World History


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World History

  1. 1. The origins of Mankind Humans as primates  According to the theory of evolution:  Humans belong to the primate order:  Lemurs  Tarsiers  Monkeys  Apes
  2. 2. Tarsiers
  3. 3. Development of Genus “Homo” Australopithecus africanuss  Earliest ground –dwelling ape; discovered in South Africa 1924
  4. 4. Homo Habilis  Louis S. B Leakey found 1.75 million –year-old fossil 1964 at Olduvai Gorge  Creature walked erect, had well-developed thumb, probably used tools
  5. 5. Homo ergaster Used fire, standardized tools emerged 1.8 million years ago in Africa, migrated to Near East, Asia, Europe Mitochondrial DNA spread to Near East, Europe.
  6. 6. Neanderthal Man Discovered in Neander Valley in Germany in 1857 adopted to cold climates , 40,ooo - 200, 000 years ago used fire, made stone- tipped spears, lived in caves, stone shelters
  7. 7. Homo sapiens Developed 150, 000 years ago scientists debate whether Homo sapiens originated in Africa and spread to other continents
  8. 8. Mesopotamia: The First Civilization  Not all historians agree on how to define civilization/most agree on the following:  A degree of complexity  Sustains specialists to deal with political, social, religious needs  Has system of writing  Produces monumental, permanent architecture  Produces art that reflects people and their actives
  9. 9. Writing, political, art work, religious, monumental buildings  All these characteracteristics  Of civilization first appeared together in the southern part of Mesopotamia, which came to be called Sumer
  10. 10. Agricultural revolution  Spread into Fertile Crescent by 6000 B. C. E .  Great agricultural output from yearly floods of Tigris and Euphrates Rivers 
  11. 11.  The protoliterate Period in Sumer, 3200-2800 B.C.E  By 3100 B.C.E Sumerians lived in cities, with writing  Sumerians’ origins unknown, spoke non-Semitic, non-Indo- European language  Strong food –producing sector supported cities  Specialized labor, commerce, writers, business, government records, 60 –based counting system
  12. 12.  Sumerian traits seen in Nile, Indus Valley  Sumerians developed cuneiform of writing system  System spread through Near East  Middle East: The area around the eastern Mediterranean; from Turkey to northern Africa and eastward to Iran; the site of such ancient civilizations as Phoenicia and Babylon and Egypt and the birthplace of Judaism and Christianity and Islam; had continuous economic and political turmoil in the
  13. 13. The old Sumerian period  2800 -2300 B.CE.  Characterized by constant city-state wars  Theocratic cities saw local gods as sovereign  High priests (ensis) dominated cities  Abuses of priests led to the rise of kings (lugals) with popular support
  14. 14. The akkadian Period  2300 -2150 B.C.E  Dominated by Semites  Sargon I’s power went from Persian Gulf to Mediterranean Sea  Based policies around lower, merchant classes  Akkad conquered by northern, semi-barbaric invaders
  15. 15. The New Sumerian Period Ur destroyed by Elamites from Iran  2100 -2000 B.CE.  Third dynasty of Ur centralized rule over region  Strict control through government bureaucrats  Religion became arm of state, state appointed high priests  Law code of Er-Nammu showed concerned that rich would not take advantage of poor
  16. 16. Babylonian Empire Political structure 200 -1600 B. C.E  Semitic Amorites ruled Mesopotamia  Hammurabi, great ruler most outstanding king, known for law code  State controlled all aspects of economy  Comprehensive protection for women  Punishment determined by social class
  17. 17. Hammurabi codes or laws  Laws covering a wide variety of topics: property disputes, adultery, slavery, prostitution, inheritance, public order  These laws date back to Sumerian codes 1400 years before Hammurabi’s time  Hammurabi's codes or Laws based on eye for an eye tooth for tooth principle
  18. 18. Hammurabi
  19. 19. Hammurabi’s Code
  20. 20. Mathematics and Babylon  Built on work of Sumerians  Advances in:  Arithmetic  Geometry  Algebra—reunion of broken parts  For ease in working with:  Whole numbers  Fractions 
  21. 21. Mathematics and Babylon  Compiled tables for multiplication  Division  Square and cube roots  Babylonians knew how to solve: linear and quadratic equations  Babylonian knowledge of geometry: included the theorem later formulated by Greek philosopher
  22. 22. Linear Equation
  23. 23. Egypt: Gift of the Nile  Called Gift of the Nile by Greek historian Herodotus  The Nile stretches for 4100 miles
  24. 24. Nile River longest in world ends up into Mediterranean Sea
  25. 25. River Nile
  26. 26. Predynastic Egypt  The first settlers were likely:  People who moved to river valley as climatic changes transformed the savanna grasslands west of the Nile into desert  By 4800 B.C.E  Recognizing the advantages of creating larger social groupings and need to cushion themselves from impact of droughts, floods, and plagues,  Farming communities started banding together to form regional chiefdoms in Lower Egypt
  27. 27. Predynastic Egypt  Kingdom emerged in Upper Egypt  While Lower Egypt was divided into a number of districts  Predynastic Period ended: Soon after 3100B.C.E)  King Menes united Upper Egypt and gradually incorporating Lower Egypt into a new kingdom with its capital at Memphis this has become known as the First Dynasty and marks the beginning of the longest –lasting civilizations in history: 3000 years
  28. 28. Egyptian Religion  Religion played central role in everyday life of Egyptians:  Attributed everything from annual cycles of the flooding of Nile and illnesses to acts of gods  Egyptians had pantheon of hundreds of gods and goddesses
  29. 29. Egyptian Religion  Male gods:  Represent rulers, creators, insurers of fertility  Female goddesses assumed roles as: nurturers, magicians, and sexual temptresses
  30. 30. Egyptian sacrifices  Egyptians made sacrifices and prayed to household gods:  Protection for family health and well-being  Worship deities on a local and regional basis  Egypt’s most popular cult was devoted to Osiris fertility god of the Nile  Death and resurrection symbolized the planting of grain and its sprouting  Only soul free of sin gained eternal life
  31. 31. Egyptian Society and Economy  Egyptian society was highly stratified:  Most Egyptian poor peasants  Subject to forced labor, they had to paid taxes to land owners ----pharaoh, wealthy landowners  Class distinctions were not rigid: People rise to higher rank in service of pharaoh by joining the tiny literate elite
  32. 32. Egyptian Society  Pupils –usually boys –attended scribal school for many years at temples –they learned to read and write hieratic script –cursive form of hieroglyphics  They also learned advanced skills in mathematics and building techniques  Students copied hieroglyphic signs with reed pens on limestone chips or clay tablets
  33. 33. Scribes  Scribes were in high demand by state for many tasks:  Writing letters, recording harvests  Keeping taxesation records,  Keeping accounts for Egyptian army  Most scholarly scribes assumed positions as:  Priests, doctors, and engineers  Scribes enjoyed secured positions and were free from labor service
  34. 34. Egyptian women  Compared to Greek and Romans:  Egyptian women enjoyed more rights  However, their status at all levels of society was generally lower than that of men  Few women could qualified as scribes
  35. 35. Egyptian women  Women served as temple priestess  Musicians  Gardeners  Farmers  bakers  wives and mothers of pharaohs:  Had great influence in royal courts
  36. 36. Egyptian women  Business and legal documents: show that women shared economic and legal rights of men:  Rights to own, buy, sell, and inherit property without reliance on male legal guardians; to negotiate legal settlements;  To engage in business deals; make wills; initiate litigation and testify in court P,(21)
  37. 37. Egyptian women  In a divorce:  A woman kept any property she brought into a marriage  As well as one-third of a couple’s property
  38. 38. Egyptian monumental architecture  Egyptians have been called the greatest builders in history:  Enduring tombs and temples  Mastaba -Earliest brick tomb –inspired the pyramids the  Resemblance to a low bench
  39. 39. Father of architecture in stone :”Imhotep”
  40. 40. Most celebrated of pyramids were built Fourth Dynasty  Khufu’s pyramid –covers 13 acres rose to 481 feet  Tallest structure in the world until the Eiffel Tower was erected in Paris in 1889  Composed of 2.3 million limestone bricks some weighing 15 tons  All pushed in place by men
