Upcoming SlideShare
×

Classifying matter

2,984 views

Published on

0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
• Full Name
Comment goes here.

Are you sure you want to Yes No
• Be the first to comment

• Be the first to like this

Views
Total views
2,984
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
34
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Classifying matter

1. 1. Classifying Matter<br />By: Sir. Andrew Mark D. Arizala<br />
2. 2. Intrinsic and extrinsic properties The term intrinsic denotes a property of the material itself (i.e. of the material substance). It is independent of how much of the material is present and is independent of the form the material is in (e.g. one large piece or a collection of smaller pieces). Intrinsic properties are dependent mainly on the chemical composition of the material. Some intrinsic properties are dependent also on the material structure. A characteristic which is not essential or inherent is extrinsic.For example in biology, intrinsic effects originate from "inside" an organism or cell, such as an autoimmune disease or intrinsic immunity.<br />
3. 3. Intensive and extensive properties In the physical sciences, an intensive property (also called a bulk property), is a physical property of a system that does not depend on the system size or the amount of material in the system: it is scale invariant. By contrast, an extensive property of a system is directly proportional to the system size or the amount of material in the system (see examples below). Some intensive properties, such as viscosity, are empiricalmacroscopicquantities and are not relevant to extremely small systems.<br />
4. 4. For example, density is an intensive quantity (it does not depend on the quantity), while mass and volume are extensive quantities. Note that the ratio of two extensive quantities that scale in the same way is scale-invariant, and hence an intensive quantity. An intensive quantity (also intensive variable) is a physical quantity whose value does not depend on the amount of the substance for which it is measured. It is the counterpart of an extensive quantity. For instance, the mass of an object is an extensive quantity, because it depends on the amount of that substance being measured. Density, on the other hand, is an intensive property of the substance.<br />
5. 5. Examples of intensive properties include:temperaturechemical potentialdensityspecific gravityviscosityvelocityelectrical resistivity spectral absorption maxima (in solution)specific energyspecific heat capacitylustrehardnessmelting point and boiling pointpressureductilityelasticitymalleabilitymagnetismstateconcentration<br />
6. 6. An extensive quantity (also extensive variable or extensive parameter) is a physical quantity whose value is proportional to the size of the system it describes. Such a property can be expressed as the sum of the quantities for the separate subsystems that compose the entire system. Extensive quantities are the counterparts of intensive quantities, which are intrinsic to a particular subsystem and remain constant regardless of size. Dividing one type of extensive quantity by a different type of extensive quantity will in general give an intensive quantity. For example, mass (extensive) divided by volume (extensive) gives density (intensive).<br />
7. 7. Examples of extensive properties include.entropyenthalpyenergymassparticle numberstiffnessvolume<br />
8. 8. Physical propertyA physical property is any measurable property the value of which describes a physical system's state. The changes in the physical properties of a system can be used to describe its transformations (or evolutions between its momentary states).<br />
9. 9. An object or substance can be measured or perceived without changing its identity. Physical properties can be intensive or extensive. An intensive property does not depend on the size or amount of matter in the object, while an extensive property does. In addition to extensiveness, properties can also be either isotropic if their values do not depend on the direction of observation or anisotropic otherwise. Physical properties are referred to as observables. They are not modal properties.<br />
10. 10. Often, it is difficult to determine whether a given property is physical or not. Color, for example, can be "seen"; however, what we perceive as color is really an interpretation of the reflective properties of a surface. In this sense, many ostensibly physical properties are termed as supervenient. A supervenient property is one which is actual (for dependence on the reflective properties of a surface is not simply imagined), but is secondary to some underlying reality. This is similar to the way in which objects are supervenient on atomic structure. A "cup" might have the physical properties of mass, shape, color, temperature, etc., but these properties are supervenient on the underlying atomic structure, which may in turn be supervenient on an underlying quantum structure.<br />
11. 11. Chemical propertyA chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity. Simply speaking, chemical properties cannot be determined just by viewing or touching the substance; the substance's internal structure must be affected for its chemical properties to be investigated.<br />
12. 12. Chemical properties can be contrasted with physical properties, which can be discerned without changing the substance's structure. However, for many properties within the scope of physical chemistry, and other disciplines at the border of chemistry and physics, the distinction may be a matter of researcher's perspective. Material properties, both physical and chemical, can be viewed as supervenient; i.e., secondary to the underlying reality. Several layers of superveniency are possible.<br />