Theoriesof Firstand Second Language Session1slideshare


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Theoriesof Firstand Second Language Session1slideshare

  1. 1. Theories of First and Second Language Acquisition<br />MAESTRIA EN DIDACTICA DEL INGLES<br />UNIVERSIDAD SURCOLOMBIANA <br />M.A Omar Andres Atehortua A.<br />
  2. 2. Session 1<br />1<br />2<br />4<br />3<br />Introductory Concepts<br />Getting to know one another<br /> Program Presentation (Objectives – Contents – Evaluation)<br />Discuss how SLA fits into teacher education<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  3. 3. Getting to know one another . .<br />Who are we professionally? Who are our students? Why are you pursuing a masters&apos; degree? What are your expectations about this seminar?<br />Grab a piece of paper and complete the following statements:<br /><ul><li> I am a person who likes/enjoys …………
  4. 4. As a teacher I consider myself very …………………….
  5. 5. The best thing about teaching is ………
  6. 6. I think pursuing a Masters degree in ELT can help me to..……
  7. 7. This seminar is important/not important because …………………
  8. 8. I feel………… ……..</li></ul>- I’m looking forward to…………………………………………………<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  9. 9. Which of the metaphors expresses best, in your opinion, the essence of a seminar session?If you can’t find one that suits your ideas, invent your own. <br />In small groups, explain which you have chosen and why.<br />
  10. 10. INTRODUCTION<br />Watch the video Educational Quotes<br />Choose 3 or 4 quotes and write them down.<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  11. 11. INTRODUCTION<br />Watch the video about Educational Quotes<br />Analyze the following quotes:<br /><ul><li>Practice makes perfect
  12. 12. You can’t change the tides but you can learn to swim</li></ul>Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  13. 13. Personal Review<br />In pairs, discussthefollowingquestion: RefertoBrown’sbook page 3<br />Is teaching a craft or a science?<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  14. 14. THE SEARCH FOR LANGUAGE TEACHING PROFESSIONALS <br />Wallace (1991) states that any occupation aspiring to the title of “profession” will claim at least some of these qualities:<br />A basis of scientific Knowledge.<br />A period of rigorous study which is formally assessed.<br />A sense of public service;<br />High standards of professional conduct;<br />An ability to perform some specified demanding and socially useful tasks in a demonstrably competent manner.<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  15. 15. Teachers’ skills<br />Why do you think that teachers (of maths, history, English etc) should have a good knowledge of their subject matter? <br />What kind of knowledge and skills should an English teacher have?<br />How can teachers improve their knowledge?<br />Should teachers pass on all their knowledge to students?<br />Do you think that learning a language means learning grammar rules?<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  16. 16. Subject Matter knowledge<br />B<br />Pedagogical skills<br />A<br />Social Skills<br />C<br />D<br />Enabling skills<br />?<br />E<br />Teachers’ Knowledge and Skills<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  17. 17. New Generation of Students<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  18. 18. “The information revolution <br />requires a matching <br />education revolution”<br />Institute for Learning and Research Technology<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  19. 19. The craft Model of Professional Education<br />Study with “master” practitioner:<br />Demonstration<br />instruction<br />Practice<br />Professional Competence<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  20. 20. The Applied Science Model<br />Scientific Knowledge<br />Application of scientific Knowledge / refinement by experimentation<br />Results conveyed to trainees<br />Periodic Up-dating (In-service)<br />Practice<br />Professional Competence<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  21. 21. Personal Review<br />Think back to some incident or development that happened in class which you had not planned for, e.g.- A disciplinary problem- an unpredicted error made by a student- an unexpected lack of understanding- A decision on your part that you would have to teach the lesson differently from what was planned, etc.1. What was the problem or development, exactly?2. How did you handle it?3. Why did you handle it the way you did?4. Would you handle it in the same way again? If not, why not?5. Has the incident changed your general view of how to go about the practice of teaching? (e.g, you may have decided in general to be more strict, to use group work less, to ask more questions, etc.) <br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  22. 22. The Reflective Model of Professional Education<br />Received Knowledge<br />Practice<br />Reflection<br />Professional Competence<br />Previous<br />Experiential knowledge<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  23. 23. YOU CANNOT EXPECT DIFFERENT RESULTS IF YOU ALWAYS DO THE SAME.<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  24. 24. I hear and I forgetI see and I rememberI do and I Learn <br />AncientChineseProverb& AnEducationalAphorism<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  25. 