  41. 41. Most celebrated of pyramids were built Fourth Dynasty  Yet stones perfectly fitted that a knife cannot be inserted in the joints  The Old Kingdom’s 80 pyramids are a striking expression of Egyptian civilization
  42. 42. Khufu Pyramid 481 feet
  43. 43. (984 ft tall)
  44. 44. The Old Kingdom produced ……  World’s first known solar calendar direct ancestor of our own:  AKHET (the time of flooding) June 15 - October 15  PERET (the time of sowing) October 15 - February 15  SHEMU (the time of harvest) February 15 - June 15
  45. 45. Sculpture and Painting  Egyptian art was essentially religious:  Tomb paintings depicted activities deceased wished to continue enjoying in after life  Statues glorify god-kings  Egyptian art seldom departed from the classical tradition  Human figure is shown in profile or looking ahead
  46. 46. American Calendar  Egyptian Calendar  Days per week: 10 days  Three weeks per month  Seasons per year  Three  Days per week 7  Four to five weeks per month  Seasons per year  Four
  47. 47. Book of the Dead
  48. 48. Writing and Literature Texts  In Egypt as in Sumer or Mesopotamia: Writing began with pictures  But unlike the Mesopotamian signs, the Egyptians hieroglyphics remained primarily pictorial  Early in the Old Kingdom, Egyptians took steps in using alphabetical characters for 24 consonant sounds
  49. 49. Egyptian picture Alphabet Influenced Phoenician Alphabet …..forerunner of our own
  50. 50. Mesopotamian Successors to Babylon,  Babylonian Empire came to an end in 1595 B.C.E, Probably because of sacking Babylon by the Hittites, followed by invasions of peoples from the east known as Kassites  Controlled Babylonia for 400 years
  51. 51. The Hittites  In 18th Cen. B.C.E  Began migrating to Asia Minor (Turkey)  Established Kingdom 1400 B.C.E  Became greatest to Egyptian Civilization  Little was known about Hittites until archeological discovery
  52. 52. The Hittites  Archaeologists unearthed remains of their civilization in Turkey beginning of the 20th cen.  the Hittites superior military tactics, in particular their mastery of horse –drawn chariot warfare enabled them to conquer the native people of central Asia Minor
  53. 53. Hittite kings  Early Hittite Kingdom had aggressive monarchs who were frequently at odds with their nobles and struggled to establish an orderly succession to thrown  As a result the early effectiveness of Hittite monarchy was severely limited by patterns of constant internal strife
  54. 54. Hittite kings  1450 B.C.E series of energetic kings succeeded in limiting the independence of their nobles and created centralized empire that included Syria and northern Palestine which had been left virtually undefended by Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaton  Ramses II attempted to hold off the Hittites but lost, Ramses was forced to sign treaty
  55. 55. Hittite civilization  Reflected traditions of Indo- European origins rather than government patterns set by Mesopotamia and Egypt  The king was thought to be greatest of nobles, but not living god or even god’s representative on earth  Hittites nobles held large estates granted to them by king in return for serving as warriors for kings
  56. 56. Hittite civilization  Hittites adopted Mesopotamian cuneiform script in order to write their Indo-European language  Hittites incorporated Mesopotamian culture that they found appealing: Sumerian and Mesopotamian literature were preserved  Mesopotamian gods and goddesses were honored with temples  These gods and goddesses were honored on equal footing with traditional Hittite gods  Law codes showed similarity to Hammurabi's code ---differed in prescribing more humane punishments, Hittites excluded (An Eye for an Eye)
  57. 57. Hittite civilization  The Hittites left their mark on later people of the region:  Metal working  Not especially innovative in formulation of :  Law, literature, art, they borrowed extensively
  58. 58. Ancient Iraq
  59. 59. American Soldier In Iraq/Mesopotamia
  60. 60. The Hebrew Kingdoms  Out of the Hebrew cultural experience grew two of the world’s major religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam  Much of that experience is recorded in the Hebrew Bible  The Hebrews believed that their collection of literature was divinely inspired
  61. 61. History of the Hebrews  The biblical account of Hebrew history (Later called Israelites, then Jews) begins with the patriarchal leader named Abraham  Abraham led his family out of Ur in Sumer  Led his family to northwestern Mesopotamia
  62. 62. History of the Hebrews  Abraham and his followers remained nomadic  The bible records that Abraham also led his family to Egypt and back again to the to the north (Mesopotamia)
  63. 63. History of the Hebrews  The bible declares: 1550 b.c.e  Some Hebrews followed Abraham’s great-grandson Joseph into Egypt to secure food because of famine (1550)  Joseph rose to power in Egypt  Hebrews enslaved in Egypt freed by Moses (1300 B.C.E)
  64. 64. History of the Hebrews  After Egyptian Slavery  Children of Israel wondered for 40 years in sight of land promised to them by God  Contended with the Canaanites who migrated from Arabia in third millennium b.c.e  Israelites formed confederacy of 12 tribes and in time defeated the Canaanites
  65. 65. History of the Hebrews  Leadership of the Israelites: Judges: Men and women among the 12 tribes  As the Israelites contested the Canaanites for dominance, a greater opponent appeared: The Philistines, Sea peoples  Name Palestine came from Philistines (1175)b.c.e
  66. 66. History of the Hebrews  Saul was chosen king  Was not able to defeat philistines  David was victorious in defeating them  Saul’s successor David (1000- 961)  David Succeeded by son Solomon (961-922)  Israel reached splendor and power as a monarchy
  67. 67. History of the Hebrews  But the price of Solomon’s vast bureaucracy, building projects (especially the palace complex and temple at Jerusalem (700 wives and 300 concubines) led to dissentions  At the death of Solomon kingdom split in two: Israel in the North and Judah in the south
  68. 68. History of the Hebrews  These two weak kingdoms were not able to defend itself  In 722 b.c.e the Assyrians captured Samaria, the capital of northern kingdom  The southern kingdom held out until 586 b.c.e Nebuchadnezzar, the Chaldean ruler of Babylon, destroyed Jerusalem brought large numbers of Israelites
  69. 69. History of the Hebrews  In 538 b.c.e, Cyrus the Great , king of Persia, conquered Babylon then freed the Israelites  The returning exiles completed the reconstruction of the Temple destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar  The Persians were defeated by the Greece
  70. 70. Hebrew religion  The bible states that from the time of Abraham: The Hebrews worshiped one God  Israelites, God called Yahweh
  71. 71. Early Indian Civilizations: From Neolithic Origins to 300C.E  The Indian subcontinent: Matrix for networks of trade and culture  Target of conquerors and empire builders  The civilizations of classical India: Had profound effect that endures to this day: Arts, literature, religion, philosophical beliefs of the world
  72. 72. Early Indian Civilizations: From Neolithic Origins to 300C.E  The subcontinent India was a land of sometimes dense settlement as early as Stone Age, dating back 500,000 years  India has a diverse climate, geography, language, ethnicity  Like all premodern societies: Primarily village –based agricultural society
  73. 73. Early Indian Civilizations: From Neolithic Origins to 300C.E  India produced: Extensive in Indus Valley northwest  India adopted culture and language from people who immigrated from the Iranian plateau
  74. 74. Highest Mountain in the World and regions  Himalayas divide India from the rest of Asia  Shields India from arctic winds  Subcontinent comprises two major geographical regions:  In the north is the great plain- which came to be known as Hindustan -- after the Muslim invasions
  75. 75. The Term India  Refer to entire subcontinent:  Pakistan  India  Nepal  Bhutan  Bangladesh  Sri Lanka
  76. 76. Two great rivers  The Indus and the Ganges  Have their sources in the Himalayas  India’s climate are governed by northeast monsoon wind of the winter  And the wet southwest monsoon wind of the summer
  77. 77. Indus River
  78. 78. Ganges River
  79. 79. Rainfall, size and language  Most parts of India receive the majority of rainfall during the summer and autumn months  India comprises an area comparable to Europe in size and internal diversity  Language divided into: indo- European in north  Dravidian in south  Each group embraces a number of separate languages
