History Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is a
country in South America. It is the fifth largest country by
geographical area, occupying nearly half of South America,
the fifth most populous country, and the North fourth most
populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Atlantic
Ocean on Northeast the east, Brazil has a coastline of over
7,491 kilometers (4,655 mi). It is Central bordered on the
north by Venezuela, West Guyana, Suriname and the French
overseas department of French Guiana; Southeast on the
northwest by Colombia; on the west by Bolivia and Peru; on
the southwest by Argentina and Paraguay and on the south
by Uruguay. Numerous South archipelagos are part of the
Brazilian territory, such as Fernando de Noronha.
Brazil was a colony of Portugal from the landing of Pedro Álvares Cabral in 1500 until its
independence in 1822. Initially independent as the Brazilian Empire, the country has been a
republic since 1889, although the bicameral legislature, now called Congress, dates back to
1824, when the first constitution was ratified. Its current Constitution defines Brazil as a
Federal Republic. The Federation is formed by the union of the Federal District, the 26 States,
and the 5,564 Municipalities.
Brazil is the world's tenth largest economy at
market exchange rates and the ninth largest by
purchasing power parity. Economic reforms have
given the country new international projection. It is
a founding member of the United Nations and the
Union of South American Nations. A predominantly
Roman Catholic, Portuguese-speaking, and
multiethnic society, Brazil is also home to a
diversity of wildlife, natural environments, and
Indian of the Amazônia extensive natural resources
in a variety of protected habitats.
Northeast: The Northeast region is inhabited by about 30% of Brazil's
population. It is culturally diverse, with roots set in the Portuguese
colonial period and in Amerindian and Afro-Brazilian elements. It is also
the poorest region of Brazil, and suffers from long periods of drought.
The largest cities are Salvador, Recife, and Fortaleza.
North: The North region covers 45.27% of the
land area of Brazil, but has the lowest number of
inhabitants. With the exception of Manaus, which
hosts a tax-free industrial zone, and Belém, the
biggest metropolitan area of the region, it is fairly
unindustrialized and undeveloped. It
accommodates most of the Amazon rainforest
and many indigenous tribes. Amazonas Rive.
Central: The Central-West region has low
demographic density when compared to the other
regions, being only more densely populated than the
North region. Part of its territory is covered by the
world's largest wetland area, the Pantanal as well as
a small part of the Amazon Rainforest in the
northwest. However, most of the region is covered
by the Cerrado, the world's largest savanna. The
Central-West region contributes significantly towards
the nation's agricultural output. Brasília.
Southeast: The Southeast region is by far the richest in
terms of total economic output, and also the most densely
populated region. It has a larger population than any
South American country except Brazil itself, and hosts
one of the largest megalopolises of the world, extending
between the country's two largest cities: São Paulo and
Rio de Janeiro. The region is very diverse, including the
major business center of São Paulo, the historical cities of
Minas Gerais and its capital Belo Horizonte, the third-
largest metropolitan area in Brazil, the beaches of Rio de
Janeiro, and the coast of Espírito Santo.
South: The South region is the wealthiest by GDP
per capita and has the highest standard of living
among the country's regions. It is also the coldest
region of Brazil, with occasional frost and snow in
some of the higher-altitude areas. It has been
settled mainly by European immigrants, mostly of
Italian, German and Portuguese ancestry, being
clearly influenced by these cultures.
The festival of Carnival, with its spectacular street parades and vibrant music, has become one of the
most potent images of Brazil; an annual celebration held forty days before Easter and marks the
beginning of Lent. Carnival is celebrated throughout Brazil, with distinct regional characteristics, but
the most spectacular celebrations outside Rio de Janeiro take place in Salvador, Recife, and Olinda,
although the nature of the events varies.
The June circuit in the Northeast of Brazil is one of the most
famous and traditional around the world. Caruaru, in the
State of Pernambuco, and Campina Grande, in Paraíba,
dispute the title of best feast in the country. The first is
known as the “capital of forró”, a popular dance and music,
while the other as the “Biggest Saint John in the world”.
Oktoberfest – in October, the city of Blumenau enters into
festivities, showing visitors from all over Brazil and the world its
rich culture. With music, dance and typical cuisine, the party
preserves the customs of German immigrants who Oktoberfest
Blumenau settled in the region.