25. Cone of Learning (Edgar Dale)<br />Nature of Involvement<br />After 2 weekswe tend to remember . . . <br />5% of what we listen<br />Lectures<br />Reading<br />10% of what we read<br />Hearing Words<br />20% of what we hear<br />Passive<br />Looking at Pictures<br />30% of what we see<br />Watching a Movie<br />Looking at an Exhibit<br />50% of what we hear and see<br />Watching a Demonstration<br />Seeing it done on Location<br />Participating in a Discussion<br />70% of what we say<br />Giving a Talk<br />Active<br />90% of what we say and do<br />Doing the Real Thing<br />Simulating the Real Experience<br />Teaching others – Immediate use of learning<br />Edgar Dale, Audio-Visual Methods in Teaching (3rd Edition). Holt, Rinehard, and Winston (1969).<br />
  26. 26. LEARNING WITH A PURPOSE<br /> Learning is an active, not passive, process. You can&apos;t sit around and expect professors to pour knowledge into you like water into an empty pitcher. To learn, you have to take an active part in learning by preparing for class actively, by working on assignments and projects, by questioning and responding in class, by synthesizing the materials from several classes. This means your professors are going to expect you to be active participants in your learning if you are going to be successful. The responsibility is largely on you! <br />Taken from: Study Guidelines (Harvard)<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  27. 27. Why Study Second Language Acquisition<br />Bi- and multi- lingualism is the norm in the world.<br />SLA research informs theory and practice in L2 teaching and learning.<br />SLA serves as a testing ground for theories of language & cognition<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  28. 28. What does a theory of SLA have to account for?<br />Process: the learner and learning, and the teacher and teaching<br />as Pit Corder once pondered:<br />Does learning take place because of the teacher or despite the teacher?<br />Setting: naturalistic versus formal, second&apos; versus &apos;foreign&apos; language<br />Individual differences among learners: age, aptitude, motivation, anxiety, etc.<br />L1 influence<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  29. 29. SLA and Related Fields<br />Linguistics <br /> Cognitive psychology (psycholinguistics)<br />Language teaching <br />Cross-cultural communication <br />Language planning/language policy <br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  30. 30. General issues in language learning research (L1 or L2)<br />To what extent is language &apos;acquired&apos; or &apos;learned&apos;? <br />What is being acquired?<br />How do we know when and if it is acquired? <br />How do we explain it?<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  31. 31. Language learning and teaching<br />Brown Claimsthat “secondlanguagelearningis a complex, longtermeffortthatrequiresmuch of thelearner”.<br />In smallgroups of threetofive, share yourownexperiences in learning, orattemptingtolearn a foreignlanguage. Describe yourown a) commitment, b) involvement, c) efforttolearn. Thisdiscussionshould introduce youto a variety of patterns of learning.<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  32. 32. Language Learning and Teaching<br />WholeclassDiscussion<br />Look at twodefinitionsfromlanguage , onefromanencyclopedia and onefrompinker’sbook. Why are thedifferencesbetweenthesetwodefinitions? Whatassumptionsorbiases do theyreflectonthepart of thelexicographer? How do thosedefinitionsrepresentcondensedtheories? <br /> A language is a system of arbitrary symbols and the rules used to manipulate them. Language can also refer to the use of such systems as a general phenomenon. Though commonly used as a means of communication among people, human language is only one instance of this phenomenon. Taken from: wikipedia<br /> Language is a complex, specialized skill, which develops in the child spontaneously, without conscious effort or formal instruction, is deployed without awareness of its underlying logic, is qualitatively the same in every individual, and is distinct from more general abilities to process information or behave intelligently.<br />Taken from: Pinker (1994) The language instinct<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  33. 33. Language Learning and Teaching<br />Individual work<br />Based on Brown and Ellis’ ideas, write your own definition of language, acquisition, learning and teaching.<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  34. 34. Key issues and questions for discussion<br />Whatdoes Brown mean, when he claimsthat,<br /><ul><li>Your understanding of the components of language determines to a large extent how you teach a language.
  35. 35. Byusing a cautious, enlightened, eclecticapproach, you can build a theorybasedonprinciples of secondlanguagelearning and teaching.</li></ul>Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  36. 36. Key issues and questions for discussion<br /><ul><li>Consideringtheproductiverelationshipbetweentheory and practice, think of somespecifictypes of activitiestypical of a foreignlanguageclassyouhavebeen in (choraldrills, translation, readingaloud, etc..) Whatkind of theoreticalassumptionsunderlinetheseactivities? Howmightthesuccess of theactivitypossibly alter thetheorybehindit?