  80. 80. The Indus Civilization, C. 2500- 1500  Before 2500 B.C.E  A counterpart of the civilizations that emerged along the Tigris and Euphrates and the Nile appeared along the Indus River  The area called Punjab “land of five rivers  This Indus valley civilization flourished until about 1700 B.C.E
  81. 81. Indus Civilization and Cities  Mohenjo-Daro  Located north of Karachi in present-day Pakistan  Largest Bronze Age cities of the world
  82. 82. City of Mohenjo- Daro
  83. 83.  Archaeologists believe that the Indus valley civilization began declining around 1900 B.C.E  Around that time or perhaps a few hundred years earlier  Iranian migrants moved into the subcontinent  Their culture and language gradually came to dominate north of India
  84. 84. Religion and similarity to Mesopotamia  Migrants religion –Brahmans  Priests, seers)  Became foundation for much of later cultural development of entire subcontinent  Indus valley around 2500B.C.E resembled Mesopotamia nearly a thousand years later
  85. 85.  In India:  Neolithic farmers lived in food – producing villages situated on hilly flanks of large river valleys around 4000B.C.E  These settlements spread out along the river valleys, capitalizing on their abundant water and fertile soil  farming villages grown into large cities
  86. 86. Economy of Indus, Mesopotamia, Egypt  Based on irrigation farming  Indus Valley Civilization:  Wheat, barley-chief crops  The state collected these grains as taxes and stored them in huge granaries  Chickens were domesticated as food source  Cotton was grown and used in making textiles
  87. 87. Vedic Age, 1900_1000 B.C.E  Heated debate among Historians: some historians assert large wave of people called Aryans invaded and conquered north India, bringing their culture with them  Other historians stress that Indians already living in the north adopted the culture of a much smaller group of migrants from the Iranian plateau
  88. 88. Religion and culture:  In the 600s B.C.E  Radical minority of Brahmans embraced ascetic and mystical religious ideas and practices:  Early form of yoga, meaning spiritual discipline and involved meditation
  89. 89. Religion and culture:  Mystics taught secret, mystical understandings of human body, breath, mind, and soul  Most important of these understandings was the assertion that the light of consciousness within a person was nothing less than undiluted energy of Brahman, eternal, sacred creative energy that is source of all things  (equivalent to God in monotheistic religion)
  90. 90. Religion and culture:  The early Brahmans taught:  All things that exist –from the most sublime ideas a person could think –to crudest forms of matter –came from  Brahman energy and eventually returned to Brahman, the only permanent reality
  91. 91. Religion and culture:  The Vedic Brahmans thought that people live only once and that fate of their soul is determined in that one life  (General idea is found in all three of the Western Abraham religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam)  Vedic Aryans hoped to live up in heavens with sky –gods after their death
  92. 92. Religion and culture:  Transmigration of soul  Brahmanas, based on person’s deeds stayed with him in the form of an unseen power that act after a person’s death  A deed or action was called Karman or karma
  93. 93. Religion and culture:  Later --Brahmana: express idea that people can more than once the accumulation of their good works, their good karma, supports them in heaven when they die  But karma can be used up keeping the soul in heaven and the soul then dies again, in heaven
  94. 94. Religion and culture:  When a soul dies in heaven it descends to earth, reincarnated in another body  The new person lives and dies, soul goes to heaven once again  If the earthly actions of this latest lifetime have been good  Or conformed with dar-mah or law
  95. 95. Religion and culture:  Violating the dar-mah results in sub-human forms of life as  After living a life as some kind of animal, a soul automatically moves up the ladder of life forms toward an eventual human incarnation
  96. 96. Religion and culture:  The rebirth of the soul in a new body is called Samsara  Good deeds, including Vedic rituals only provide a temporary spell in heaven between incarnations  Bad deeds had far more unpleasant concequences  But worse than either hell or heaven was the prospect of living and dying over and over
  97. 97. Religion and culture:  To escape perpetual Samsara:  Achievement of moksha  Leads to escaping from Karma, Samsara and from all the pain and suffering encountered in countless lives  According to the Upanishads, a person can dissolve the soul back into the holy oneness that is the its ultimate source and end  Result the soul returned home – free from journey through samsara
  98. 98. The Jains, Defenders of all beings  Jainism  Most important duty of a person is Ahimsa—to practice nonviolence and to cause no harm or pain to any being  Buddhism also adopted the idea of Ahimsa  Special emphasis on idea, all beings (including plants, insects, and minerals) have souls (jiva) and experience pain  To cause pain to any component – leads to biggest source of the worst possible Karma
  99. 99. The Jains, Defenders of all beings  When drinking water a person must try as much as not to destroy or cause pain to living beings in the water  Some Jains gently sweep the path before them with a broom as they walk to avoid stepping on living things  Tie cloths over mouths to avoid inhaling any small creatures in the air
  100. 100. The Jains, Defenders of all beings  Most significant figure in Jain belief is: Mahavira (c. 559 – c468B./C.E faith’s founder  Mahavira –means –great hero  He is called Jina (jee-nah, victor, conqueror)  Followers are called Jainas (those who follow the Jina  Hence the Western name Jainism
  101. 101. The Jains, Defenders of all beings  According to Jain tradition Mahavira was a Prince who at the age of 30 renounced the world –his home and family and all property and status that went with him  Over 12 years, Mahavira followed teachings of earlier religious teacher  He wondered naked from place to place, lived on handouts, engaged in meditation
  102. 102. The Jains, Defenders of all beings  Observed celibacy  Nudity was a form of asceticism because it exposed the genital and invited the painful ridicule  The practice of nudity was the subject of debate among later Jain ascetics and gradually died out
  103. 103. The Middle Way of Gautama Buddha  Buddhism arose in Northern India  Spread outside India to all Asia, continues to expand around globe  Buddhism had some basic similarities to Jainism, but root ideas were profoundly different
  104. 104. The Middle Way of Gautama Buddha  Both religions derive from the life and teachings of a great man, both stress the humanity of their teacher and do not rely on gods or divine rites to pursue the highest goal of life  Both developed monastic institutions in which celibate men and women lived
  105. 105. The Middle Way of Gautama Buddha  The word Buddha means someone who has awakened from sleep  Buddhists see the Buddaha’s Great Awakening (bodhi) as the greatest discovery of truth  The man who became the Buddha was born Siddhartha
  106. 106. The Middle Way of Gautama Buddha  He was born a prince  According to tradition: the Buddha was conceived when his mother dreamed one night that a white elephant entered her right side  Later the baby was born from the right side, right after birth the baby stood up and announced that this would be his last life
  107. 107. The Middle Way of Gautama Buddha  Seers predicted that Gautama would become either a great king or great sage who would see four special sights of human suffering :  A sick man, an old man  A dead man, an ascetic holy man seeking to escape suffering  Seers predicted: Siddhartha would renounce world and discover a way to relieve the world’s suffering
  108. 108. The Middle Way of Gautama Buddha  The Siddhartha’s father tried to prevent fulfillment of prophecy by raising him in luxuary and went to great lengths to prevent the prince from ever seeing the sick, old, or dead  in the prince’s twenty –nine year –all his father’s protections proved vain
  109. 109. The Middle Way of Gautama Buddha  On three separate occasions the prince happened to see a:  Sick man, an old man, dead man  These sights shocked him and he was troubled to learn, from his chariot driver, that all people must suffer sickness, old age, and death  He also saw a wonderin ascetic who was in quest of Moksha,
  110. 110.  To his father’s great disappointment, Gautama decided to follow the ascetic’s example, he renounced his wealth and position, forsaking his wife and child  Gautama studied meditation for a year with tow different teachers, eventually abandoning both because their doctrines did not satisfy him The Middle Way of Gautama Buddha