800 grams of black beans
Feijoada/ Ingredients: 250 grams of dried beef (“carne seca”)
250 grams of salted pork ribs
1 pork trotter
1 pork tail (or ear)
100 grams of smoked loin of pork
80 grams of smoked bacon
2 large pork sausages (“paio”)
1 Portuguese sausage
3 cloves of garlic
1 soup spoon of olive oil
2 bay leaves
Preparation: The night before, clean the port trotter and tail and soak them in cold water
together with the already cleaned pork ribs. In a separate bowl, soak the dried beef cut into
pieces. Change the water in each bowl at least four times. Put the salted meats on the stove
in a pan with plenty of water. Boil for 10 minutes, drain off the water, pour in clean water and
cook. Use the same procedure for the dried beef, putting it to cook in a separate pan. When
the meats are tender, but not shredded, drain off the water and cut the pork ribs into pieces.
Set aside. Cut the “paio” and Portuguese sausage into thick slices, the smoked bacon into
small cubes, and the smoked pork into medium-sized cubes. Place the bans in a large pan
with a thick bottom. Add water, the bay leaves, and the orange cut in half, with the inner peel
but without the outer peel. After cooking for 45 minutes, add the salted and smoked meats,
the dried beef, sausage and “paio.” Leave to cook for 20 more minutes. Remove two soup
ladles of beans from the pan. Chop the onion and garlic finely. Sauté them, without letting the
brown, in a skillet in the olive oil. Add the bean paste to the skillet and cook for two minutes.
Return the entire mixture to the large pan, mix and taste for salt. Adjust the temperature as
necessary and leave everything to cook 20 minutes more or until well cooked. Serve with
white rice, sautéed kale, manioc meal. Accompanied by fresh orange slices. The meats can
vary according to individual taste. It is very important that the oily build-up on the surface be
skimmed off periodically while cooking.
1 tin sweetened condensed Milk
2-3 Tablespoons Nestle Quick (or other chocolate powder)
2 Tablespoons butter Chocolate sprinkles Tiny paper candy cups
Brigadeiro is a popular, easy-to-make, sweet enjoyed at Brazilian parties. It's simple, tasty and uses
Brazil's favourite sweet ingredient: sweetened condensed milk. Yum! Preparation: Combine
ingredients in a heavy pot and stir constantly over medium heat, bringing to a boil. Continue stirring
two mintutes - or until mixture becomes so thick, you can't see the bottom of the pan. Remove from
heat and carefully scoop hot mixture out of pot into a separate bowl to cool. Cool completely. Coat
hands with butter and scoop out a teaspoon sized amount into the palm of your hand. Roll into a small
ball, roll the ball in sprinkles and let rest in paper cup.
Typical foods Cheese rolls (Pão de Queijo)
Ingredients: 500 gr (1.1 lb) of fine cassava flour 1 large
cup of Milk 4 tablespoons of sunflower oil or soya oil
generous pinch of salt 4 eggs 200 gr (7 oz) of grated hard
cheese (like Parmesan) Bake for 25-30 minutes. The rolls
smell nice when ready. To be sure, test for doneness with
a fork: if it comes out clean the cheese rolls are ready.
Allow to cool sufficiently but serve warm.
Cheese rolls (Pão de Queijo) are eaten all over Brazil at breakfast or as a snack. Traditionally,
these are made of cassava flour instead of wheat flour. Except for that, these cheese rolls consist of
eggs and cheese. If served warm, these rolls are crispy from the outside with soft dough on the
inside. Preparation: The night Preheat oven at 180˚C (gas 4-5 or 350°F).Sieve your cassavaflour if
it is not fine. Bring the milk with the oil and the salt to a boil in a pan. Add the cassava flour while
mixing. Allow to cool after it is mixed well. Next, stir in the eggs one by one and then the cheese. Mix
well. Grease your hands with some sunflower oil and form the dough into small balls. Put these in
the oven on a non-sticking baking sheet.
