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Interesting things about alcohol and other drugs - May 2017

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One in a regular series of slide sets on interesting data about alcohol and other drugs (and the wider issues to do with multiple needs) from a UK perspective.

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Interesting things about alcohol and other drugs - May 2017

  1. 1. Interesting things about alcohol and other drugs May 2017 ANDREW BROWN @ANDREWBROWN365
  2. 2. Estimated proportion of the population who are alcohol dependent by upper tier local authority 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 Wokingham Harrow Windsorand… WestBerkshire Central… Richmondupon… Leicestershire Kingstonupon… Redbridge Bromley MiltonKeynes WestSussex Essex Barnet NorthSomerset Bexley Suffolk Warwickshire Devon CheshireEast Lincolnshire BathandNorth… Somerset Worcestershire Kent EastSussex Hillingdon Hounslow Brent Poole Sutton Nottinghamshire Medway Ealing Reading Kirklees Calderdale Westminster Cumbria WalthamForest Warrington Wandsworth Cornwall&Isles… Newham Lancashire Barkingand… Sheffield Lewisham Dudley Plymouth Walsall SouthTyneside Doncaster Birmingham Darlington Peterborough Wakefield Redcarand… Newcastleupon… Southampton Oldham Coventry Lambeth Portsmouth Gateshead Bournemouth Wirral Sefton Stoke-on-Trent Islington Sunderland Nottingham Kingstonupon… Knowsley Middlesbrough Blackpool %Dependencerate Source: Estimates of alcohol dependence in England, including estimates of children living in a household with an adult with alcohol dependence; supplementary tables (PHE, 2017)
  3. 3. Estimated number of children who live with opiate users, by region - 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 East of England East Midlands London North East North West South East South West West Midlands Yorkshire and the Humber Female Opiate Users Male Opiate Users Source: Estimates of the number of children who live with opiate users, England 2011/12 (PHE, 2017)
  4. 4. Comparison of issues between families affected and not affected by domestic abuse in Troubled Family cohort 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Police call-outs Mental-health issue Rent arrears Alcohol or drug dependency Drug dependency ASB incident with no futher investigation Alcohol dependency ASB incident with futher investigation NEET Homelessness applications A week or more homeless Missing from education Evictions Families without a domestic abuse problem Families with a domestic abuse problem 2,499 families with a domestic abuse problem, 8,087 families without a domestic abuse problem Source: National evaluation of the Troubled Families Programme 2015 - 2020: family outcomes – national and local datasets: part 1 (DCLG, 2017)
  5. 5. Proportion of alcohol consumption during pregnancy according to European country. 4% 7% 10% 12% 13% 14% 15% 18% 21% 27% 29% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing alcohol consumption during pregnancy across eleven of the European countries using the same method for collecting data and taking maternal sociodemographic and smoking before pregnancy into account. We found that almost 16% of the European women consumed alcohol during pregnancy after recognized pregnancy and of these 39% consumed at least one unit per month. There were, however, large variations between the countries. Some of these differences can be explained by level of education and smoking before pregnancy. However, a large part of the differences remained unexplained. Mårdby, Ann-Charlotte, et al. "Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy—A multinational European study." Women and Birth (2017).
  6. 6. Trend in anti-HCV prevalence among people injecting psychoactive drugs in England. 40% 42% 44% 46% 48% 50% 52% 54% 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Source: Hepatitis C in the UK (PHE, 2017)
  7. 7. The proportion of the non drinking population saying that the reason they don’t drink is because they have been hurt by someone else’s drinking 3% 15% 16% 16% 16% 18% 20% 22% 31% 31% 35% 35% 36% 37% 38% 42% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% Source: Comparative monitoring of alcohol epidemiology across the EU (PARPA, 2017)
  8. 8. Prevalence of getting drunk at least once a month in the UK by gender and age group 13% 7% 16% 10% 4% 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% Male Female 18–34 35–49 50+ Source: Comparative monitoring of alcohol epidemiology across the EU (PARPA, 2017)
  9. 9. Proportion of UK population saying “yes” about… 16% 17% 9% 3% 19% 21% 12% 4% 12% 12% 6% 3% 23% 27% 14% 5% 17% 16% 12% 3% 7% 7% 2% 2% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% Feel guilty about drinking Ever blacked out Not done what is expected of you Drink in the morning Total Male Female 18–34 35–49 50+ Source: Comparative monitoring of alcohol epidemiology across the EU (PARPA, 2017)
  10. 10. Proportion of needle and syringe programme (NSP) clients in the Cheshire and Merseyside areas who were anabolic steroid users, 1995 and 2015 17.1% 54.9% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 1995 2015 Cheshire and Merseyside, with a total population of 2,430,284 was served by 18 agency NSPs in 2015 and 17 agency NSPs in 1995. A total of 2446 individual steroid users accessed agency needle and syringe programmes across Cheshire and Merseyside in 2015 compared with 553 in 1995, representing a 342% increase over the period. Data indicate that anabolic steroid use is most common in the male age group of 20–29. This has been calculated for both years, indicating an increase from 1.88 per 1000 population to 5.72 per 1000 population. McVeigh, J. and Begley, E., 2016. Anabolic steroids in the UK: an increasing issue for public health. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, pp.1-8.