  111. 111. The Middle Way of Gautama Buddha  Gautama almost died from fasting and self –torture  And after 5 years, he concluded that these ascetic practices weakened the mind and would not lead to end of suffering  Gautama left his ascetic companions, who ridiculed him for his weakness
  112. 112. The Middle Way of Gautama Buddha  Gautama took first bath in five years  Then sat down under banyan or Indian fig tree )  Was given a meal by rich woman who offered a special meal once a year to the spirit of that tree
  113. 113. The Middle Way of Gautama Buddha  Gautama meditated all night  His mind examined the world and it workings and he came to understand more and more  Fundamental causes for all that happens  Shortly before dawn, he attained the key insights for understanding the root of suffering and its elimination
  114. 114. The Middle Way of Gautama Buddha  According to legendary tradition  Gautama became fully enlightened only when he over came: Demon Mara(death) and his daughters Greed, Lust, and anger  Gautama’s triumph over these daughters, who performed sensual dances to entice him, set stage for later development in Buddhism that women’s sexuality was something that needed to be guarded against
  115. 115. The Middle Way of Gautama Buddha  Gautama summarized the truth-- Great Awakening:  Four noble truths expresses the entire system of Buddhist philosophy  The Four Noble Truths are also called Middle Way  The way of life between normal human sensation, desire, and action
  116. 116. The Middle Way of Gautama Buddha  Middle way:  On the other hand the life of Harsh asceticism  Middle Way involves the Moderate asceticism of renunciation, celibacy  Less rigorous that Jains asceticism (Indian Religion)
  117. 117. The Middle Way of Gautama Buddha  Four Noble Truths:  Suffering dominates our experience  The cause of suffering is desire or craving  It is possible to extinguish suffering by extinguishing its cause, thereby attaining NIRVANA  Noble Eightfold Path leads to the extinction of desire –that is, it leads to Nirvana
  118. 118. The Middle Way of Gautama Buddha  The Noble Eightfold Path Consists:  Right views –Acknowledge the Four Noble Truths ---accept they are true  Right resolve –the decision to act according to the Four Noble Truths  Right speech –Don’t lie, use speech wisely, speak only when necessary, right speech foster’s peace and harmony
  119. 119. The Middle Way of Gautama Buddha  Right Conduct or Action :No killing, respect life and property  Right livelihood or careers: Choose careers that do not inflict harm
  120. 120. The Middle Way of Gautama Buddha  Right effort: following the Path with all one’s heart by renouncing the world and becoming a monk or nun  Right mindfulness: a form of meditation that produces wisdom, wisdom undermine desire because wise person no longer sees self as particularly important  Right concentration: learn to stay focus, meditate and be aware of how thoughts can affect behavior
  121. 121. The Middle Way of Gautama Buddha  Buddhism claims that desire is extinguished and nirvana is attained when the seventh and eight steps of the path have been perfected  That is: when the person on the Path realize that he or she is just another person among many and no more important or valuable than the other –
  122. 122. The Middle Way of Gautama Buddha  Nirvana: Happy, friendly state in which the Buddha lived for 45 years after his Awakening)  Not an altered state of consciousness not paradise or heaven  Idea of rebirth and Paradise was later developed by Chinese and Japanese, the Buddha did not suggest these concepts
  123. 123. Hinduism Buddhism  Not static and fixed in time  In the years 200 B.C.E to 300 C.E Hinduism formulated synthesis: Hinduism is not one single doctrine  Not static and fixed in time  Evolved during classical era  Buddhism split into two distinct strands of interpretation
  124. 124. Essential to Hinduism  Cycle of birth, death, and rebirth (Samsara)  Structured society by social status and proper behavior  Beings may born as humans in various (Jatis) or lesser creatures depending on their actions in previous life
  125. 125. Three Traditions of worship and theology  Vishnu, Shiva and Devi  Vishnu symbolize the aspect of the Supreme Reality that conserve and sustain the universe. Although there are variations in images and pictures of Lord Vishnu, He is generally symbolized by a human body with four arms. 
  126. 126. Three Traditions of worship and theology  The third deity of the Hindu triad of great gods. Shiva is called Destroyer (of evil), but has also the aspect of regeneration. As destroyer he is dark and terrible, appearing as a naked ascetic accompanied by a train of hideous demons, encircled with serpents and necklaces of skulls.
  127. 127. Shiva
  128. 128. Devi goddess
  129. 129. The Epics  The Mahabharata composed between 300 BC and 300 AD) has the honor of being the longest epic in world literature, 75,000 stanzas  Tells the tale of an all compassing war between rival sets of cousins, the PANDVAS and KAURAVAS  Fighting for throne of BHARATA KINGDOM
  130. 130. The Epics  Battle lasted for 18 days, is not simply a struggle for an earthly kingdom  Ultimately a cosmic struggle between virtue and evil, a battle to set the world right  Tale of heroism, vengeance and sacrifice similar to Greek epic Iliad
  131. 131. The Epics  Ramayana: Great Hindu Epic , king Rama rescues his wife Sita from demon Ravana after lengthy struggle  Rama overjoyed to see Sita  But tormented by shame that she touched by another male  Doubts on her virtue forces him to repudiate her
  132. 132. The Epics  Ramayana: Sita devastated by the rejection by her husband  She demands pyre to be built so as to immolate  The ideas of devotion, sexual purity and feminine honor are not limited to classical India  They are common in many traditional societies and continue to influence gender relations
  133. 133. Counting Time  There are many ways to understand a civilization: political systems, buildings, religions, arts and gender relations  Another interesting way is time examine its imaginings  Past societies have counted time in diverse ways  Christians and Muslims trace their histories from Adam
  134. 134. Counting Time  The belief in reincarnation shared by Hindus, Buddhists, and Jains, makes Indian notions of times radically different from those of traditions in which humans have only one lifetime  Indians traditions humans are viewed has having thousands of lifetime
  135. 135. Counting Time  What comes after death is intimately linked to the imagining of time  Hindu civilization is unique among ancient world in the way time is counted  Indians view time in terms of counting in era called MAHAYUGAS
  136. 136. Counting Time  Just as individuals die and then are reborn, at the end of each era, the world dissolves and then reemerges to begin a new era  Each era consists of one complete cycle of four AGES:  Golden Age (1440, 000 human years, in which all beings are good and all life is comfortable
  137. 137. Counting Time  The Age of Trey (1080,000 human years)  Evil appears along with some suffering and difficulty in life,  Age of Deuce (720,000 human years in which there is no more evil or pain an suffering  Age of dissolution (360,000 human years –in which evil, pain, and distress predominate in human life  Before and after each age are twilight periods of varying length that add 720,000 years to the length of whole cycle
  138. 138. Meeting of East, West  In the centuries immediately preceding and following the birth of Christ, the great civilizations of the world –  Indian, Chinese, and Roman –were connected by a complex network of commercial, intellectual, and diplomatic exchanges
  139. 139. (film-Mahabharata) Chapter 3
  140. 140. Greece: Minoan and Mycenaean  Minoan first Aegean cultures to reach a high degree of sophistication or civilization  Named after legendary king of Crete, Minos ,  From center of Crete, Minoan civilization spread its influence to surrounding Aegean Islands, the coast of Asia Minor, and to mainland Greece itself
  141. 141. Crete  A narrow, 160-mile –long island,  Crete served as a stepping stone for extensive trading contacts with Europe, Asia, and Africa  Established by immigrants from Asia Minor made prosperous by economic and cultural contacts with Mesopotamia, Egypt, southern Africa  By 2000B.C.E a high level sophistication achieved
  142. 142. Minoans  Prosperity: Based on large-scale trading network ranged throughout Mediterranean: Sicily, Greece, Asia, Asia Minor, and Syria to Africa and probably to Great Britain  Minoans employed well- constructed ships capable of long voyages  Chief exports: Olive oil, wine, metal ware and pottery
