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Strategic People Management - AK2013

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Strategic People Management - AK2013

  1. 1. People Management for Public Managers Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 1 Facilitated by:Facilitated by: Andre KnipeAndre Knipe Mobile +27 (0)724174084Mobile +27 (0)724174084 Email: knipeandre@gmail.comEmail: knipeandre@gmail.com
  2. 2. Welcome & Introduction • Course administration • Times –  Morning coffee/ tea (15 min) –  Lunch (45 min) –  Afternoon coffee/ tea (15 min) • Please switch off your mobile phone • Introductions • Expectations Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 2
  3. 3. Experiential Learning Cycle Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 3
  4. 4. • Managers get what they reward, not what they want • People do what is inspected, not what is expected Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 4
  5. 5. Skills needed by level of management Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 5 Administrative: TopTop managementmanagement MiddleMiddle managementmanagement SupervisorySupervisory managementmanagement People: Problem Solving: Technical:
  6. 6. Who does what? Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 6
  7. 7. The context of HRM in the public sector  Direct relation between HRM and economic prosperity  Global competitiveness reflects a shift towards a knowledge- based economy  In industrialised world only 15% of active population touches a product  Other 85% adds value through creation, the management and transfer of information  As a result, the human dimension of competitiveness has become a key success factor in a modern economy Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 7
  8. 8. A basic public management model Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 8 General environment Specific environment Management functions policy making, planning, organising, leadership, control Management skills decision making, communication, management of change, negotiation Management applications policy analysis, strategic planning, project management, organisation development Supportive technology & techniques computer technology, information management
  9. 9. HRM & Competitiveness  To lead is to achieve a specific purpose through others  Effectiveness is determined by the way you frame the world for yourself and other, and the way you manage the arena in which your people work  “Strategic IQ” comes from facing challenges – not from sitting at a desk  To be effective, you have to build an effective, robust organisation. Stay focused on that goal, and all else will fall into place Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 9
  10. 10. How to improve the macro context of HRM? • Ensure: – a highly skilled worker corps – a motivated worker corps – a satisfied worker corps • A labour force free from discrimination • Criminal-free and corruption-free workforce • Effective people practices • Political will Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 10
  11. 11. Good governance require good people  Developing an effective, competent & forward-looking Public Service is one of the greatest challenges nations face.  National & international forces changing the role of the state - resulted in the need for new skills, attitudes & behaviour among public officials at all levels.  Core competencies of 21st century differ vastly from the past; new demands in terms of skills, knowledge and competency, are rapidly increasing and becoming more complex.  Increasing complexity of policy-making, managerial & administrative processes, as well as the erosion of human resources capacity to carry out those functions, is making it difficult for governments to operationalise national goals and strategies to reduce poverty and to promote sustainable human development. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 11
  12. 12. United Nations Committee of Experts in Public Administration (UNCEPA)  “Good governance involves capacity building through people and institutions. Through their knowledge, know-how and skills, people are at the heart of the performance of the state since it is people who provide services, promote innovations and carry out reforms.  A holistic national strategy should be adopted to strengthen the management of human capital in the public sector.  Revisit core values and principles outlined in legislation, examine the coherence of human resources management institutional frameworks, review recruitment and promotion strategies and incentives, institutionalize workforce planning, and ensure the representation of marginalized social groups.” Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 12
  13. 13. Expert Group Meeting on “Unlocking the Human Potential for Public Sector Performance” by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) • From deliberations of these meetings it was clear that effective human resources in the public sector play a critical role in enhancing the quality of a democracy. Ultimately, the ability of government to provide services effectively and efficiently depends upon a competent cadre of civil servants Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 13
  14. 14. But…  Survey conducted by the United Nations (2005) reveals that reform of the public sector in developing countries has been greatly affected by constraints in recruiting and retaining high-quality personnel. The main factors that may contribute to this phenomenon include:  a loss of pride within and credibility outside the public service;  ‘brain drain’ to the private sector and to more economically advanced countries due to better salaries and career opportunities; and  a gradual decay of national governance structures and support mechanisms. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 14
  15. 15. United Nation’s World Public Sector Report (Oct 2005)  Demographic changes — Populations are ageing; high costs of sustaining pension funds. Retirement = loss of institutional memory & capacity.  Labour migration — Should be counterbalanced by “earn, learn and return” strategies to take advantage of the enhanced skills and experience of the expatriate population, with programmes to facilitate remittances and encourage migrants to return.  HIV/AIDS — major impact on performance of governments; affects those in most economically productive phases of their lives; reduce the pool of prospective employees and economic productivity in many countries Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 15
  16. 16. A further issue…  Privatization and the outsourcing of many government jobs - a trend that reduces job security and blurs the line between public service and private enterprise - and an erosion of the benefit packages and job security that once were the most effective recruitment tools for government.  Savings are due to mainly less favourable pay and working conditions for public sector workers compared to their private sector counterparts. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 16
  17. 17. What is recommended?  Reinforcing HR planning  Reinforcing core public service values (e.g. integrity; competence; low tolerance for corruption & crime; respect for citizens’ needs)  Promoting professionalism in the public service  Creating a culture of learning organization  Introducing incentive structures  Increasing recognition of the value of cross-cultural and international links as means towards improvement of professional image & performance of the PS  Tapping the talent from underrepresented groups, including women  Promoting the knowledge and use of ICT tools Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 17
  18. 18. The big picture PLANNING BASE RESULTS REQUIRED HOW? IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW Environmental scanning (internal & external) Priority issues Vision Mission Objectives Strategies Programmes Projects Performance indicators Standards WHERE ARE WE NOW? WHERE DO WE WANT TO BE? HOW WILL WE GET THERE? WHO MUST DO WHAT? HOW ARE WE DOING? Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 18
  19. 19. From strategy to service delivery through people Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 19 Strategic Management • Environmental analysis • Vision & Mission statements • Objectives (thrusts) • Values (Statement of Intent) • Strategies • Dept Programmes Desired Future • Shared Vision • Common focus/synergy • Main objective • Direct all activities and resources Change Management - Organisational Culture - Transitional Communication Diversity Management Project Management Environmental Forces A C B Projects Service delivery Feedback
  20. 20. Organisational culture – the way people think…  Is the collection of values and norms that are shared by people in an organization and that control the way they interact with each other and with stakeholders outside the organization.  Organizational values are beliefs and ideas about what kinds of goals members of an organization should pursue and ideas about the appropriate kinds or standards of behaviour organizational members should use to achieve these goals Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 20
  21. 21. Elements of organisational culture  The Paradigm: What the organization is about; what it does; its mission; its values.  Control Systems: The processes to monitor what is going on.  Organizational Structures: Reporting lines, hierarchies, work flow  Power Structures: Who makes the decisions, how widely spread is power, and on what is power based?  Symbols: Include organizational logos and designs, symbols of power such as parking spaces and executive offices.  Rituals and Routines: Management meetings, reports and so on may become more habitual than necessary.  Stories and Myths: build up about people and events, and convey a message about what is valued within the organization. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 21
  22. 22. Critical aspects in organisational culture  Not a single culture in organisations (subsystem of society); complex organisations might have many cultures; such sub- cultures might overlap and contradict each other  ‘Cultural engineering’ could negatively influence the interests of some members in an organisation  Tension between cultural and structural (or informal and formal) variables in organisations; management should consider cultural issues in People Management Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 22
  23. 23. Bringing about change: the challenge of ‘institutional memory’ • A collective of facts, concepts, experiences and know-how held by a group/organisation. As it transcends the individual, it requires the ongoing transmission of these memories between members of this group. • Institutional memory may be encouraged to preserve a group's ideology or way of work. Conversely, institutional memory may be ingrained to the point that it becomes hard to challenge if situations/circumstances change. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 23
  24. 24. Drivers of transformation Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 24 The globalisation of markets, service & competitionThe globalisation of markets, service & competition More threats More threats More opportunities More opportunities Technological change Economic and global economic change Societal and developmental change Political and International political change Public Service changes: People issues
  25. 25. Magnitude of socio-political transformation • It is the discovering of something new to increase effectiveness • It constitutes fundamental change, affecting strategy, culture and behaviour (people!) • It is multi-dimensional and about continuous change • High levels of complexity and uncertainty • Redefinition of ‘core business’ • Changing of a paradigm/way of thinking • It involves internal and external change Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 25
  26. 26. What is transforming? • Services – Developmental government – Realignment of resources • Systems – More efficient, effective, economical – Transparent and accessible • People management – Participative and developmental Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 26
  27. 27. Priority activities for people management  Accelerated development for high potential & professional staff  Capacity building of key staff  Organisational culture change (PS values)  Process re-engineering  Team building (work ethos)  “The ability of organisations to change has become inextricably linked to the ability of individual employees to change” [Dotlich, 1998] Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 27
  28. 28. The importance of people leadership in this context  We face adaptive changes  Changes in society (socio-political)  Changes in technology  Changes in markets  Global changes and forces  Leaders do not need to know all the answers - they do need to ask the right questions!  Leaders need to break long-standing, bureaucratic behavior patterns  Remember! Change is distressing for people going through it Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 28
  29. 29. Manager and change  A manager may be viewed as a systems diagnoser, who works with people and other resources to carry out tasks and achieve goals.  A manager understands the organisation and influences system components such as tasks, technology, structure, and people to achieve desired outputs.  Managers are engaged in a dynamic search to align the organisation with its changing environment and arrange internal resources to fit that alignment.  BUT! Managers do not have total control over the organisation for which they are responsible. No manager can totally predict and control environmental forces; many factors determine why events unfold as they do Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 29
  30. 30. Activity 1 • In small groups: – Do an assessment of the status of HRM/people management in your hospital. (use strengths & weaknesses currently to assist you) – Describe what type of manager you would like to report to/work with. (refer to skills, competencies, characteristics) © M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2012 30
  31. 31. Change and people Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 31 • Pervasive change has become the norm as Public Institutions have adapt to rapid and often unexpected change (e.g. technology, economic conditions, global competition, world politics, social and demographic factors, etc.) • People seek change that is favourable and resist change perceived as harmful or ambiguous. They make the costs / benefit assessments of potential changes, which influence their degree of acceptance or resistance. • Changes are obviously adopted at different rates - the ‘innovators’ try things first, followed by the ‘early adopters’. These are the people one needs to get on board first. Managers need to focus on these groups, not on the ‘die- hards’. Some people are never able to change and they become “the casualties of war”.