Tradition Caipirinha is Brazil's national cocktail, made with
cachaça, sugar and lime. Cachaça is Brazil's most common
distilled alcoholic beverage. Like rum, it is made from
sugarcane. Cachaça is made from sugarcane alcohol,
obtained from the fermentation of sugarcane juice which is
afterwards distilled. The caipirinha is the national cocktail of
Brazil, and is enjoyed in restaurants, bars, and many
households throughout the country. Once almost unknown
outside Brazil, the drink has become more popular and more
widely available in recent years, in large part due to the rising
availability of first-rate brands of cachaça outside Brazil.
Football is the most popular sport in Brazil. The Brazilian national football team
(Seleção) is currently ranked first in the world according to the FIFA World Rankings.
They have been victorious in the World Cup tournament a record five times.
Basketball, volleyball, auto
racing, and martial arts also
attract large audiences. Some
sport variations have their
origins in Brazil. Beach football,
futsal (official version of indoor
football) and footvolley emerged
in the country as variations of
football. In martial arts,
Brazilians have developed
Capoeira, Vale tudo, and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu. In auto racing, Brazilian drivers have
won the Formula One world championship eight times: Emerson Fittipaldi in 1972 and
1974; Nelson Piqu983 and 1987; and Ayrton Senna in 1988, 1990 and 1991.
My name is Andressa, but my friends call me Andy. I am 23 years
old and my birthday is on 27th April. I live in Cascavel City, no is big city,
we have 350.000 habitants. Cascavel is a very important city in my state,
because here we have a lot agriculture.
I live with my parents (kelma-40 and Ricardo-41), my Sister
(Karina-17) and my brother (Ricardo-15). I am the oldest child and we are
a happy family. My parents have always guided me to go the right way.
My daddy is a Military Officer (army) and my mommies have commerce.
My parents have teached me a lot of about humility, respect and love. I can
describe myself as open-minded girls, friendly, honest, flexible, responsible, very
outgoing and very Happy with my life. I am creative, good listener, Intelligent, Caring,
and Easy going, Outgoing and Funny.
I studied all my life at Military school (it’s the best school of country), after, I've
graduated in Executive Secretariat last year in the University. I have worked in a bank
as a trainee for a year and now I work with merchandising. Because of my profession,
I have developed skills in organization, interpersonal relationships and harmony. I like
make course and always are learn new things
I live in Cascavel City, in Paraná state. Is almost a big city, with 350,000
habitants. My city is a very important city in my state, because here we have a lot
Lisa and Jeff Hirschman
Elana and Mattew Hirschman
Long Island is an island located in southeastern New
York, United States, just east of Manhattan.
Stretching northeast into the Atlantic Ocean,
Long Island contains four counties, two of which
are boroughs (Queens and Brooklyn) of New
York City, and two of which (Nassau and Suffolk)
are mainly suburban. Numerous bridges and
tunnels through Brooklyn and Queens connect Long
Island to the three other boroughs of New York City.
Ferries connect Suffolk County northward across Long Island Sound to the state of
Long Island has a climate similar to other coastal areas of the Northeastern
United States; it has warm, humid summers and cold winters. The Atlantic Ocean
helps bring afternoon sea breezes that temper the heat in the warmer months and
limit the frequency and severity of thunderstorms. Severe thunderstorms are not
uncommon, especially when they approach the island from the mainland areas of the
Bronx, Westchester County and Connecticut in the northwest.
Long Island is one of the most densely populated regions in the United States. The
combined population of Nassau and Suffolk counties was
2,753,913 people; Suffolk County's share at 1,419,369
and Nassau County's at 1,334,544. Nassau
County had a larger population for decades, but
Suffolk County surpassed it in the 1990 census as
growth and development continued to spread
eastward. As Suffolk County has over twice the
land area of Nassau County, the latter still has a
much higher population density. Combining all four
counties, Long Island's population is greater than 38 of the 50
United States. If it were an independent nation, it would rank as the 96th most
populated nation, falling between Switzerland and Israel.
SUNNY DAYS ACTIVITIES
• Ride the Bike
• Know other kids and play games like Hide and Seek
• Musical Chairs
• Make a picnic
RAINY DAYS ACTIVITIES
• Color books
• Listen to stories
• Play with trains that stimulate new creations
• Bake up cakes and cookies
• Read books
• Play sound games
• Teach them about my country and other cultures