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  1. 1. California: Part 1 Chapters 7-9 By Andrew Bartz
  2. 2. Creating the Infrastructure of a Mega State Part1  $100,000 for irrigation, drainage, and navigation received for 1878 Drainage Act  October 1904  Water rushed into the valley, 360 million cubic feet per hour, flooded the area  Board of Public Works 1898  Developed water programs  Tapping rivers: LA received Owens River, San Francisco received Beautiful Hetch Hetchy Valley before it was dammed Tuolumne  Hydroelectricity  Allowed cities to serve four million residents  Devastation to the Environment  Tuolumne river dammed and Hetch Hetchy valley filled, beautiful area destroyed  LA drained Owens River, complete
  3. 3. Creating the Infrastructure of a Mega State Part2  University Culture, Stanford- idealized garden, implementations of Mediterranean, University of California at Berkley- developed Beaux Arts city of learning, classical revival  1900 to 1930 creation of metropolitan California: LA, SD, Southern California as new American scene  Job market: building trades, oil, hotel and tourist, aviation, motion pictures, fishing, Nay and Marine Corps, University jobs  Prosperity, new construction: Ambassador Hotel, Coliseum, Rose Bowl Stadium, Biltmore Hotel, Central Library of LA, California Cub, and expanding university campuses  Construction of film sets in Hollywood, rise of film industry  Unify Bay Area- Oakland Bay Bridge and Golden Gate bridge  GG across GG Strait between SF and Marin County, authorize 1930, finished 1937, icon of American civilization
  4. 4. Creating the Infrastructure of a Mega State Part3  White majority population  Oligarchs- older Southern California families, enjoying first-generation wealth  Folks- white Anglo-Saxon Protestants from Midwest, rural or small town background  Mexican American population  1920 to 1930 city of LA minority group tripled: 33,644 to 97,116  LA leading Mexican American community in the US  Meatpacking tire manufacture, auto assembly, manual jobs  African American Population  Started small, prosperous, republican  As grew lost status, encountered racial attitudes, explicit color lines
  5. 5. Labor Through the Great Depression and Beyond Part1  General Strike of 1901  SF city wide strike by Teamsters Union  Formation of the Union Labor Party in San Francisco  October 1, 1910, metal trades strike, bombed headquarters of Times  Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)  Romantic anarchism, Marxist socialism, distrust of popular, rich politicians, seize state and establish industrial utopia  August 1913 Wheatland  Bench collapsed, fighting started, deputy fired into air, gunfire broke out  IWW fled scene, acted as if they were responsible  April 30th 1919 criminal Syndicalism Act  Felony to advocate or promulgate violence to change IWW Poster industrial ownership of effect political changes, or belong to organization  Mexican Mutual Aid Society of Imperial Valley, May 1928  Protest wages and working conditions to President of Mexico, who protested to Pres. of US, who sent the state department official to investigate
  6. 6. Labor Through the Great Depression and Beyond Part2  Cannery and Agricultural Workers Industrial Union (CAWIU)  Used mimeograph machine, thousands of leaflets in different languages and spread with the use of the automobile  Authorities conducted roundups, arrests, harassments, indictments, and trials  CAWIU strikes August 1931, November 1932, and four more in 1933  Strikers assaulted with blackjacks, night sticks, high-pressure hoses,  The Cotton Strike of 1933  Largest agricultural strike  Vigilantes shot strikers killed two and injured eight  Later, became a permanent group, The Associated Farmers of California Inc. • Associated Farmer fan of the Red Scare  Police raided CAWIU state headquarters. Convicted 8 to prison one to fourteen years  Released September 1937 by Third District Court of Appeal of the State of California  International Longshoremen‟s Association (ILA)  May 1934 Largest maritime strike, joined by locals in numerous cities and followed by over 13 unions  June 18 1934, employers claiming to president about a Communist take over  July 3rd strikers prevent exit of trucks, police fired into crowd, killed striker
  7. 7. Labor Through the Great Depression and Beyond Part3  End Poverty in California (EPIC) – Upton Sinclair, production for use, non-profit  Influence of Franklin D. Roosevelt‟s New Deal  old age pensions $50 per month, reappearing as Social Security  $150 to 15-20 million Americans 60+ to recharge stalled economy  1937 Townsend movement  Ham „n‟ Eggs for Californians campaign booklet Cesar Chavez  $30 every Thursday to unemployed Californians over fifty  Defeated in the election of November 1938 but supported electing Downey to U.S. Senate  United Farm Workers- Huelga, orchestrated by Cesar Chavez
  8. 8. War and Peace: Japanese experiencing racism Part1  Early as 1900s Japanese immigrants scapegoat, “Yellow Peril,” “White California” crusade  1905 Chronicle campaign to segregate Japanese children in public schools of SF  1908 Gentlemen‟s Agreement with Japan  Japanese not to issue more passports to laborers US withdraw SF ordinance  1913 Alien Land Act- Prohibited Jap immigrants from owning land in California  Bill became law, extended with discussion of segregation 1920  California determinedly anti-Japanese, toxic level of racism  Immigration Act of 1924 prohibited immigration of Japanese  Poisoned relationship between nations  Attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941  Rounded up suspected Japanese aliens  Removal and relocation of Japanese • Executive Order 9066, War Department to remove suspicious or possibly dangerous people from military areas • February 1942, articles calling for removal of Japanese from coast, attorney general Warren wanted evacuation of all Japanese, many supporters • March 1, 1942 DeWitt (head of Western Defense Command) issued Proclamation Number One, Western half of Cali, Oregon, Washington, and southern third Arizona; Japanese to be removed. • March 18, Roosevelt, Executive Order 9102, Civilian War Relocation Authority • Establish and administer relocation camps • 110,000 Japanese behind barbed wire for next 3 years or more
  9. 9. War and Peace: War Society and Industry Part2  San Francisco premier military command center, pot of embarkation and supply on the Pacific Coast  Italy surrenders, POW option to join Italian Service Units  Performed non-combat duty for Army  1945 Italians throughout SF with US Army uniforms with Italy patch  Camp Pendleton  Marine recruiting depot in San Diego, purchased for training in 1942  Strong navy and military presence in SD  Ubiquitous presence of uniformed men and women in California during the war years  Zoot Suit Riots, June 1943 between young servicemen and young Mexican Americans  Mexicans now treated as enemies along with Japanese in camps  June 3rd, Sailors moves on Mexican American girls, provoked brawl with Mexican American youths  Naval officials put end to the riot, court-martial servicemen who did not immediately return  War brought triumphs of industrial culture  Women needed to work in ship building effort  Social sophistication: pooled transportation, day care centers, equality of women, medical care, food service, banking, postal outlets, big band dances and concerts  Germany and Japan surrender May 1945 brought end to War
  10. 10. War and Peace: Building a Suburbia Part3  Population growth- 1962, turned into most populous state in nation  During war 1.6 million moved to CA, other military training there, or gone on leave there  Population gain 53% between 1940 and 1950  Physical and social infrastructure overwhelmed by influx: housing shortage and overburdened highways  Disneyland opens on July 1955, made complex utopian statement  Complex urban environments, deliberately created, incorporated regional and related cultural values, Small town living, more intimate America  Probed urban future, planned and controlled environment, paradigm for Orange County  Master Plan for Higher Education  Support by taxpayers, UC system vehicle for own betterment  Conceptualized itself and a higher-education utopia  Consolidated state college campuses into multiple campus‟