  143. 143. Archaeological discovery  English archaeologist---Sir Arthur Evans(1851-1941) brought to light this impressive civilization  Between 1900 and 1905 Evans excavated the great palace in Crete  Rising three stories high –brick and limestone –  Maze of royal apartments, storerooms, corridors, open court-yard
  144. 144. Archaeological discovery  Palace equipped with running water, sanitation system  Walls painted with elaborate frescoes  Painting portray Minoans as happy, peaceful people with enthusiasm for dancing, festivals, and athletic contests  Women are shown enjoying freedom and prominence
  145. 145. frescoes
  146. 146. Archaeological discovery and women  Women were shown taking an equal part in public festival – even as athletes and participants in religious rituals  Their dresses are very elaborate –bright patterns and colors, pleats, and puffed sleeves
  147. 147. Women  Hair is carefully curled and arranged –certain indication that Minoan women of high standing had sufficient time and wealth devote to elaborate fashion
  148. 148. The Arts  Varied in themes: full of color  Motion  Humor  Art seems to be essential part of everyday life  Intended to impart a religious or political message  Principal deity was probably a mother goddess, her importance seems to reflect the prominence women held in Minoan
  149. 149. The Mycenaeans  After 200 B.C.E., Indo- European Greek tribes invaded Greece from the north either conquered or absorbed earlier settlers  Ruled from palaces on fortified hills in the south of Greece  Absorbed much of the Minoan culture through trading contacts
  150. 150. Contrast Minoans/Mycenaea ns  Mycenaeans seemed to have more warlike people  Sailed seas as raiders or traders  Their women adopted Minoan fashions and added their own cultural preferences in cosmetics, dress, and jewelry
  151. 151. Women and society  Mycenaean women do not appear to have enjoyed the same prominence as the Minoan women  Mycenaean society was highly patriarchal –dominated by power exercised by men
  152. 152. Fall of Mycenaean  New wave of Greek invaders, aided by weapons made of iron conquered the Mycenaean strongholds  Some archaeologists suggest that invasion of new peoples caused less damage to Mycenaean sites than did revolts of lower classes against their powerful and autocratic overlords
  153. 153.  Hellenic civilization:  Four centuries from around 1150 to 750 B.C.E,  Called: Greek Dark Ages  Marked by drastic depopulation and disappearance of major components of Mycenaean Civilization –centralize bureaucratic administration, wide –raging commerce, art forms, monumental architecture, and writing
  154. 154. Athenian Society  Despite democracy  Women fully incorporated into the society  No voice in government  Women were not possess property in their own name  Make legal contracts, testify in the courts  Initiate divorce, complete exclusion from public life
  155. 155.  Hellenic Civilization: receives name from Greek hero Hellen, a mortal who is credited with bringing the first humans to inhabit Greece  Geography played important role in shaping Greek history  Numerous mountain ranges severely restricted internal communication and led to the development of fiercely independent city states
  156. 156. Athenian Society  Wife’s function:  Manage home  Take came of children  Men did not marry until about 30  Married girls half their age or less  Younger girls could be more easily molded to conform to husbands preferences
  157. 157. Athenian Society  Marriages were arranged through agreements between families  Brides and bride-grooms seldom met before their marriage  Families were small usually no more than two children  Infanticide was practiced as means of population control  The average life expectancy in Athens was little more than 30 years
  158. 158. Athenian Society and sex  Sexual activity outside of marriage for men was acceptable in Athens  Prostitution was common  Prostitutes were normally resident foreigners and therefore not subject to social restrictions imposed on Athenian women  Women were forbidden to speak with men other than their husbands  Forbidden to appear in public except for funerals or specific festivals
  159. 159. Homosexuality  Acceptable form of social conduct for Athenian men during certain periods of their lives  Sexual relationship between a mature man and young adolescent boy was common practice  The relationship was not viewed as sexual, but educational –a rite of initiation into adult society
  160. 160. Homosexuality  Male homosexuality that continued into the years when Athenians were expected to marry and produce children were not allowed  Such relationship was regarded as unnatural government issued strong legal prohibitions against them
  161. 161. Athenian slaves  In fifth –century scholars estimate that one out of every four persons was a slave  Some were captives others were children of slaves  Most came from outside of Greece  No large collection of slaves were used on agricultural estates small landowners might own one or more slaves who work in the field with their masters
  162. 162. Sparta to 500 B.C.E  Early history of Sparta seems very similar to that of most Greek poleis  Sparta moved from a powerful monarchy to oligarchy when the nobles installed five annually elected aristocrats magistrates called (overseers)
  163. 163. Newborn children in Sparta  Spartan officials examined all newborn children, any found sickly or deformed were abandoned  At age seven boys were taken from families placed in charge of state educators, boys were taught to bear hardship, endure discipline, and devote life to state
  164. 164. Newborn children in Sparta  At 20 young men enrolled in army and continued to live in barracks  He was allowed to marry but by law was commanded to live in barracks  He could only steal out to visit wife at nights  After thirty he could live at home but continued to take meals with men at age 60 he was released from army and to live at home
  165. 165. Newborn children in Sparta  This lifelong pattern of discipline produced some of the most formidable soldiers in human history  And inspired Spartan citizens with the sense of purpose, obedience, and respect for Spartan law
  166. 166. Spartan girls  Also received state training in order to become healthy mothers of warrior sons  Primary service: to give birth to male babies, and were instructed to strengthen their bodies for childbirth  To strengthen bodies: running, wrestling, throwing discus, and javelin
  167. 167. Spartan girls  Their characters were to be as strong and resolute as those of their husbands  As their husbands marched of to war, Spartan women gave a firm farewell: “come back with your shield –or on it”  Spartan marriages were arranged by parents they were given complete control over children until boy reached 7 many Spartan women owned property –manage family estates –while husbands busied themselves with constant readiness for war
  168. 168. Although many Greeks admired…  The Spartan culture, many frowned  Typically Spartans were unsophisticated, uncultured fighting machine  Trade and travel were prohibited- due to fear of losing their culture  Spartans feared contamination of democracy
  169. 169. Greek Religion  Early Greek religion, like almost all religious expression of early civilizations, abounded in gods and goddesses who personified the forces of nature  ZEUS---sky-god wielder of thunderbolts, ruled from Mount Olympus with the aid lesser deities, many of whom were his children
  170. 170. Greek Religion  The gods and goddesses act like humans  Expressing: evil deeds, favoritism, jealousy,  Zeus’s wife (HERA) often set up plots for him, HE asserted his authority through of violence  Hades, place of dead – subterranean land of dust and darkness
  171. 171. Greek Religion  Human nature composed of two distinct and opposing elements: the evil element of the body ---  Divine element (soul)  Death frees the divine soul from evil body –and therefore welcomed
  172. 172. Greek philosophy  Love of (Wisdom) - philosophy  arose from their curiously about nature  Earliest Greek philosophers – called physikoi(physicists)  Reason: main interest investigation of the real physical world  Socrates influence: not natural science but ethics: how people are to act in light of moral principles
  173. 173. Thales  Changed course of human knowledge by insisting that the phenomena of universe could be explained by natural rather than supernatural causes  This rejection of mythological explanations led the Greeks to emphasize the use of human reason to explain the world around them