  37. 37. Richards and Rodgers (1986:5) saidthegrammartranslationmethod “is a methodforwhichthereis no theory”. Whydidtheymakethatstatement? Do youagreewiththem? Share in yourgroupanyexperiencesyouhavehadwithgrammar – translation in yourforeignlanguageclasses. </li></ul>Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  38. 38. Traditional Practice in Grammar<br />input  intake  developing system  output<br /><br /> <br /> <br /> focused practice<br />“...traditional grammar instruction, which is intended to cause a change in the developing system, is akin to putting the cart before the horse when it comes to acquisition; the learner is asked to produce when the developing system has not yet had a chance to build up a representation of the language based on input data.”<br />Source: Lee & VanPatten (1995), p. 95<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  39. 39. APPLICATION<br />Grammarpresentationtechniques<br /> In groups of 2-3 analyzetheoptionsonhowtopresentgrammar (thepresentperfect tense), discusswithotherpairstheadvantages and disadvantages. How do thesetechniquesdifferfromthegrammartranslationmethod?<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  40. 40. What about grammar? <br /> Guiding principles for Input Processing approach:<br /><ul><li>Use both oraland written input.
  41. 41. Focus on meaningbeforeform.
  42. 42. Link meaning and form.
  43. 43. Presentonething at a time.
  44. 44. Have learners DOsomething with input.
  45. 45. Design activities that require both discrete(one answer) andopen-ended(personal opinion) answers.
  46. 46. Have learners state the ruleas final phase of the lesson. </li></ul>Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  47. 47. Comparing and contrasting Second Language Acquisition<br />Look at thepictures. Whatdifferencesthatinfluencelanguagelearning can you imagine betweenthetwolanguagelearningsituations? Think of at leastfive<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  48. 48. First Language Acquisition<br />Video: Language and cognition<br />Watchthe video and analyzethefollowingissues:<br />When do babiesstartto “pick up” a Language?<br />When do babies lose orstartto lose soundsthat are not in theirnativelanguage?<br />Towhatextentislanguagedevelopedwhenchildrenturn 5?<br />Whatisthe role of thenaming center in thelanguagepart of thebrain?<br />Accordingto Elizabeth Bates, Howdoeslearningtake place in thebrain?<br />Whatisthe role of cognition in thelearningprocess?<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  49. 49. First Language Acquisition<br />In groups of 3 prepare a short presentation 10 – 15 minutes onthefollowingtopics:<br />Theories of first Language Acquisition <br />1. Behavioristic approach to language acquisition<br />2. TheNativistApproach<br />3. FunctionalApproaches<br />Issues in FirstLanguageAcquisition<br />4. Competence and performance<br />5. Comprehension and Production - NatureorNurture<br />6. Universals – Systematicity and Variability<br />7. Imitation<br />8. Practice – Input<br />9. Discourse<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  50. 50. Key issues and questions for discussion<br />Competence vs Performance <br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  51. 51. Key issues and questions for discussion<br /><ul><li>Competence and performance are difficult to define. In what sense are they independent? How does competence increase? Can it decrease?
  52. 52. Namesomeforms of language and somefunctions of language, didyouexperienceanydifficultywiththelatter?</li></ul>Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  53. 53. Theories about SLA<br />LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE<br /> (LAD child L1)<br />UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR <br />proposes a finite set of fundamental principles that are common to all languages, (a sentence must always have a subject) and a finite set of parameters that determine syntactic variability among languages <br />COMPETENCE vs. PERFORMANCE<br />competence = the mental representation of linguistic rules; intuitive<br />performance = use of grammar comprehension and production<br />Noam Chomsky<br />Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (1965)<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  54. 54. Theories about SLA<br />Hello! Hola!<br />Communicative Competence<br />Canale and Swain (1983) <br />grammatical: mastery of linguistic code<br />sociolinguistic: knowledge of social and cultural rules<br />discourse: ability to connect sentences coherently<br />strategic: ability to use verbal and non-verbal communication strategies<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  55. 55. Theories about SLA<br />SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT THEORY<br />Full cognitive development requires social interaction. <br />The range of skill that can be developed with adult guidance or peer collaboration exceeds what can be attained alone.<br /> [child L1 acquisition]<br />Lev Vygotsky<br />1896-1934<br />Thought and Language(1962)<br />[discovered in the 1990s]<br />Pedagogical Psychology Institute of Moscow<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  56. 56. Discussion<br />You have heard about several SLA theories:<br /> Share your ideas with another participant. List at least 3 FL teaching practices that are linked to these SLA theories.<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  57. 57. DISPELLING MYTHS<br /> In groups of 4 Analyze the arguments cited by Stern (1970) on page 49 and used to justify analogies between first language learning and second language teaching. In the group, determine what is assumed or presupposed in the statement. Then reiterate the flaw in each analogy. Report your conclusions to the whole class for further discussion<br />Analize and draw some pedagogical implications for your own teaching practice from the following “warnings” and statements issued by Ausubel (1964) :<br /><ul><li>The rote learningpractice of audiolingualdrillslackedthemeaningfulnessnecessaryforsuccessfulfirst and secondlanguageacquisition.