  32. 32. Change and public institutions Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 32 • A threefold leadership role is required to become nimble. First, ensure that the organisation is an ‘open system’ (keeping people and things in an unending growth-and-renewal mode); second, take steps to increase its absorption limits, and third, constantly press the envelope of these boundaries by introducing as many important changes as possible without overextending available adaptation resources. • Nimbleness means more than flexibility. It is a term that conveys speed, grace and dexterity. As a nimble operation adjusts to unfamiliar pressures, people go beyond merely the new demands.
  33. 33. From ‘maintaining the bureaucracy’ to the ‘nimble’ State Department  Nimble operations require people who display resilience during change. Resilient associates tend to be resourceful, multi-skilled and highly motivated.  Self-Organisation - Nimble organisations rely on their ability to self- organise, to constantly reinvent themselves in order to remain viable. The drive and urgency for change should come from within the system.  Resilience in Organisations - Resilience is the ability to absorb large amounts of disruptive change without a significant drop in quality and productivity standards. A highly resilient organisation is one that regains its equilibrium quickly after the disruption of change, accomplishes important tasks during periods of confusion, makes sure its people are physically and emotionally healthy and that its systems remain operational despite high levels of stress. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 33
  34. 34. State Departments is constantly engaged in a struggle between order and chaos. Each force represents a separate and powerful influence that acts to balance the impact of the other. The nexus, the eye of the storm, is where public institutions should be. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 34
  35. 35. Future shock is the boundary that separates the two ends of the predictability/instability continuum. Formative future shock is that part of the realm between order and chaos where the factors that contribute to dysfunction are just forming, and are only beginning to have an adverse impact on productivity and quality. Although this chaotic change load can be destructive, within this realm also lies the unquiet zone where nimble organisations thrive. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 35
  36. 36. The critical mass principle TIME % OF PEOPLE ADOPTING TO CHANGE 5% 20% IMBEDDEDIMBEDDED UNSTOPPABLEUNSTOPPABLE Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 36 •When 5% of people adopt to change, the change becomes embedded. • When 20% adopt it, the change is unstoppable (Cook et al. 1997)
  37. 37. Change and people TIME % OF PEOPLE INNOVATORS EARLYMAJORITY EARLYADOPTERS LATEMAJORITY LATEADOPTERS DIEHARDS Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 37 A Manager needs to get the ‘innovators ’ and ‘early adopters’ of change on board as early as possible (Cook et al. 1997)
  38. 38. Conceptualization  Personnel function: a group of activities for the provision, utilisation and maintenance of adequate personnel for effective service delivery. Includes recruitment, selection, training, placement, evaluation, and remuneration.  Personnel management: the responsibility which a supervisor has towards the management of subordinates so that they are effectively utilised and will contribute towards accomplishment of institutional goals.  Human resource management: a process much broader than designing personnel programmes; it involves strategic planning and implementation. Includes changing culture, values, norms & structures within Public Service. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 38
  39. 39. Emerging Paradigm: Scientific Management (1900s) – Human Relations (1930-40s) – Human Resource Approach (1970s-) = Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 39 Higher Employee Motivation and Applied Ability Higher Organisational Productivity Greater Quality, Quantity of Work Greater Employee Rewards, Recognition
  40. 40. People management responsibilities  Approx 64 different management activities assigned to the Personnel/HR dept, but main activities include: ◦ Compensation and benefits (e.g. wage and salary admin., unemployment compensation, pension, leave, benefits) ◦ Employee services (e.g. health & wellness, savings, relocation) ◦ Employment Equity ◦ Job Analysis ◦ Pre-employment testing ◦ Attitude surveys (research) ◦ Line management advise and assistance ◦ Policy development Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 40
  41. 41. Typical Senior Manager HR profile • Job purpose: – To promote optimal human resource development in the department – To build effective work teams for performance excellence – To maximise human capital to achieve departmental objectives Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 41
  42. 42. Typical Senior Manager HR profile  Knowledge: ◦ Advanced knowledge of HR development & maintenance ◦ Modern systems of governance, administration and institutional arrangements ◦ Latest advances in Public Management theory and practice ◦ Constitutional & legal arrangements of Government ◦ Global, regional, and local political, economic and social affairs impacting on the dept. ◦ People management principles, functions, processes and procedures ◦ Public sector HR policies and legislation Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 42
  43. 43. Typical Middle Manager’s HR Profile: Skills • Strong conceptual and formulation skills • Leadership skills in complex applications • Team-building and strong interpersonal skills • Communication skills • Planning, organising and people management skills • Computer literacy skills • Strong networking experience Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 43
  44. 44. Typical Middle Manager’s HR Profile: Personal Attributes • Highly developed interpretive, conceptualisation and formulation abilities • Ability to render advice and guidance in an objective yet dedicated manner • Ability to multi-task, deal with ambiguity and manage under rapidly changing and pressurised circumstances • Ability to persuade and influence • Ability to handle conflict • Ability to lead and direct teams Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 44
  45. 45. Strategic HRM in the Public Service  It is crucial to assess where the institution is, where it is going, as well as the implications on the future demands and supply of human resources. The purpose of human resource planning is therefore to ensure that people will be available to provide the continued smooth functioning and growth of an institution.  Strategic HRM is the process by which an institution ensures that it has the right numbers and kinds of people at the right places at the right time, capable of effectively and efficiently completing those tasks that will aid the institution in achieving its overall objectives. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 45
  46. 46. Steps in Strategic HRM Planning  The assessment of human resource requirements to identify the numbers of staff and skills required, as well as the targets within these for meeting the goals of employment equity.  The assessment of existing human resource capacity to analyse the numbers and skills of staff who are currently employed and their potential for meeting future requirements through training and development. The gaps in numbers and skills as well as in equity targets which must be filled must also be identified.  Drawing up of a human resource plan or strategy to address the “gap” between the requirements and the existing capacity of staff. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 46
  47. 47. Cascading Planning Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 47 A rolling 3-5 year process Strategic planning Answers: Where should we be going? Defines: The vision and mission Analyses all the stakeholder & environmental factors influencing operations, to show threats and opportunities Determines real abilities of dept, mngt, finance, & HR Selects strategic objectives for the directorate and units Documents your strategy Up to 12 months in time down to one month Tactical planning for a directorate Answers: How will we get there? Determines the processes and tasks to be done at each level in the directorate Establishes who is responsible for doing what at each level Allocates money, human, information resources Sets quantitative measurements in each area: The budget and other indicators of performance Puts the tactical plan in writing One month down to one week Operational planning Perform planned actions: Exercise control Evaluate progress Take corrective actions
  48. 48. SWOT Analysis Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 48 • Is an extremely useful tool for understanding the context of the dept and assists with decision-making for all sorts of situations. • Is an acronym for strengths (what do we need that we have), opportunities (leverage?), weaknesses (what do we need that we do not have?), & threats (what can go wrong?). • Is a subjective assessment of data which is organized by the SWOT format into a logical order that helps understanding, discussion and decision-making.