  11. 11. Statistically significant % difference in outcome for BME defendants compared to white ethnic group for drug offences in 2014 24% -10% -29% 15% 83% 116% 5% 41% -40% -20% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% 140% Of charged, % proceeded against in a magistrates’ court Of proceeded against, % convicted in a magistrates’ court Of convicted, % receiving a custodial sentence in a magistrates’ court Of charged, % tried in a Crown Court Of tried in a Crown Court, % remanded in custody Of tried in a Crown Court, % pleading not guilty Of tried in a Crown Court, % convicted Of convicted in a Crown Court, % receiving a custodial sentence Source: Building Trust: How our courts can improve the criminal court experience for Black, Asian, and Minority Ethnic defendants (Centre for Justice Innovation)
  12. 12. The estimated number of high risk drug users in Great Britain 293,879 61,500 63,300 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 350,000 England Scotland Wales In England, estimates are produced for opioid and/or crack cocaine users (together and separately) and injecting among users of those drugs. In Scotland, PDU refers to the problematic use of opioids and/or the illicit use of benzodiazepines and drug injecting. Wales look at injecting drug use or long duration/regular use of opioids, cocaine and/or amphetamines. Source: United Kingdom Drug Situation: Focal Point Annual Report 2016 (PHE, 2017)
  13. 13. Numbers of people presenting to drug treatment, by setting, in the UK, in 2015 80,446 28,400 1,238 1,031 601 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 80,000 90,000 Outpatients Prison (Eng & NI only) Inpatients GP (Eng only) Other A total of 1,086 treatment centres reported Treatment Demand Indicator data through national treatment monitoring systems in the UK during 2015. Of these: • 71% provided outpatient services (n=775) • 10% provided inpatient services (n=110) • 12% were treatment services in prison (n=131) and • 4.5% were GP services (n=49) 72% of all clients presenting to drug treatment in the UK during 2015 were treated in outpatient centres. Opioid users make up a larger proportion of clients within inpatient and GP services than within outpatient services. Source: United Kingdom Drug Situation: Focal Point Annual Report 2016 (PHE, 2017)
  14. 14. Injecting status among all clients entering treatment in the United Kingdom, 2015 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 80,000 Ever injected, but not currently Currently injecting (in last month) Never injected Previously treated clients New treatment clients The majority (62%) of clients presenting to treatment reported that they had never injected drugs, with 16% reporting current injecting. Previously treated clients were three times more likely to report currently injecting than new treatment clients. Primary opioid users accounted for 90% of current injectors, with amphetamine users accounting for 2.4%. Heroin users were most likely to inject, with over one-third (37%) of treatment entrants citing injecting as their primary route of administration. Source: United Kingdom Drug Situation: Focal Point Annual Report 2016 (PHE, 2017)
  15. 15. Proportions of the treatment population entering treatment for heroin and cannabis, 2005-2015 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 2005/06 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 2011/12 2013 2014 2015 Opioids Cannabis Figures are not directly comparable to previous years Source: United Kingdom Drug Situation: Focal Point Annual Report 2016 (PHE, 2017)
  16. 16. Injecting drug use in Scotland
  17. 17. Housing status of users of injecting equipment provision (IEP) in Glasgow city during 2015 who reported injecting heroin and/or cocaine. 74% 23% 3% 68% 27% 5% 56% 33% 11% 41% 43% 16% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Owner or renting Homeless Roofless All clients ‘Regular clients’ ≥5 transactions ‘High frequency clients’ ≥50 transactions Clients receiving IEP via Assertive Outreach Source: The health needs of people who inject drugs in public places in Glasgow city centre (NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, 2016) People who inject drugs in public places in Glasgow are predominantly male, aged between 30 and 50 years and of Scottish origin. Both local data and the published literature indicate that people involved in public injecting experience a combination of severe social vulnerabilities often referred to as ‘multiple exclusion’ or ‘severe and multiple disadvantage’: Homelessness and housing instability are particularly prevalent.
  18. 18. Time since onset of injecting of those taking part in the Needle Exchange Surveillance Initiative survey in Scotland 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% < 2yrs 2 - 5 yrs 6 - 10 yrs 11 - 15 yrs >15 yrs 2008-09 2010 2011-12 2013-14 2015-16 Source: Needle Exchange Surveillance Initiative (NESI) 2008-09 to 2015-16 (NHS Scotland 2017)
  19. 19. Proportion drug users in Scotland who have injected drugs in the last six months, by drug injected 2% 3% 3% 3% 4% 4% 10% 13% 93% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Other Crack Temazepam/Diazepam IPED Heroin + cocaine Amphetamines Legal Highs Cocaine Heroin Heroin continues to be the most prevalent drug injected with over 90% of those interviewed in 2015-16 reporting use in the past six months, similar to levels in previous NESI surveys. Reported injecting of cocaine has increased in recent years from 9% in 2010 (n=217) to 13% (n=287) in 2015-16 Source: Needle Exchange Surveillance Initiative (NESI) 2008-09 to 2015-16 (NHS Scotland 2017) n = 2,207
  20. 20. Frequency of injecting in the last six months amongst those reporting injecting drugs in the last six months 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Less than weekly Weekly not daily Daily or more 2008-09 2010 2011-12 2013-14 2015-16 Source: Needle Exchange Surveillance Initiative (NESI) 2008-09 to 2015-16 (NHS Scotland (2017)
  21. 21. Prescription of naloxone and the proportion carrying it on date of survey 8% 15% 32% 5% 51% 6% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Prescribed take-home naloxone in the past year Carrying any take-home naloxone with you today (among those prescribed take-home naloxone) 2011-12 2013-14 2015-16 Source: Needle Exchange Surveillance Initiative (NESI) 2008-09 to 2015-16 (NHS Scotland 2017)

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