  58. 58. Adultslearning a foreignlanguagecould, withtheir full cognitivecapacities, benefitfromdeductivepresentations of grammar.
  59. 59. Thenativelanguage of thelearningisnotjustaninterfering factor, it can facilitatelearning a secondlanguage.
  60. 60. Thewrittenform of thelanguagecouldbe beneficial.
  61. 61. Studentscouldbeoverwhelmedbylanguagespoken at its “natural speed”, and they, likechildren, couldbenefitfrom more deliberativespeechfromtheteacher</li></ul>Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  62. 62. Discussion<br /> In groups, talk about any cognitive or affective blocks you have experienced in your own attempts to learn a second language. What could you do (or what could you have done) to overcome those barriers??<br /> Do you think it is worthwhile to teach children a second language in the classroom? If so, how might approaches and methods differ between a class of children and a class of adults? <br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  63. 63. LEARNING THEORIES<br />Chooseon of thefourlearningtheoriesdiscussedby Brown. Yourtaskisto “defend” your particular theory as themostinsightfulor complete. To do so, eachgroupwillneedtosummarizesthrenghts and toanticipateargumentsfromothergroups. <br />Theresults of thefourgroups’ findings are tobepresentedtotherest of theclass in a “debate” aboutwhichlearningtheory has themosttocontributetounderstandingthe SLA process.<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  64. 64. TOPICS FOR PRESENTATION<br /><ul><li>Age and acquisition (Criticalperiod, Neurobiologicalconsiderations, accent)
  65. 65. LearningStyles and strategies
  66. 66. PersonalityFactors
  67. 67. Motivation
  68. 68. Sociocultural factors
  69. 69. Linguisticfactors (ContrastiveAnalysis, the role of error, transfer)
  70. 70. Communicative Competence
  71. 71. Technology and Second Language Acquisition</li></ul>Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  72. 72. Processes involved in learning to communicate<br />PERCEPTION (of units, categories and Functions)<br />COGNITION<br />(Knowledge)<br />ABSTRACTION<br />(Internalizing rules relating categories and functions)<br />Skill Getting<br />ARTICULATION<br />(practicing sequences and sounds)<br />PRODUCTION<br />CONSTRUCTION<br />(Practice in formulating communication)<br />RECEPTION<br />(Comprehension of a Message)<br />Skill Using<br />MOTIVATION<br />(to communicate)<br />INTERACTION (or Real Communication<br />EXPRESSION<br />(Conveying personal meaning)<br />
  73. 73. The role of error<br /><ul><li>We need to think hard about whether, when and how…
  74. 74. to correct learners
  75. 75. We must not expect instant learning. Learning is……
  76. 76. gradual, and errors will always occur
  77. 77. We need to think about what kind of mistake …..
  78. 78. the learner is making a slip or an error.
  79. 79. If the mistake is a slip,………
  80. 80. the learner can probably correct himself/herself or with the help of…
  81. 81. Sometimes, particularly in fluency activities, it is better..
  82. 82. not to pay attention to learners errors so that the learners have an opportunity to develop their confidence and fluency and experiment with the language.
  83. 83. Some errors may be more important to correct than others, particularly those ….
  84. 84. which prevent communication</li></li></ul><li>The role of error<br /><ul><li>Different learners may need to be corrected …….In different ways depending on…
  85. 85. stage of learning, learning style and level of confidence
  86. 86. Ways of helping learners get beyond their errors are:
  87. 87. - to expose them to lots of language through reading and listening
  88. 88. - to give them opportunities to focus on the form of language
  89. 89. - to provide them with time in class to use language to communicate and interact.
  90. 90. A good time to correct learners is when they
  91. 91. realize they have made a mistake or learn some new language.
  92. 92. Errors are useful not only for the learner but also for..
  93. 93. the teacher, because….
  94. 94. They can help the teachers see how well the learners have learned something and what kind of help they may need</li></ul>MEN TDP PROGRAMME 2008<br />
  95. 95. Invitation to…<br />Work as a team<br />Theories of First and Second language Acquisition<br />
  96. 96. Thank You !<br />Theories of first and second language acquisition<br />