  49. 49. SWOT Analysis: Template strengthsstrengths •Advantages of proposition? •Capabilities? •Competitive advantages? •Resources, Assets, People? •Experience, knowledge, data? •Financial reserves, likely returns? •Marketing - reach, distribution, awareness? •Innovative aspects? •Location and geographical? •Price, value, quality? •Processes, systems, IT, communications? •Cultural, attitudinal, behavioural? •Management cover, succession? weaknessesweaknesses •Disadvantages of proposition? •Gaps in capabilities? •Reputation, presence and reach? •Financials? •Own known vulnerabilities? •Timescales, deadlines and pressures? •Cash flow, start-up cash-drain? •Continuity, supply chain robustness? •Effects on core activities, distraction? •Reliability of data, plan predictability? •Morale, commitment, leadership? •Processes and systems, etc? •Management cover, succession? opportunitiesopportunities •Govt trends? •Technology development and innovation? •Global influences? •New services? •Geographical, export, import? •Information and research? •Partnerships, agencies, distribution? •Volumes, production, economies? threatsthreats •Political effects? Legislative effects? •Environmental effects? •IT developments? New technologies, services, ideas? •Vital contracts and partners? •Sustaining internal capabilities? •Obstacles faced? Weaknesses? •Loss of key staff? •Sustainable financial backing? •Seasonality, weather effects?Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 49
  50. 50. SWOT & PEST • A SWOT analysis measures a business unit, a proposition or idea; a PEST analysis measures a ‘market’ (broader perspective). • PEST = Political, Economic, Social and Technology. • It’s helpful to complete a PEST analysis prior to completing a SWOT analysis. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 50
  51. 51. Internally, consider Peter Senge’s "Seven S’s" -framework: • Strategies • Structures (organisation) • Systems (procedures, rules, methods, etc.) • Styles (management) • Staff (availability, number, etc.) • Subordinate goals • Skills (appropriate to strategies) Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 51
  52. 52. Situation Analysis Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 52 Functional AreaFunctional Area StrengthsStrengths WeaknessesWeaknesses OpportunityOpportunity ThreatsThreats Financing Treasury allocated budget for the project Attitude of sponsors Budgetary constraints Development of financial management and training Delays in Treasury transfer of funds Fluctuating value of the rand Managerial General knowledge, skills and work experience Lack of operational skills Lack of technological guidance e.g. drafting of business plan New management is prepared for the challenge Lack of exposure/ experience Political factors Political support and will Change of political leadership, councillors, MEC Political responsibility on government to provide… New political leadership may not support the project Project may be used as a political bargaining tool Resources Technology Labour Competition
  53. 53. Force Field Analysis Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 53 QUANTIFYING FORCESFOR AND AGAINST INITIATIVES Forces ForForces For Impact Value Forces AgainstForces Against Impact Value 1. Improved services delivery 6 1. Resistance to change 5 2. Legislation/policy imperatives 4 2. Budget constraints 2 3. Image 5 3. Lack of skilled staff 7 4. Management support 3 4. Time constraints 2 Total 18 Total 16
  54. 54. Strategic HRM in the Public Service  Requires formulation of human resource objectives, strategies & policies.  Enables provision of skills and abilities needed to meet the requirements of dept's overall objectives.  Provide the framework which ensures that staff's needs are met.  HR strategies are supported by ICT in the form of human resource information systems and workforce management systems.  Both planning and strategy are dependent on some method of forecasting the future. Strategy takes a broader, more global view whereas planning is concerned with detail. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 54
  55. 55. Strategic HRM  Are derived from overall institutional objectives in the same way as financial or service delivery strategies. There’s a need for employees to accept and believe in organisation's goals. These goals (like any other objectives) need to be expressed in quantifiable terms so that outcomes can be measured.  Strategic human resource objectives go beyond the simplistic calculation and control of staff numbers. Strategic thinking also incorporates ethical and legal considerations, which have complex implications on the achievement of a wide range of institutional objectives such as equity and working conditions. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 55
  56. 56. Managing People • A manager's most important, and most difficult, job is to manage people. You must lead, motivate, inspire, and encourage them. • Sometimes you will have to hire, fire, discipline or evaluate employees. • Your job as a manager is to get things done. However, it also means getting things done through others. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 56
  57. 57. Importance of People Leadership • Provide guidance towards goal achievement • Co-ordinate activities of staff in a specific organisational setting • Coach and develop teamwork • Provide an atmosphere of empowerment • Inspire and motivate people to boost productivity, etc. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 57
  58. 58.  "A leader is best when people barely know he exists, when his work is done, his aim fulfilled, they will say: we did it ourselves” --Lao Tzu  "The key to successful leadership today is influence, not authority." --Ken Blanchard  "Leaders are made, they are not born. They are made by hard effort, which is the price which all of us must pay to achieve any goal that is worthwhile." --Vince Lombardi  "Good leaders make people feel that they're at the very heart of things, not at the periphery.” Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 58
  59. 59.  "If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more, you are a leader." - JQ Adams  "I start with the premise that the function of leadership is to produce more leaders, not more followers." - Ralph Nader  "Leadership is a matter of having people look at you and gain confidence, seeing how you react. If you're in control, they're in control." --Tom Landry  "Outstanding leaders go out of the way to boost the self-esteem of their personnel. If people believe in themselves, it's amazing what they can accomplish." - Sam Walton  "Leadership is not magnetic personality — that can just as well be a glib tongue. It is not 'making friends and influencing people' -- that is flattery. Leadership is lifting a person's vision to high sights, the raising of a person's performance to a higher standard, the building of a personality beyond its normal limitations." - Peter Drucker Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 59
  60. 60. Quotations  "Leadership rests not only upon ability, not only upon capacity; having the capacity to lead is not enough. The leader must be willing to use it. His leadership is then based on truth and character. There must be truth in the purpose and will power in the character." -V Lombardi  "The most dangerous leadership myth is that leaders are born -- that there is a genetic factor to leadership. This myth asserts that people simply either have certain charismatic qualities or not. That's nonsense; in fact, the opposite is true. Leaders are made rather than born." -Warren G. Bennis  "All of the great leaders have had one characteristic in common: it was the willingness to confront unequivocally the major anxiety of their people in their time. This, and not much else, is the essence of leadership." - John Kenneth Galbraith Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 60
  61. 61. Supervision • Managers whose major functions emphasise directing and controlling the work of employees to achieve departmental goals • Are the only level managing non-managers (What challenges do this create?) Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 61
  62. 62. The Authority of Supervisors • Three forms of supervisory authority: • Line: from superior to subordinate; chain of command; establish accountability • Staff: based on expertise; advisors, counselling, assistance • Team: to manage unit/section/directorate (organigram specified) Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 62
  63. 63. Supervisor as a Team Leader • Departmental success dependant on team work (Value- Chain); • Therefore, supervisor as leader crucial for departmental effectiveness and efficiency Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 63
  64. 64. What is leadership? • Leadership is fundamentally about indicating what direction to take • (Heifitz 1994) • The practice of a set of skills, as opposed to a position of authority. It facilitates transition away from the status quo and assists to transform the structure, culture, and politics of an institution toward some envisioned future state Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 64
  65. 65. Leadership…(cont.) • Indirect ability to lead people by setting an inspiring example - one that inspires people to pursue a direction that benefits the institution. It's indirect because true leaders do not have to intentionally try to influence someone. This means that, to be a leader, one must excel in achieving goals that others can admire (Sergiovanni 1994) Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 65
  66. 66. Supervisor as Team Leader (…2) • Need to focus staff on envisioned future state • Leadership roles: – being an organisational architect (work flow & design) – providing stewardship (put vision in practice) – being a ‘teacher’ (learning organisation) Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 66
  67. 67. Supervisory roles • Multiple roles: – Interpersonal relationships – Represents the work group – Maintenance of work flow – Information roles (disseminator) – Liaison with clients, other directorates, managers (official spokesperson) Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 67
  68. 68. Leadership vs Management • Management is the process of assuring that the objectives and programmes of the organisation are implemented. Leadership, on the other hand, has to do with casting vision and motivating people. • People don’t want to be managed; they want to be led. • Leadership = Influence (the ability to obtain followers; can be learnt) Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 68
  69. 69. Leadership vs Management (…2) • Knowing how to do a job is the accomplishment of labour • Showing others is the accomplishment of a teacher • Making sure the work is done by others is the accomplishment of a manager • Inspiring others to do better work is the accomplishment of a leader Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 69
  70. 70. Leadership vs Management (…3)  A real leader knows the difference between being the boss and being a leader.  The boss drives his/her workers; the leader coaches them.  The boss depends upon authority; the leader on goodwill.  The boss inspires fear; the leader inspires enthusiasm.  The boss says “I”; the leader, “we”.  The boss fixes the blame for the breakdown; the leader fixes the breakdown.  The boss knows how it is done; the leader shows how.  The boss says “go”; the leader says “let’s go!” Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 70