  174. 174. Sophists  Meaning: intellectuals---they taught: methods of persuasion and successful argumentation  The Sophists or intellectuals put all conventional beliefs to the test of rational criticism and subjective human beliefs, customs  Some S0phists argue: That truth is relative- having no firm no fixed universal standards to guide human actions
  175. 175. The contribution of Socrates  Asking meaningful questions and subjecting answers to logical analysis  Agreement could be reached about ethical standards and humane rule of conduct  Socrates was accused of undermining the institutions and values of city-state  Constant questioning of socially accepted customs, dislike of democracy, he was viewed as subversive
  176. 176. Socrates  He was accused of corrupting the youth  Found guilty and was condemned to death  He was given chance to escape his fate, he refused to do so  Choosing instead to observe his counties’ laws, but retaining the to question and analyze them
  177. 177. Plato and His theory  Socrates famous student  Like Socrates, Plato believed that truths but only  Universal truths: beauty, goodness, and justice
  178. 178. Hippocrates  Father of Medicine  Established school based on the value of observation  Firmly convinced that disease was caused by natural causes and not by supernatural powers or causes all doctors still take the Hippocratic oath currently
  179. 179. Greek Poetry, and drama  Two great epics:  Iliad  Odyssey  Attributed to Homer  Iliad describes: clash of arms between the Greeks and Trojans, glorifies heroic bravery and physical strength
  180. 180. Greek Poetry, and drama  Odyssey, adventures and wonderings of Odysseus on his return to Greece after Troy’s fall –  Places less stress on divine intervention
  181. 181. Greek Architecture : Temple of Apollo
  182. 182.  Video presentations dealing with Ancient GREECE:  The Mystery (1999) of the Minoans  Atlantis –in search of a lost continent  Chapter 4
  183. 183. Roman Civilization  One of the most fascinating empire in human history  Originated from along Tiber River  Rome dominated the landscape of the world  For nearly 500 years  Estimates of Rome’s peak population 1st and 2nd century  450,000 to over 3.5 million people  This means Rome was the largest city in the then known world  Rome was the heartbeat of the then known world
  184. 184. Rome and Wealth  When one traveled to the Roman Forum: you could buy goods from any place in the world  The forum was the market place for ships from all over the world  You could buy  Any kind of clothing by the finest designers  All cultures of the world could be found in Rome  Rome famous for statues carved in marbles
  185. 185. Augustus Caesar  First Emperor of Rome quoted as saying, “ I found Rome a city of bricks and left it a city of marble  Even today, Rome is still a fascination  Modern visitors are still amazed concerning magnificent architecture concerning ancient ruins  Rome was famous for building its aqueduct  These carry water through out Roman Empire
  186. 186.  Rome moved from oligarchy to democracy  Roman kings: imperium,  Stand for: Imperialism and empire  Imperium was officially conferred on the king by popular assembly consisted of male citizens  The king was expected to receive advice of council of nobles called the Senate  Senators held positions for life
  187. 187. Rome’s origins  Legend held that Rome was founded in 753 B.C.E  By Romulus and twin brother, Remus  Sons of king’s daughter who had raped by Mars, the god of war  Romulus and Remus was thrown into Tiber River by wicked uncle who seized the thrown
  188. 188. Romulus and Remus  Rescued and nurtured by she –wolf  Fable to fact: modern scholars believe that the eight century b.c.e people in small settlements on hills in the Tiber Valley united and established a common meeting place, the Forum
  189. 189.  Etruscans: under their direction Rome became an important city about 625 B.C.E  Rome development followed similar political pattern of Greece –city-states monarchy, oligarchy, modified democracy and finally, permanent dictatorship of the Roman emperors
  190. 190.  Senators and their families belonged to the patrician class, the fathers of the state  Other class of Romans: plebeians, or commoners, farmers, artisans dependents, of patrician landowners  In 509 B.C. E, the patricians, with help of plebeian – overthrew the Etruscan monarchy established aristocratic form of government, known as Republic
  191. 191. The Republic and the Roman Conquest of Italy: 509-133 B.C.E  History of Roman Republic:  Divided into two parts:509 to 133 B.C.E two themes are dominant: a change from aristocracy to a more Democratic constitution, gradual extension of political and social equality to the plebeian lower class  Expansion of Roman military and political control first in Italy and then throughout Mediterranean region
  192. 192. Establishing the Republic  509 bce patricians forced out last Etruscan King (despot)  Patricians replaced monarchy with Aristocracy called republic or commonwealth  Imperium previously wielded by one king was now shared by two new magistrates, called consuls
  193. 193.  This assemble was presided over by plebeian leaders called tribunes and could pass plebiscites or decrees binding only on plebeian community  Tribunes were given sacred status by plebeians with aim to protect form patrician abuses  Tribunes assumed right to stop unjust or oppressive acts of patrician consuls by stating veto(
  194. 194. Establishing the Republic  Consuls were elected annually from the patrician class, the consuls exercised power in the interest of that class  In event of war or serious domestic problems: extraordinary magistrate called a dictator was substituted for two consuls this official was given absolute power for only six months
  195. 195. Conflict of orders  For more than two centuries following establishment of Republic: plebeians struggled for political and social equality  Outright civil was avoided by gradual willingness of Patricians to accept the demands of plebeians  Patrician acceptance was often reluctant and gradually slow
  196. 196. Plebeians success in equal rights struggle  Due to their the privilege granted to organize themselves as a corporate body capable of collective action  Permission or privilege was granted by the Senate early in fifth century  Plebeians threatened t leave Rome and establish their own state a sort of state within a state known as concilium plebis a gathering of plebeians
  197. 197. Pax Romana  Pax Romana is Latin for "Roman Peace." Lasted 27 B.C under Augustus’s reign until A.D. 180  Pax Romana was a period of relative peace and cultural achievement in the Roman Empire, especially in the area of building
  198. 198. Roman Society  Top of Roman social order  Senatorial families  Lived as absentee owners of large estates  Women subjects of husband and fathers  Almost no legal could not represent self in courts  Could not initiate divorce unless husband convicted of sorcery or murder  Wives of emperors deemed ideal women
  199. 199. Christianity and Rome  Christianity developed in obscure part of Rome  Christians persecuted in Roman Empire  Became dominant in the Roman Empire  Some ascribed Christianity is main cause for Rome’s demise 
  200. 200. The Life and Teaching of Jesus  According to the four Gospels:  Jesus was born in Bethlehem during Herod’s reign  Spent five years of his adult life as a carpenter  Jesus taught people love urged people to turn from sin  Jesus performs miracles:  Cast out demons, healing sick raising the dead  Walking on water
  201. 201. From village to Village  Jesus and 12 apostles traveled from village to village  Went to observe feast of pass in Jerusalem large crowd followed him  Greeted his as messiah  Opponents, Pharisees:  Jesus distort Jewish religious law  treason for saying he is the king of the Jews
  202. 202. The Spread of Christianity  After Christ death and Resurrection  Christ comforted his disciples  Christianity first made rapid head-way:  Damascus  Antioch  Corinth  Rome
  203. 203. The Apostle Paul  Played instrumental role in spreading Christianity  Because of powerful influence he has been called second founder of Christianity  First named Saul then change to Paul  Paul was of Jewish ancestry but Roman citizen by birth  Raised in urban center of Tarsus, city in Asia Minor
  204. 204. The Apostle Paul  Strict Pharisee considered Christians as traitors to sacred law  Actively persecuted Christians  About 33 C.E while traveling to Damascus to persecute Christians  Saul experienced conversion to beliefs he opposed
