarchy when lower needs are satisfied reasonably well, but they may regress back to lower levels if basic needs cease to be satisfied.
  29. 29. • Maslow called people with extremely healthy personalities “self-actualizing persons”. • They have demonstrated significant personal growth and tend to share certain ideal characteristics, listed in Figure 2.16.
  30. 30. Video: Narcissistic Personality Disorder Movie:The Social Network (Mark Zucherberg-Facebook founder)
  31. 31. Learning theories: behaviorists believed personality = collection of learned behavioral responses tendencies
  32. 32. Learning theories Learning theories – • classical conditioning • operant conditioning • observational learning /social learning theory
  33. 33. • behavioral theorists: personality = collection of response tendencies that are tied to various stimulus situations • peoples’ response tendencies or learning are shaped by 1. classical conditioning (Pavlov) 2. operant conditioning (Skinner) 3. observational learning (Bandura)
  34. 34. UCS NS UCRunlearned reaction
  35. 35. Pavlov’s dog
  36. 36. John Watson: Classical Conditioning Loud noise Startle response Conditioned response Conditioned stimulus
  37. 37. John Watson and Little Albert: BEHAVIORISM Movie clip =Xt0ucxOrPQE
  38. 38. John Watson: 1920
  39. 39. Real life examples of classical conditioning
  40. 40. UCR UCS Phobia about buildings CS (NS) CR
  41. 41. Extinction use classical conditioning: continued exposure to conditioned stimulus without terrifying results eventually results in extinction of the conditioned response Example: keep approaching tall buildings and learn that explosions don’t happen
  42. 42. Operant conditioning • B.F. Skinner = operants or responses that increase or decrease the likelihood of behavior repetition. • Behaviors are controlled by CONSEQUENCES 1. + reinforcers increase behavior: behavior is rewarded by pleasantness 2. - reinforcers increase behavior: behavior is rewarded by getting rid of unpleasantness 3. punishers decrease behavior
  43. 43. Operant conditioning A behavior results in a pleasant experience A behavior results in an unpleasant or aversive experience stopping
  44. 44. Operant conditioning Which will increase whining behavior after a parent has said “no”: • Punishing it or negatively reinforcing it? • PUNISH: If a child whines after a parent repeatedly says “no” and has to go to his or her room(unpleasant) he or she is punished – • NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT: If a child whines to get what he wants and the parent gives in after saying “no” because the whining continues– continued whining gets rid of the unpleasant “no” and negative reinforcement has taken place
  45. 45. use social learning: Bandura’s (1977-2004) observational learning/ social learning theory • disagreed with Pavlov and Skinner because they did not allow for indirect or learning from modeled behavior • need to go beyond observable behavior to include internal mental processes memory and cognition important
  46. 46. Observational learning/social learning theory in action • 4lP18&