  71. 71. MANAGERS LEADERS Manage today Make tomorrow Are detailed driven Are concept driven Think in “micro” Think in “macro” Respond to change Initiate change Defend the status quo Challenge the status quo Administer work Motivate people Have little or no vision Have a vision Do not see the need for change See the need for change Maintain the operation Develop the operation Get results Build potential Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 71
  72. 72. Leadership (…cont) • Do not - – base your security on your title; but on your talent – base your leadership role on an appointment but on your abilities. You may be “in control”, but others will not follow you gladly and confidently • People willingly follow leaders because they want to - not because they have to! Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 72
  73. 73. Leadership: Influencing factors • The manager’s personal characteristics, skills & abilities • Subordinates’ experience & skills • Task (complexity, duration) • Environment (context, circumstances) Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 73
  74. 74. Leadership  L = Loyalty (to the dept, yourself and team)  E = Example (on time, language, appearance)  A = Adaptability (change or alter decisions)  D = Develop people, systems, processes  E = Eagerness (more knowledge, achievement)  R = Risk (calculated decision-making)  S = Self-discipline (emotionally self-controlled)  H = Honesty (codes of conduct)  I = Initiative (new ideas, solutions)  P = Praise/Punishment (where necessary) Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 74
  75. 75. Leadership styles • Laissez-faire • Autocratic (when?) • Democratic/participatory/ uBuntu (when?) • Two main categories of styles: – Task-centred – People-centred Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 75
  76. 76. A Delicate Balance Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 76 Use of authority by manager Area of freedom for sub-ordinates Manager makes decisions and announces it Manager “sells” decision Manager presents ideas and invites questions Manager presents tentative decision subject to change Manager presents problem, gets sugges- tions, makes decision Manager defines limits, asks group to make decision Manager permits sub- ordinates to function within limits defined by superior
  77. 77. The Significance of Vision  Leaders have to share a dream and direction that other people want to share and follow.  It goes beyond written organizational vision and mission statements. It permeates the workplace and is manifested in the actions, beliefs, values and goals of organization’s leaders.  Most businesses were started because the founder had a vision about what could be created. Sharing that vision with others in a way that compels them to act is the secret to a successful leadership vision. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 77
  78. 78. Vision should…  Clearly set organizational direction and purpose;  Inspire loyalty and caring through the involvement of all employees;  Display and reflect the unique strengths, culture, values, beliefs and direction of the organization;  Inspire enthusiasm, belief, commitment and excitement in company members;  Help employees believe that they are part of something bigger than themselves and their daily work;  Be regularly communicated and shared;  Challenge people to outdo themselves, to stretch and reach. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 78
  79. 79. Visionary Leadership • A vision has 2 fundamental elements: • To provide a conceptual framework – a road map or plan of action • Emotional appeal (motivation and commitment) • Supervisors = Custodians and catalysts of continuous improvement Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 79
  80. 80. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 80 Leader Attributes Organisational Outcomes Vision/ Creativity Energy, hard work Risk-taking behaviour Communication •Organisational innovation •Strategic thinking •Direction-setting •Motivated workforce Setting/ Achieving Objectives Environmental scanning Long-term focus Customer-focus and quality-driven •Quality services & products •Global view •Consistent results •Competitive advantage Confident Decision-Making Initiative, confidence Action-centred Calculated risk-taking •Strong organisational culture •Challenging workplace •Achievable performance objectives Team-building Role modelling Involvement, inspiration Commitment Trust •Motivated workforce •Employee self-esteem •Innovative work practices •Achievement Charisma Role modelling Confidence Ethics, morality •Team-building •Long-term survival
  81. 81. Role of Leaders: The Universal Alignment Model Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 81 SourceSource: Molden, D.: Molden, D. & Symes, J& Symes, J
  82. 82. Inspirational Leadership  "Leadership is based on a spiritual quality; the power to inspire, the power to inspire others to follow." --Vince Lombbardi  The ability to inspire people to reach great heights of performance and success is a skill that leaders need. Passion, purpose, listening and meaning help make a leader inspirational. The ability to communicate that passion, purpose and meaning to others helps establish the inspirational culture of the organisation. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 82
  83. 83. Inspirational Leadership: Key points  Leader should share passion in a way that enables others to feel passionate, too. The nature of the vision and mission is critical for enabling others to feel as if their work has purpose and meaning beyond the tasks they perform each day. Sometimes leaders have to help their staff connect the dots by explaining this big picture to all; it will reinforce the reason the organisation exists.  Leader should listen to people. Talking to people about your passion is not enough. To “share meaning” you must allow the ideas and thoughts of your staff to help form the vision and mission, or minimally, the goals and action plan. People need to see their ideas incorporated – or understand why they were not. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 83
  84. 84. Inspirational Leadership • To experience inspiration, people also need to feel included. Inclusion goes beyond the listening and feedback; for real inclusion, people need to feel intimately connected to the actions and process that are leading to the accomplishment of the goals or the decision. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 84
  85. 85. Inspirational Leadership  Important to inspiration is the integrity of the person leading. People must trust you to feel inspired. They must believe in you. Your “person” is as important as the direction you provide. Employees look up to a person who tells the truth, tries to do the right things, lives a "good" life and does their best.  You must share the rewards if the organisation is doing well. The inspirational leader also understands that, while money is a motivator, so are praise, recognition, rewards, a thank you and noticing an individual’s contribution to a successful endeavour. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 85
  86. 86. People Leadership: Future challenges… • Virtual organizations • The just-in-time work force • The ascendancy of knowledge workers • Computerized coaching and monitoring • Growth of worker diversity: ethical and legal implications • The aging PS work force Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 86
  87. 87. The Manager as Coach • Provide on-going guidance and instruction • Monitor day-to-day progress • Provide feedback • Act as mentor • Demonstrate activities • Improve job performance: involves teaching and passing of knowledge; follow up - evaluate learning • Create a positive atmosphere Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 87
  88. 88. The Art of Supervision: Directing  Operationalising strategic goals into tactical and operational plans  Need detailed reports  From planning to doing  Set clear objectives (measurable, attainable, etc.)  Set operating guidelines  Set due dates and performance indicators  Do action planning  Monitor progress Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 88
  89. 89. Supervision: Controlling staff  Types of control:  Feedforward  Concurrent  Feedback  Control process  Step 1: Establish performance standards  Step 2: Measure actual performance  Step 3: Compare measured performance against established standards  Step 4: Take corrective action Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 89
  90. 90. Establishing a work ethos • The Presidential Review Commission and DPSA regard the establishment of a professional work ethos in the Public Service as a extremely important precondition for the improvement of service delivery (How?) Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 90
  91. 91. Professionalisation of People: The role of a Public Service Ethos  Public servants function in socio-political milieu – in trust of citizens; Actions open for scrutiny – therefore conduct must be consistent with democratic and societal values  Unlike morality, ethics is a rational and conscious attempt to formulate the principles of ‘good’ and ‘bad’, ‘right’ or ‘wrong’.  Management actions and decisions ought to be ethical. Should involve rightful actions; otherwise it will not pass the test of moral scrutiny. This means more than conforming to what is legal. Ethical and moral standards go beyond the prohibitions of law and the language of “thou shalt not” to the issues of duty and the language of “should do and should not do”.  Ethics concerns human duty and the principles on which this duty rests (Thompson & Strickland, 1998). Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 91
  92. 92. Professionalisation of the Public Service  Ethics is about moral duty and obligations.  Ethical behaviour is that which conforms to accepted standards of conduct.  Ethical reasoning involves sorting out the principles that help determine what is ethical when faced with an ethical dilemma - a situation or problem facing an individual that involves complex and often conflicting principles of ethical behaviour.  Ethical dilemmas often arise when public managers are faced with conflicting values. When thinking through particular dilemmas (i.e. implementation of policy), the following questions tend to focus ethical sensitivity and moral awareness: Does this decision or action meet the highest societal standards about how people should interact with each other? Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 92
  93. 93. Key challenges  Consensus? (diverse composition of Public Service - i.e. dress codes, leave arrangements)  Who’s values and norms? (multiple cultures, religions, languages, etc.)  How to measure unethical conduct? (unquantifiable concepts; make performance rewards complex) Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 93
  94. 94. Characteristics of a Professional Public Service • Understanding of unique PS values • Compliance with codes of conduct • Accumulated knowledge & skills (continuous training; life- long learning) • Sensitivity and tolerance • Conviction to serve... Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 94