  205. 205. The Apostle Paul  After conversion name changed from Saul to Paul  Greatest opponent of Christianity  To greatest early Christian Missionaries  Paul taught that Jesus was the Christ  The son of God and died to atone for sins of all people
  206. 206. The Apostle Paul  Paul covered 8000 miles teaching and preaching  Paul was put to death in Rome about 65 C.E  By the death of Paul Christianity entrenched in cities in Rome and in the East  Paul provided vital assistance to church through his teachings
  207. 207. Causes for spread of Christianity  Common to all mythological religions  Notions of divine savior and promise of everlasting life  Cult followers found many Christian beliefs/practices similar to their own  Divine savior and promise of everlasting life  Christianity offered more appeal than mythical religions
  208. 208. Causes for spread of Christianity  Founder not creation of myth  Like gods and goddesses of mystery cults  Shared with Jews concept of single omnipotent God  God of Hebrew Scriptures now God of all humanity  Dynamic, aggressive faith  Upheld spiritual equality of all people  rich, poor, slave, freeborn, male, female
  209. 209. Causes for spread of Christianity  Women were among Jesus' followers  Women played active role in the church  Christianity offered immortality and happiness in heaven for those who accept Christ  Converts bound together by faith and hope
  210. 210. Causes for spread of Christianity  Christians took seriously obligation of caring for:  Orphans  Widows  Other needs among community of believers  Christians expressed courage facing death impressed even their bitterest enemies
  211. 211. Persecution of Christians  Romans tolerated religions that did not threaten safety and stability of empire  Christianity was perceived as subversive danger to society and state  Christians refused to offer sacrifice to state cults on behalf of the emperor
  212. 212. Persecution of Christians  Offering sacrificing to state cults was considered essential patriotic rite uniting all Romans to government  Christians contends for only one God and reject other gods  In the eyes of many Roman officials this attitude branded them traitors
  213. 213. Persecution of Christians  To the Romans, the Christians were a secret anti-social group  Forming a state within a state  One pagan writer advocated that Christians wall themselves off from rest of society  Many Christians were pacifists who refused to serve in the army
  214. 214. Persecution of Christians  Christians denied legitimacy of other religious sects  Refused to associate with pagans or take part in social functions that they considered sinful  During first two centuries after Jesus' crucifixion  Persecution of was sporadic and local –at Rome under Nero
  215. 215. Persecution of Christians  During late third and fourth centuries when empire was in dander of collapse  Three organized efforts were launched to suppress Christianity throughout empire  Christians made up one-tenth of population
  216. 216. Persecution of Christians  Persecution instigated by Diocletian from 303-311  Death penalty imposed on those who refused to sacrifice to Roman gods  Defiance of Christian martyrs welcome death for their faith  This defiance had persuasive effect on many observers  The blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church- Became Christian slogan
  217. 217. Nero and Christian Persecution
  218. 218. Church organization  Earliest Christians saw no need to build complex religious bureaucracy  However, has time passed  A Church organization emerged  Steady growth of church led to special fulltime church officials  Devote all their time to religious work
  219. 219. Church organization  Clarifying the body of Christian doctrine  Conducting services,  Collecting money for charitable purposes  Earliest officials were called presbyters (Elders) Bishops  Deacons (servers)
  220. 220. Church organization  Priests were responsible to a bishop  Diocese, territorial administrative division under leadership of bishop  Bishops were regarded to be direct successors of apostles
  221. 221. Church organization  A number of dioceses made up province  Bishops of most important city in each province enjoyed greater prestige  And was known as archbishop  Provinces were grouped into larger administration called patriarchates
  222. 222. Christian, worship, Doctrine  Church controversy  Priest Arius from Alexandria  Taught that Christ was not fully God  Christ created being and not coeternal with his creator  Emperor Constantine resolved problem  Council of Nicaea in 325  Council found Arian position to be a heresy  Trinity sanctioned at Nicene Creed
  223. 223.  In 311 Emperor Galerious issued edict  Making Christianity legal religion  Two years later, Constantine granted freedom  To worship throughout empire  Emperor Theodosius I (779- 395)  Made Christianity the official religion of Emperor Acceptance of Christianity
  224. 224. Roman Legacy  The spread of the Twelve Tables served as the basis for the Roman legal code was replaced by the Theodosian Code of the fifth century ce.  The Theodosian provide the basis for all other legal systems that evolved in Western Europe, the bedrock of what is now known as the civil law.
  225. 225. Constantine Motive  Why Constantine granted of worship to Christians:  Debatable  His Christian biographers assert  Night before decisive battle at Milvian Bridge  Constantine saw cross in sky with words  By this, conquer written on the cross  The next day Constantine led his troops to victory  Raising the cross as a symbol
  226. 226. Roman Engineering and Architecture  Marble buildings  Paved roads  Bridges  Best known Roman highway  Was the Appian Way  Running from Rome to Bay to Naples
  227. 227. Pantheon building oldest in world
  228. 228. Roman Basilica
  229. 229. United States Capital building
  230. 230. Rome  Rose from unsophisticated  Villages along banks of Tiber  Mighty world power  Western Europe  Mediterranean region  Near East
  231. 231. Rome  Excelled in political theory  Governmental administration  Jurisprudence  The spread of Christianity in West
  232. 232.  Ben Hur (1959) Spartacus  Roman City (2004; PBS)  Cleopatra: The First Woman of Power (2000) History Chanel  Gladiator (2000)  Rome: The Power And the Glory (2001)  From Jesus to Christ: The First Christians PBS HOME video
  233. 233. Muhammad and birth of Islam  Kingdom of Saudi Arabia generally known as Saudi Arabia  It is the largest Arab country and the largest country in the Middle East It  The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia founded by Abdul-Azizbi Saud  Before Islam only nomadic tribal societies existed  Mecca  Medina
  234. 234.  The Prophet of Islam Muhammad was born in Mecca 570 C.E Early 7th century  Muhammad united Arab tribes and created a religious community called Islam  Absolute submission to Allah.
  235. 235. Qur’an  Sacred Writings of Islam reveled by God to Prophet Muhammad  Early Islamic sources indicate text achieved final written form  Uthman third of Muhammad’s successors  The Qur’an is believed to be direct word of God
  236. 236. Qur’an  Muslims believed the Quran is infallible  The book has been reorganized over different times  The numbering of the Quran was numbered in the century  Modern editions of Quran would likely appear odd to early Muslims
  237. 237. Qur’an  The book is organized into 114 SURAS or Chapters  Each Suras bears a title and number  Central theme of Qur’an: The majesty, unyielding will, and perfect unity of God  The Qur’an describes God omnipresent  God has the final say  Only God will judge the world
  238. 238. Qur’an  For those who disbelieve will come a fearsome punishment, for those who believe and do good will come forgiveness and reward (sura 35:7  God is Lord of creation was present in the beginning and at the end  Bible the same –God is Lord of Creation  Bible: I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End. Rev. 22:13
  239. 239. Qur’an  Last divine message and most perfect of all other divine messages  God has sent series of prophets before Muhammad  Abraham, Moses, and Jesus  The Qur’an lavishes praise on Jesus but clearly rejects his divinity  Muhammad held to have completed Abraham’s mission Muhammad represents the fullest expression of prophecy
  240. 240. Five Pillars of Islam  The Testimony of Faith  Pray five times a day:  Dawn  Noon  Mid-afternoon  Sunset  After sunset
  241. 241. Five Pillars of Islam  Giving Zakat (Support of the Needy):  Fasting the Month of Ramadan: all Muslims fast from dawn until sundown, abstaining from food, drink, and sexual relations  The Pilgrimage to Makkah:  The annual pilgrimage (Hajj) to Makkah is an obligation once in a lifetime for those who are physically and financially able to perform it.
