WHAT’S IN A DICTIONARY ENTRY?• The entry word• Pronunciation• Parts of speech labels• Inflected forms• The derivation• Definitions• Synonyms and antonyms• Usage labels• Usage notes
WORDS AND THEIR MEANINGS• ROOTS, PREFIXES, AND SUFFIXES: Roots, prefixes and suffixes provide substancial clues to a word’s meaning. A root is a base word, or part of a word, from which other words are formed: mile in the word mileage. A prefix is a group of letters attached to the beggining of a root that changes its meaning: un- in unfinished. A suffix is a group of letters attached to the end of a root: -age in mileage.
WORDS AND THEIR MEANINGS Denotations and connotations: the denotation of a word is its direct, literal meaning. Fragance, odor, and smell denote the same thing: a perception detected by your olfatory sense. But the associations the words bring to mind differ. “You have a ´distinct fragance” is quite different from“You have a distinct odor”. Fragance suggests a pleasant smell; odor suggets an unpleasant one. The associated or indirect meaning of a word is its connotation.
IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS Why do we ride in a car but on a bus? Why do we take a picture but make a recording? These speech patterns are called idioms. Sometimes idiomatic patterns do not follow rules of logic or grammar, so it’s easy tu misuse one you are not familiar with. A preposition such as at, by, for, out, or to shows a relationship between a noun or a pronoun and other words in the sentence. The only guide to the correct use of prepositions with nouns and verbs and in standard expressions about time and space is to learn the conventional idioms.
WORD ORDER WITH PHRASAL VERBS A phrasal verb consists of a verb plus a particle– a word such as on, up, by or through. Both the verb and the particle are needed to convey the full meaning of the phrasal verb: put on, give up, get by, muddle through.
WORD ORDER WITH PHRASAL VERBS Intrasitive phrasal verbs: These phrasal verbs do not take a direct object..The particle for such a phrasal verb should alwayscome directly after the verb. EX: The stray dog came back the next day.
WORD ORDER WITH PHRASAL VERBS Transitive phrasal verbs: these phrasal verbs can take a direct object. EX: WHEN I LOOK INTO YOUR EYES, I CAN SEE HOW MUCH YOU LOVE ME . CORRECT WHEN I LOOK YOUR EYES INTO, I CAN SEE HOW MUCH YOU LOVE ME. INCORRECT
SLANGS, REGIONALISMS, AND COLLOQUIALISMS Slangs: very informal language that is usually spoken rather than written, used especially by particular groups of people. Slang is the use of informal words and expressions that are not considered standard in the speakers language or dialect but are considered more acceptable when used socially.
SLANGS, REGIONALISMS, AND COLLOQUIALISMS Regionalisms are expressions in one part of the country, but not common elsewhere. The name for a carbonated beverage for example varies from pop to soda to soda drink to seltzer. Colloquialisms are expression common to spoken language but seldom used in formal writing.
JARGONS Jargon is terminology which is especially defined in relationship to a specific activity, profession, group, or event.Examples: RAM, bit, byte, CPU, and hexadecimal are jargon terms related to computing.
Figurative Language figurative language is a distinction in traditional systems for analyzing language.
CLICHÉS A cliché is an expression, idea, or element of an artistic work which has been overused to the point of losing its original meaning or effect, especially when at some earlier time it was considered meaningful or novel. EX: Ive taken everything but nothing seems to do me any good. Live and learn.