  95. 95. Why bother? Why study ethics? • Ensure that functional activities are executed in accordance with ethical norms • Ensure that legislation and management decisions (instructions) are implemented according to ethical principles • Ensure fair labour practices • Provide an orderly way of thinking through the ethical implications of a decision (moral perspective) Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 95
  96. 96. Why bother? Why study ethics?…(2) • Leads to greater consistency in performance management • Reveal the value dimension of a decision • Help office managers to make judgements that can be defended in public Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 96
  97. 97. Manifestations of unethical conduct • Institutional misconduct, i.e. misuse of authority, protecting incompetence, nepotism, bribery, misuse of inside knowledge and influence peddling • Political corruption (‘government crimes’, i.e. election fraud, official violence, false rumours, etc.) Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 97
  98. 98. Manifestations of unethical conduct (2)  Corruption - more wide-spread or pervasive in some than in other countries. In Third World it consumes 30%-70% of the national budget! Bribery is not the only form.  May be defined as -  “…the unsanctioned, illegal, unethical and unauthorised exploitation of one’s political or official position to use public resources or goods for personal gain that is for non-public ends”(K. Gyekye) Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 98
  99. 99. Forms of Corruption  Active and passive corruption: a person tempts an official to be corrupt (active) and the official is willing to be corrupted (passive).  Corruption is not confined to bribery but it includes the following: stealing public funds; false documents; disappearing of important documents; extortion; a second job – which you do in office hours; using unlicensed video tapes, pirated computer software, protecting incompetence, and many more. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 99
  100. 100. Bribery • = Payment, which may be money, favours or gifts, to influence a decision. To receive favours in turn; facilitate fast delivery of goods; gain an unfair advantage; avoid legal prosecution or to supply sub-standard products or services. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 100
  101. 101. Measures and mechanisms to ensure ethical conduct • Legislation and Judiciary • Public Service Commission (investigate, monitor, and evaluate practices) • Training and guidance (role of supervisor/Office manager) • Media (‘watchdog’, investigative reporting, i.e. Special Assignment) Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 101
  102. 102. Measures and mechanisms to ensure ethical conduct…(2) • Public Protector • Public participation (insight and oversight; mechanisms i.e. councillors and ward committees) • Auditor-General (investigate financial matters) • ‘Whistle-blowing’ & suggestion boxes Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 102
  103. 103. Compiling a Customer Service Manifesto • Manifesto should include - • What we do best • What we need to avoid • What we need to improve • What makes our customer service unique • What our customers deserve that we shall deliver • How soon we shall start with the ‘new’ service Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 103
  104. 104. Code of Conduct • Primary purpose to: – Indicate the spirit in which employees should perform their duties – Promote exemplary conduct by all employees, including supervisors, in public and private life Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 104
  105. 105. ◦ An employee shall - ◦ Respect and protect every person’s dignity and rights as contained in the Constitution ◦ Acknowledge the cultural and ethnic diversity within the department and promote a culture of mutual tolerance ◦ Comply with the conditions of service as contained in all the directives applicable in the dept ◦ Perform to the best of his/her abilities all duties and functions reasonably assigned to him/her ◦ Use any asset of the dept entrusted to him/her with the utmost care ◦ Devote his/her time and attention during normal business hours to the activities and affairs of the department ◦ Be true and faithful to the department in all dealings and transactions.. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 105
  106. 106. ◦ An employee shall not - ◦ Commit an act, which will infringe any constitutional rights of another employee ◦ Unfairly discriminate against any member of the public ◦ Abuse his/her position to promote or prejudice the interest of any political party or interest group ◦ Conduct hi/herself in a disgraceful, improper, discourteous or unbecoming manner towards any employee of the dept ◦ Wilfully makes an incorrect or false statement ◦ Absent him/herself from work without permission ◦ Intimidate or act violently towards any other employee or member of the public ◦ Use the property of the dept for his/her personal benefit ◦ Engage in criminal activity ◦ Have in his/her possession liquor or illegal drugs Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 106
  107. 107. Code of Conduct: Bark without a bite? – Any employee who commits an act or omission in contravention of the Code of Conduct, is guilty of misconduct and is liable to be penalised in accordance with the Disciplinary Code and Procedure, Resolution 2 of 1999 or any amendment or replacement thereof Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 107
  108. 108. Building & maintaining effective teams Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 108
  109. 109. Effective teams • People are probably an organisation's most important 'raw material’. • They only become resources or assets when they are effectively utilised. • Human talents remain an under-utilised potential until it is activated by the organisation. • Prof Ross Moss Kantor, Harvard University Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 109
  110. 110. Team-building and Supervision: The Crucial Connection • Supervisor guide organisational unit to accomplish specified goals • The supervisor guide and indicate direction • Plan the functional route • The supervisor is part of the team: will therefore share in its trials and tribulations • “A man on his own cannot achieve anything” • (Samora Machel) Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 110
  111. 111. What is a team? • Two or more people interacting interdependently (benefit from multiple skills and experiences) • Have common goal • Members think they belong together • Form a single unit • Share common beliefs and attitudes • Accept certain norms Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 111
  112. 112. Types of teams • Formal (organisationally formed around common tasks, such as directorates, committees, unions, etc.) • Informal (formed around friendship, common interests, e.g. clubs) • Organisational, functional • Cross-functional (brought together from various functional areas) • Self-directed work teams • Virtual teams Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 112
  113. 113. Building an effective work team • Team = Together Everybody Achieves More • Team empowerment (‘esprit de corps’) • Team development: – forming, storming, norming & performing Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 113
  114. 114. The 17 indisputable laws of teamwork • The law of significance – One is too small a number to achieve greatness • The law of the ‘big picture’ – The goal is more important than the role • The law of the niche – All players have a place where they add more value • The law of ‘Mount Everest’ – As the challenge escalates, the need for teamwork elevates • The law of the chain – The strength of the team is impacted by the weakest link • The law of the catalyst – Winning teams have players who make things happen Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 114
  115. 115. • The law of the compass – Vision gives team members direction and confidence • The law of the ‘bad apple’ – Rotten attitudes ruin a team • The law of countability – Team mates must be able to count on each other when it counts • The law of the price tag – The team fails to reach its potential when it fails to pay the price • The law of the scoreboard – The team can make adjustments when it knows where it stands • The law of the bench – Great teams have great depth Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 115
  116. 116. • The law of identity – Shared values define the team • The law of communication – Interaction fuels action • The law of the edge – The difference between two equally talented teams is Leadership • The law of high morale – When you are winning nothing hurts • The law of dividends – Investing in the team compounds over time Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 116
  117. 117. Traits of Successful Team Builders ENSURES  Quality decision making  Proper balance between planning and action  Technical competence to complete the tasks  A flow of good ideas  That the team does not close in on itself  That each individual has a clear role  That team members are involved and participate  That there is a clear sense of direction and purpose Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 117
  118. 118. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 118 AVOIDS  Excessive focus on detail  Hidden agendas and conflict ALLOWS  Mistakes  Challenge within the supportive environment DEVELOPS  Review and feedback mechanisms  Good listening skills  A focus on achieving the task Traits of Successful Team Builders
  119. 119. ‘Walk the talk’: Start with yourself! • Do what is expected of you as supervisor • You can change things - you may make a huge impact upon the way in which your staff work • You can shape your work environment • Convince others that what you do is good Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 119
  120. 120. Secrets of working successful in a team • Secret 1: Make people feel stronger rather than weaker as a result of your interactions with them • Forget about ‘pecking orders’ of any type • Recognise people’s strengths • Honour and value people’s efforts • Involve others in planning, problem-solving, and decision- making Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 120
  121. 121. Secrets…cont. • Secret 2: Do not use everyone’s suggestion merely to make each person feel good; must be realistic/feasible • Secret 3: Realise that most decisions are multi-valued, and that various alternatives could lead to success; get everybody’s perspectives • Secret 4: Develop a common vision with your colleagues; ensure all efforts are aligned with common sense of purpose Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 121
  122. 122. Three faces of a Supervisor • Planner: long-term view; select an optimal plan for implementation; allocate resources and timeframes • Provider: access to information and resources; facilitate empowerment & development • Protector: security from poor management; gate-keeper, filter; ensure job security, Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 122