  242. 242. Woman and Qur’an  Regardless of back-ground and gender, will be judged first by their faith and pious conduct  Adultery by men and women are punished equally  The Qur’an places women ultimately under male authority  Bible the same  But provides them clearly defined rights
  243. 243. Woman and Qur’an  Women are entitled to inherit property and protection from arbitrary divorce and abuses from husbands
  244. 244. Largest and oldest mosque in world - Damascus
  245. 245. Dome of the Rock from 7th cen, built Temple Mount Jerusalem
  246. 246. Dome of the Rock  The Dome of the Rock Muslim shrine.  Built over a sacred stone. Stone is believed to be the place from which the Prophet Muhammad ascended into heaven  The sacred rock was considered holy before the arrival of Islam  Jews believe, the rock to be the very place where Abraham prepared to sacrifice Isaac
  247. 247.  Dome of the Rock many believe is site of the Holy of Holies of both Solomon's Temple and Herod's Temple  The Dome of the Rock was built by Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik from 688 to 691 AD.
  248. 248.  Islamic Film  Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet (2002)  Cairo: 1001 Years of Islamic Art and Architecture (2000;)  Kingdom of Heaven
  249. 249. Africa a land of great diversity  Three impressive things about Africa:  Second largest continent  A bountiful land  A land of great beauty  Africa’s historic name:  From ancient Egyptian word  Afrui-ka (100 Amazing Facts About the Negro)
  250. 250. AFRICAN GEOGRAPHY  African Landmass covers 20% of planet earth  Continent of contrasts modern cities and sparsely Settled deserts Snow-capped mountains  Hot and humid jungles  Cool climate of on coasts  Giant Watutsi people 7 feet 6 inches  Pint –sized pygmies 4.5 feet in height  Population more than one billion
  251. 251. AFRICAN GEOGRAPHY  Africa’s tallest mountain  Kilimanjaro  Snow-capped  Kilimanjaro, 20,340 feet generally called Roof of Africa.  It has 140 species of animals,  179 species of birds,
  252. 252. African family culture  The importance of family in Africa  Great emphasis on following:  Net work of wives and relatives  Grandparents, aunts, uncles and cousins  Family relations based on matrilineal and patrilineal
  253. 253. African family culture  Patrilineal based on or tracing descent through the male line  Matrilineal based on or tracing descent through the female line  Patrilineal when woman marries she becomes part of husband’s kin  15 % Matrilineal  Many matrilineal families found in forest areas
  254. 254. Marriage decisions  Marriage not solely private matter between bride and groom  Strict rules stipulated which person could marry into clan  Marriage was accompanied by exchange of bride wealth  Husband payment:  Money, goods, services, or cattle to wife’s family
  255. 255. Marriage  Bridewealth gave husband certain rights  To establish homestead with his wife  To use his wife’s labor in his house and fields  Bridewealth cemented social ties between husband and wife’s family  If wife cannot bear children bridewealth had to be returned  Polygamy is also practiced
  256. 256. Importance of polygamy  Was seen as necessity because of high infant mortality  Need for more man in farming  Desire to express status and wealth
  257. 257.  Lineages and clans could be used to  Mobilize people for self-defense  To allocate rights to land  To raise bridewealth and perform religious rituals  In times of drought, larger kinship networks  served as insurance for widespread food distribution
  258. 258. Lineage and clan  Also provided for  Political units ranging from  Basic to the largest kingdoms  Many African societies were formed  Without chiefs, rulers, or centralized political institutions  These operated on at village level  Known as stateless societies
  259. 259. Africa and religion  Religion permeated experiences of Africans  Integral part of social and political life  Religious beliefs and institution  Varied from society to society
  260. 260. Africa and religion  African religious systems were polytheistic  Most had a belief in a high god  Who created the universe and life forms  But god was usually remote and rarely concerned about everyday affairs of people
  261. 261. Africa and religion  Therefore, Africans were more directly engaged with lesser divinities  Such as nature and ancestral spirits  That maintained active interest in affairs of the living  And could intercede for humans with the high god  Igbo proverb put it:  “God is a rich man. You approach him through him through his servants.”
  262. 262. Misfortune  Explanation of misfortune  High god or ancestors were unhappy with humans  People sought goodwill of the ancestors or lesser gods  Through prayer and making of ritual offerings and sacrifices to shrines
  263. 263. Misfortune  Africans also attributed misfortune to  Tricksters and witches who wielded evil powers  And inflicted suffering on people  Those afflicted by witchcraft appealed to diviners  Women enhanced their status and prestige  By serving as priestesses, healers, rainmakers, and spirit mediums
  264. 264. Religion  Complex religious systems  With elaborate priesthoods and cults  Yorubo priesthood featured four levels of spiritual beings:  Supreme being , Oludumare, served by subordinate gods  Subordinate gods were worshiped by diviners at temples  Diviners interpret will of subordinate gods  Prescribed rituals for appeasing them
  265. 265. Religion  People consulted diviners concerning  Birth  Marriage  Death
  266. 266. Religion  The third level of spirits was the ancestors  Known as Shango  Fourth level nature spirits  Found in the earth, mountains, and rivers, trees
  267. 267. African Art  Africans are skilled in varied artwork  Rock  Wood  Ivory  Clay metals  Bronze  Gold  Jewelry  tattoos
  268. 268. Nigerian Art
  269. 269. Peopling of Africa  During stone Age  Small bands of hunters  Hunting wild animals  Gathering wild plants  Hunters armed with  Bows and arrows with  Stone barbs treated with poisons  Men hunt, women responsible for gathering  Wild fruits, nuts, melons…….
  270. 270. Ethiopia  Ethiopia is one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world  Ethiopia is also one of the oldest Christian nations in the world.  Ezana first Christian King of Ethiopia  He made Christianity the state religion of Axum,  Making Axum the first Christian state in the history of the world
  271. 271.  Lalibela churches
  272. 272. Swahili civilization  Swahili Civilization  By 1500 c.e Africans had successfully created diverse  Range of communities and states  Agriculture  Herding  Ironworking  Long history of  Christianity  Early Transcendental  Spiritual Concepts
  273. 273. The Newest Stage of world History 1914-Present  Maps help to tell biggest stories of the 20th cent  Western empires imploded end of 2oth  Ottoman empire  Austro-Hungarian Empire  Russian empires  New nations arose during 20th cent more than any other span in history
  274. 274. The Newest Stage of world History  These massive boundary changes were related to other upheavals  Typical system in 1914 either monarchy or empire  By early 21st almost every country had different system of government  1914 government system dominated by landed aristocracy  Beginning of the 21st century aristocracy displaced by revolution or rise of industry
  275. 275. Political Map of the World in 1914
  276. 276. Present day Map
  277. 277. Major Concepts to learn Termination of global empires through decolonization  Major change extending from 1920s through 1970s  1914 onward saw new global wars and conflict  Including tensions associated with terrorism
  278. 278. Triggers for change  World War I decreased European dominance  worldwide economic depression  World War II  World War I and II  Predominantly European Civil wars  Caused massive economic, demographic and political vitality loss  It was impossible for Europe to cling to overseas empires  Growing strength and effectiveness of anticolonial nationalism
  279. 279. British Empire  Term --The sun never sets on the British Empire  Used to describe largest empire in the world  Consistent daylight on its vast territory
  280. 280.  Cuban Missile Crisis  U.N Palestinian Vote: 
  281. 281.  The Man who Ended Jim Crow, Charles H. Houston~ Brown v Board of Ed Topeka – YouTube