  123. 123. Characteristics of effective teams • Atmosphere is close and friendly • All members participate • Commitment to team goals • Common norms and behaviour • Listen and share information • Decisions are made by consensus Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 123
  124. 124. Characteristics of effective teams…(2) • Conflict is dealt with openly and resolved • Continuous and objective feedback • Clear division of labour and leadership • Members are aware of their roles and able to monitor themselves Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 124
  125. 125. Team Effectiveness • Clear understanding of the team’s objective • Clear expectations of roles and responsibilities • A result orientation • A high degree of co-operation and collaboration • A high level of trust Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 125
  126. 126. Key factors to make a team successful  A clear set of objectives, spelt out unambiguously by management  Metrics allowing team members to assess their performance – showing the connection between the team’s work and key organisational indicators  Continuing training (incl. communication, group leadership, interpersonal, etc.)  Decision-making authority over how to reach goals (incrementally)  Team-based rewards and evaluation, not just individual incentives  (Harvard Business School, 2006) Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 126
  127. 127. Barriers to Team Effectiveness  Unclear goals  Unclear definition of roles and responsibilities  Lack of structure; design  Lack of commitment  Poor communication  Poor leadership  High turnover of team members  Dysfunctional behaviour Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 127
  128. 128. Empowering your staff! • Individual achievement is a team-building ideal • Best chance for a winning team is self-directiveness with minimum interference from supervisor • Give staff decision-making power • Let them participate (brainstorming) • Encourage consensus Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 128
  129. 129. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 129 a)a) Expectancy TheoryExpectancy Theory  People will work hard if they think theyPeople will work hard if they think they will achieve their goals by doing sowill achieve their goals by doing so  ““I am motivated to do X, because theI am motivated to do X, because the manager said I will be promoted if I domanager said I will be promoted if I do it.”it.” b)b) Reinforcement TheoryReinforcement Theory  People perform behaviours for whichPeople perform behaviours for which they are rewardedthey are rewarded  ““The last time I did X the managerThe last time I did X the manager praised me, thus I will do it again.”praised me, thus I will do it again.” c)c) Goal SettingGoal Setting  People perform behaviours in order toPeople perform behaviours in order to achieve their goalsachieve their goals  ““To be promoted I must do X.”To be promoted I must do X.” MainMain Theories ofTheories of MotivationMotivation
  130. 130. Motivation: Consider the following:  A supervisor cannot motivate people directly (must be intrinsic).  A supervisor could, however, create a conducive working climate or environment, in which he/she can incorporate elements which encourage people to be more efficient (people do things correctly) and more effective (people do the correct things correctly). Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 130
  131. 131. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 131  Some people are 'Some people are 'self startersself starters' while others' while others constantly have to be encouraged and urged on -constantly have to be encouraged and urged on - ''kick starterskick starters'.'.  People make decisions about the amount of energyPeople make decisions about the amount of energy they are prepared to spend in return for a particularthey are prepared to spend in return for a particular reward or punishmentreward or punishment.. Motivation: ConsiderMotivation: Consider (2)(2)
  132. 132. What motivates a person?  Salary and benefits  Working conditions  Policy and procedures  Status  Job security  Supervision and autonomy  Office life  Personal life  Achievement  Recognition  Job interest  Responsibility  Advancement Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 132 Important!Important! Learn to see the difference between work problems and personal ones!
  133. 133. Recognizing motivation  Look particularly for signs that your staff feel useful, optimistic, or able to take opportunities. Look for evidence that your staff are satisfied in their jobs rather than anxious or frustrated. Other indications:  They freely volunteer effort and ideas, as well as other contributions  They always react well to requests and new assignments  They work to achieve  They seem to be happy at work  They always respond frankly to questions Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 133
  134. 134. Warning signs and your response!  Treat frequent absenteeism as warning signs of demotivation  Keep work as varied as possible to avoid causing demotivation  Always ask staff for their opinions about decisions that affect them  Undertake to report back on any problems that they pinpoint  If the supervisor does not play favourites, favours are less likely to be sought  Praise work well done, even if some targets are missed  Learn from mistakes  A ‘blame culture’ must be prevented - it kills team spirit Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 134
  135. 135. Organisational Behaviour Modification: Tangible Application of Motivational Theories • Uses reinforcement to shape desired behaviour. • Reinforcement involves managing the environment, usually by linking a positive consequence to a desired behaviour (to increase the likelihood of it being repeated). • Can also rely on negative reinforcement (removal of an aversive or negative condition following desired behaviour) or even punishment or omission of any reinforcement to shape behaviour. • Linked to goals are rewards. In pursuit of continuous improvements in quality, organisations are increasing their use of performance-based compensation systems such as gain-sharing that focus on the total business unit, rather than on individual pay-for-performance plans. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 135
  136. 136. Motivation: Consider (3) • People want to know - “what is in it for me?” • If a person is able to make a choice between two or more options, the person would usually choose the option which he/she expects would lead to the most attractive result or outcome Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 136
  137. 137. Absence of a Motivating Climate  Over supervised or controlling climate with too many rules, regulations, restrictions, dysfunctional bureaucracy and punitive behaviour.  It causes demotivation and non-commitment which in turn limits individual and team efforts and performance, and consequently organisational performance and effectiveness. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 137
  138. 138. Motivation: Key principles • Know your colleagues • Be motivated yourself • Set realistic, but challenging targets • Remember that progress motivates; provide fair rewards; give recognition Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 138
  139. 139. Dealing with Negativity  Some people exude negativity. They do not like their jobs or managers and always complain that they are not treated fairly. The dept is always going down and customers are worthless. You can best address their impact on you via avoidance.  On the other hand, sometimes normally positive people are negative. Some of the time, too, their reasons for negativity are legitimate. You will take a completely different tack with these occasionally negative people. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 139
  140. 140. Dealing with Occasional Negativity  Listen to complaints until you are certain that they feel heard out and listened to. Sometimes people repeat negative sentiments over and over because they do not feel like you have really listened to them. Ask questions to clarify.  If the reasons for negativity are legitimate, offer your help to solve the problem. Provide advice or ideas for how the issue could be addressed (i.e. books, seminars, counseling, HR Dept, etc.)  If the reason is not legitimate show that you care about their concern and about their happiness at work, but that you disagree with their assessment of the situation. People will attempt to appeal to your sympathetic nature. Do not spend time listening or helping to address the negative feelings - could encourage long term and growing negative feelings & behaviour. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 140
  141. 141. Dealing with Negative Workers  Deal with genuinely negative people by spending as little time with them as possible. Just as you set limits with the co- workers whose negativity you believe is baseless or unwarranted, you need to set limits with genuinely negative people.  Do not impact your positive outlook by listening to the stories, or reviewing the history and the background about the grievances purported to cause the negativity. negativity is a choice. Negative people need a new career, a new outlook, or counseling - They do not need you!  If you are forced to work with a negative person, set limits. Do not allow yourself to be drawn into negative discussions. Avoid providing a sympathetic audience for the negativity. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 141
  142. 142. Dealing with Negative Workers  Suggest the negative person seek assistance from human resources or their supervisor.  If all else fails, talk to your manager or HR Director about the challenges you are experiencing in dealing with the negative person. They may have ideas and may address the issue with the negative person’s supervisor.  Persistent negativity, that impacts co-workers’ work is a work behavior that may require disciplinary action.  If negativity among employees is persistent, if the issues that warrant negativity are left unaddressed, and the negativity affects your ability to professionally perform your work, you may want to consider moving on. Your current culture will not support your desired work environment. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 142
  143. 143. Managing and Solving Workplace Negativity  If the workplace is seething with hostility and negativity it is up to you as Change Agent to help make the atmosphere more positive, productive and supportive. As a manager, supervisor, or staff member, you usually do not control the situation that is causing the negativity. Perhaps no one in your workplace does. How you address negativity depends on whether you control it and how it started in the first place. The timeliness of your intervention also has an impact.  Addressing negativity prevents workplace violence, promotes workplace safety, and creates positive employee morale. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 143
  144. 144. When You Can Control or Influence the Negativity  If you know the underlying cause of the negativity is based on faulty information, incorrect assumptions, deliberate misinformation, or that a new policy or procedure is not understood correctly, you have some control over the information, the situation, and the communication.  Use a systematic problem-solving process to improve the identified areas of negativity. Do this as quickly as you determine that negativity exists, before negativity spiral out of control.  Include employees closest to the negative situation in the problem- solving process. Do a Cause Analysis so that all possible causes of the negativity are identified; need to identify exactly what is causing the low morale to have any chance of improving it. Solicit widespread input so that solutions are “owned” across the dept. Involve as many people as you can.  At each step of the problem-solving process, communicate as much information as you have about the negativity and the solutions. When the solutions are rolled out, people are not surprised. They have participated in the information exchange as each step or opportunity was discussed. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 144
  145. 145. When You are Not in Control of the Negativity  Negativity often occurs when people are impacted by decisions and issues that are out of their control. Examples of these include: transformation, downsizing, understaffing that requires people to work harder, budget reductions, and upper-management decisions that adversely impact staff.  Identify any aspects of the situation that you can impact including providing feedback about the negative impact that is occurring. (Sometimes decisions are made and no one understands or predicts their outcome.  Be visible and available to staff. Proactively schedule group discussion sessions.  Challenge pessimistic thinking and negative beliefs about people, the dept, and the work area. Do not let negative, false statements go unchallenged. Provide the rationale, the corporate thinking, and the events that are responsible for the negative circumstances.  Ask open-ended questions to determine the cause, and the scope of the negative feelings or reaction. Help people create options, feel included, and feel part of the communication and problem solving. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 145
  146. 146. Working with Negative Colleagues  If the negativity emanates from an individual, you can:  Inform the employee about the negative impact her negativity is having on co-workers and the department. Use specific examples.  Avoid becoming defensive. Do not take the employee’s negative words or attitude personally.  Focus on creating solutions. Focus on creating options for positive morale.  Compliment the individual any time you hear a positive statement or contribution rather than negativity from him/her.  If none of the above is working and the employee’s negativity is impacting productivity, workplace harmony, and department members’ attitudes and morale, consider disciplinary procedures. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 146
  147. 147. The “Groupthink” Problem  Where the cohesiveness is such that it represses conflict and disagreement that could challenge the decisions of the group.  Groupthink causes poor decisions to be made because no one would speak out against the apparent consensus of the group.  Unpopular views can serve a positive purpose in groups, since they cause the group to re-examine the problem and alternatives Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 147
  148. 148. "If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more, you are a leader." - JQ Adams Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 148
  149. 149. Activity 2 • In small groups: – Identify the key characteristics /skills /competencies that should be present when you manage people effectively. – Develop at least two basic strategies to develop your current weaknesses in managing people effectively into strengths. – Present these ideas on a flip chart. © M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2012 149
  150. 150. Recruitment, Selection, and Retention Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 150
  151. 151. The context • Organisation must forecast its human resources requirements to determine the number of employees to hire and the types of skills they will need • Forecasting includes current and future assessments • Supervisor must ensure that number of employees matches the workload • Replacements are needed on a continuing basis Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 151
  152. 152. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 152
  153. 153. HR provisioning  Cornerstone of effective human resource management  Refers to those activities within an institution to ensure that it has the right number of people with the right skills, knowledge, qualifications, experience and attitudes to carry out effectively the tasks necessary to meet institutional goals and objectives  Involves interrelated processes:  Job planning analysis and evaluation  Recruitment  Selection  Placement and induction  Probation  Promotion and career pathing Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 153
  154. 154. What is recruitment?  “…those activities that influence the number and/or the types of applicants who apply for a position and/or affect whether a job offer is accepted” (Breauch, 1992:4). ◦ “…reflects the process of locating, identifying and attracting suitable applicants” (Gerber, Nel & Van Dyk, 1998:90).  Not the same as publicity (positive image; ‘branding’) Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 154
  155. 155. Forms of recruitment • Informal recruiting (word-of-mouth or head-hunting; may be discriminatory - become part of informal networks) • Formal recruiting (equal opportunity demands equal access: can only be achieved through public and open recruitment) Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 155
  156. 156. Guidelines for recruitment • Advertisements serve to publicise both the department and post • Procedures should include – • Format of the advert • Who is responsible for placement • Information that must be included • What media adverts are to placed in • Who should authorise the content and placement of adverts Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 156
  157. 157. Sources of personnel  Prerequisites for appointment: legislation  Determining factors:  Info on number, quality and development potential of existing personnel  Estimates of expected decreases and increases in workload  State of the labour market  Expected changes (I.e. resignations, retirements, promotions, etc.)  Attitudes and opinions concerning careers in the organisation Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 157
  158. 158. Recruitment process • Human resource inventory (forecasting) • Job analysis • Identify pool of job candidates from which to select most suitable employees • Select methods (i.e. newspapers, employment agencies, etc.) • Specify requirements (e.g. job title, salary, duties, skills, education/experience requirements Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 158
  159. 159. Recruitment process • Obtain approval for an appointment in accordance with the HR budget • Update job descriptions and specifications • Choose the most suitable recruitment medium • Develop the recruitment advertisement • Place the advertisement in the most suitable communication medium Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 159
  160. 160. Recruitment process • Set a closing date for responses • Evaluate the applications • Compile a short list of candidates for a preliminary interview • Select a candidate based on the job description and specification criteria • Notify the successful and unsuccessful candidates and thank them for their interest Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 160
  161. 161. Components of the job Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 161 Skill VarietySkill Variety Task IdentityTask Identity Task significance Task significance AutonomyAutonomy FeedbackFeedback Experienced meaningfulness of the work Experienced meaningfulness of the work Experience responsibility Experience responsibility Knowledge of results from work activities Knowledge of results from work activities Relationships are moderated by employee growth need strength Relationships are moderated by employee growth need strength High Internal Motivation High satisfaction High work quality Low absenteeism and turnover High Internal Motivation High satisfaction High work quality Low absenteeism and turnover Core Job Characteristics Core Job Characteristics Critical Psychological States Critical Psychological States Work outcomes Work outcomes
  162. 162. Job evaluation: the foundation Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 162 Job analysis - relates to all information about the job Job description 1. Job title and grade 2. Location 3. Responsibilities 4. Duties 5. Working conditions 6. Training 7. Salary scale Job specification 1. Appearance 2. Training & qualifications 3. Intelligence 4. Experience 5. Emotional stability 6. Motivation 7. Age and health
  163. 163. The importance of a job description • Recruitment • Interviewing • Orientation and Induction • Training and Development • Job evaluation • Wage Compensation Surveys • Performance Appraisal • Restructuring and Outplacement • Career Management Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 163
  164. 164. Recruitment: conditions  TWO-WAY PROCESS:  Public institutions search for potential applicants  Applicants search for suitable institutions  CONDITIONS NEEDED:  Common communication medium (advertise in appropriate media)  Applicants must be able to find a match between their characteristics and requirements of the job  Applicants must be motivated to apply  HR planning & forecasting should precede any recruitment action  Comprehensive job analyses are a prerequisite  Full job specifications needed to ensure an accurate match  Sources & methods must be adapted to each institution  Both negative & positive aspects of job must be known to applicant (realistic) Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 164
  165. 165. Sources: internal  Present employees (reward, promotion, loyalty, “inbreeding”)  Job advertisements (bulletin boards, intranet, circulars, etc.)  Personnel records (scrutinise for abilities, skills, qualifications, potential)  Skills inventories (job requirements evaluated against potential and the most suitable person) Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 165
  166. 166. Sources: external • Employment agencies • “Head hunting” • Referrals • Internships / Experiential learning / RPL • Professional associations • Advertisements (radio, TV, newspapers, journals, etc.) • Campus recruitment • Exhibitions Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 166
  167. 167. Principles of advertising Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 167  Should -  not favour, prejudice or discriminate  be fully in line with job content and not designed to suit particular individuals  widest possible number of applicants must be attracted  language and style must be clear and simple and not discriminate any potential candidates, arbitrarily  Through effective advertising, the organisation must ensure that all potential applicants, especially people from designated groups, are considered for employment on the basis of their competencies, level of training without regard to marital status, creed, sexual orientation, HIV status, religion, culture, etc.
  168. 168. Selection • “…selection of the most suitable candidate, judged by predetermined criteria, to be placed in a specific position. • CRITERIA • Requirements for the position (skills, experience, interpersonal – job analysis) • Qualifications • Results of suitable selection tests (e.g. aptitude, stress) Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 168
  169. 169. Selecting suitable candidates • Selection Committee • Consider: • Information based on valid methods for selection • Training, skills, competence and knowledge requirements • Needs of the dept/office • Equity programme • External factors (image, unions, conditions, etc.) Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 169
  170. 170. Short listing  All applicants should be treated in an objective, confidential, equitable and consistent fashion  Successful candidates should be chosen on merit (ability to meet requirements of the selection criteria)  Selection procedures should pay strict attention to employment equity guidelines  Process should be carried out in such a way that decisions can be objectively defended and justified if challenged Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 170
  171. 171. “Red flags” in CVs: Warning signs that may require further investigation • Time gaps in employment • Vague answers, such as listing the province the employer was in and not the full address • Vague reasons for leaving the previous jobs • Lack of employment history • Inconsistencies in duration for studies • Unclear or uncertified copies of documentation • When references are not available • (Brown, 1993 – Hiring Tips) Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 171
  172. 172. Preliminary screening • Example of Screening Grid • Job Title: • Salary: • Report to: • Summary of duties: • Skills requirements are: • Educational/experience requirements are: • Physical examination results: • Psychometric tests: Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 172
  173. 173. Interview “…aimed at evaluating candidates to obtain as much information as possible, as well as at providing the candidates with the necessary information concerning the work and benefits”. • Question Formats • Structured (a predetermined checklist for questions, asked of all applicants) • Semi-structured (combination of structured and unstructured questions) • Unstructured (questions are made up during the interview) • Behavioural (questions limited to hypothetical situations. Evaluation is on the solution and the approach of the applicant) • Stress (A series of harsh, rapid-fire questions intended to upset the applicant; useful for stressful jobs, such as handling complaints) Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 173
  174. 174. Interviewing • Interviewing techniques • Problem (case study) • Jury / Group • Stress (physical tests) • Influencing Factors • Poor communication (language…) • Compilation of the interview panel • Bias (personal prejudices) • Environment (free from disturbances…) Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 174
  175. 175. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 175 Are there any indications that background checks should be done more extensively? Yes / No 12. Overall recommendation to appoint: (1) Definitely not hire (2) Weak potential (3) Good potential (4) Definitely hire 11. Persistence (determination to follow through with tasks initiated) 10. Loyalty (commitment to people and the organisation) 9. Dependability (ability to win trust of others through dedication to responsibilities) 8. Interest level (general enthusiasm) 7. Ambition and drive (goal-directed energy that is behaviourally oriented) 6. Appearance (physical presentation, including grooming and dress) 5. Maturity (sound judgement; ability to make decisions and act on them) 4. Sociability (ability to relate with and interact with others) 3. Effective verbal expression (ability to express ideas and concepts clearly) 2. Self confidence (strong assurance of one’s ability to perform) 1. Intelligence (learn by experience; adaptability to new situations) 7654321Areas Poor Average Outstanding Applicants name: Date:
  176. 176. Interviewing principles • Steps:  1. Determine how applicants will be screened (criteria)  2. Determine questions and sample answers  3. Develop a guide for the interview itself • Consider the “Wow!” factor Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 176 Name of candidate Communicati on/ interpersonal skills (20) Qualificatio ns (35) Experien ce (30) Computer skills (15) Total (100) P Maharaj 15 30 18 4 67 SK Mofekeng 10 23 28 5 66 JP Pieterse 8 22 18 14 62
  177. 177. Emotional Intelligence: EQ more important than IQ! Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 177
  178. 178. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 178 "Emotional Intelligence is a master aptitude, a capacity that profoundly affects all other abilities, either facilitating or interfering with them."-- Daniel Goleman • Building EI has a lifelong impact. A person who learns to learn is much more apt to succeed. EI has proven a better predictor of future success than traditional methods like the GPA, IQ, and standardized test scores. • Researchers have concluded that people who manage their own feelings well and deal effectively with others are more likely to live content lives. • Happy people are more apt to retain information and do so more effectively than dissatisfied people. And in organisations, the inclusion of EI in training programmes has helped employees cooperate better and motivate more, thereby increasing productivity and profits.
  179. 179. EI encompasses 5 characteristics & abilities  Mood management: handling feelings so they're relevant to the situation and you react appropriately Self-awareness: knowing your emotions, recognizing feelings as they occur Self-motivation: "gathering up" your feelings and directing yourself towards a goal, despite self-doubt, and impulsiveness Empathy: recognizing feelings in others and tuning into their verbal & nonverbal cues Managing relationships: handling interpersonal interaction, conflict resolution & negotiations Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 179
  180. 180. Appointment…(1)  Public Service Act, Chpt IV, Sections 9-13:  No person shall be appointed permanently unless he/she –  Is a SA citizen  Is of good character  Complies with health requirements as may be prescribed (without discrimination)  Due regard to equality and other democratic values  Evaluation shall be based on training, skills, competencies, knowledge and the need to address imbalances of the past to achieve a broadly representative Public Service Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 180
  181. 181. Appointment…(2) • Important! If the date of the final approval of the nominated candidate is not finalised, no applicant may be informed of the outcome of the process • Unsuccessful applicants must be informed that they have a right to request reasons and that legal remedies are available Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 181
  182. 182. Placement • “…the process by which the staff member is placed in a certain job for optimal individual and institutional goal achievement in accordance with the individual’s own potential and needs”. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 182
  183. 183. Induction  “…process through which a new employee learns how to function efficiently and effectively within a new organisational culture by obtaining the information, values and behavioural skills associated with his or her new role in the institution”.  Objectives  To make a new employee more rapidly productive  To reduce fear of the unknown and insecurity  Helping to create realistic employee expectations  Creating job satisfaction and positive attitude towards the employer  Saving time of supervisors and colleagues (asking questions, guidance etc.) Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 183
  184. 184. Benefits of induction  Higher job satisfaction  Lower labour turnover  Greater commitment to dept values and goals  Higher performance as a result of faster learning times  Fewer costly and time-consuming mistakes  Reduction in absenteeism  Better customer service through heightened productivity  Improved manager/subordinate relationships  Better understanding of departmental policies, goals and procedures Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 184
  185. 185. Induction: Who is responsible? • The Supervisor (all job-related information necessary to enable them to function efficiently and effectively) • Head of Department (policies, vision) • HR Dept (employment contract) • Mentor (guide, coach, illustrate) • Shop stewards or staff representative (labour issues, e.g. grievances) • New employees (participate, feedback) Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 185
  186. 186. Content of Induction Programmes  An overview of the institution (vision, value system, standards, strategies, etc.)  Overview of policies and procedures (management, lines of communication. etc.)  Compensation (salary scales, bonuses, leave, etc.)  Fringe benefits (medical aid, housing, retirement, etc.)  Health and safety (use of equipment, accidents, procedures, etc.)  Labour relations (rights, responsibilities, unions, discipline, grievances, etc.)  Facilities (parking, cafeteria, etc.) Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 186
  187. 187. Induction: Role of Middle Managers  Explain functions of the department, directorate and sections (holistic perspective)  Tasks and responsibilities  Policy, procedures, rules and regulations  Viewing of the workplace  Introduction to colleagues Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 187
  188. 188. Probation Period • Part VII, Section E of PS Regulation (2000), and Labour Relations Act 66 of 1995 (Item 8, Schedule 8) • Usually one year (depending on level) • Important!! Requires regular, scheduled, formal and written performance feedback • Training, counselling required throughout the probation period Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 188
  189. 189. Promotion – CONSIDERATIONS: • Seniority • Performance appraisal (merit) • Closed/open system • Labour legislation • Departmental policies • Result of a grievance procedure Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 189
  190. 190. Promotion: Challenges • Performance related (merit) or political? • Sufficient budget? • Was the post advertised (internally/externally)? • Unbiased selection procedures? • Motivation of staff: Promotion opportunities or ceiling? • Career management in place? • Counseling and realistic career expectations Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 190
  191. 191. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 191 1.1. Resources, Job Information and TrainingResources, Job Information and Training (adequate to get the job(adequate to get the job done?)done?) 2.2. Job Challenges and Opportunity for AdvancementJob Challenges and Opportunity for Advancement (advancement(advancement opportunities, interesting?)opportunities, interesting?) 3.3. Relations with Supervisors and Co-workersRelations with Supervisors and Co-workers (helpful,(helpful, assignments)assignments) 4.4. Comfort and working conditionsComfort and working conditions (physical, stress, workload,(physical, stress, workload, working hours)working hours) 5.5. FinancialFinancial (salary, job security, benefits)(salary, job security, benefits) 6.6. Departmental policiesDepartmental policies (how to improve?)(how to improve?) 7.7. Overall questionsOverall questions (positives and negatives, improvements?)(positives and negatives, improvements?) Useful Exit Interview Question AreasUseful Exit Interview Question Areas
  192. 192. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 192 Personal competencePersonal competence, incl:, incl: ** Self-Awareness:Self-Awareness: Recognizing own emotionsRecognizing own emotions ** Self-ManagementSelf-Management: Using awareness of emotions to manage response to: Using awareness of emotions to manage response to different situations and people.different situations and people. Social competenceSocial competence, incl:, incl: * Social Awareness:* Social Awareness: Understanding the perspectives of other peopleUnderstanding the perspectives of other people including their motivations, their emotions, and the meaning of what theyincluding their motivations, their emotions, and the meaning of what they do and say.do and say. * Relationship Management:* Relationship Management: Using awareness of one's own emotions andUsing awareness of one's own emotions and the emotions of others to manage relationships to a successful outcome.the emotions of others to manage relationships to a successful outcome. Emotional IntelligenceEmotional Intelligence Appraisal measures (PersonalAppraisal measures (Personal & Social)& Social)
  193. 193. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 193 Is a systematic effort byIs a systematic effort by employers to createemployers to create and foster anand foster an environmentenvironment thatthat encourages currentencourages current employees to remainemployees to remain employed by havingemployed by having policiespolicies andand practicespractices in place that addressin place that address their diversetheir diverse needsneeds.. The Issue ofThe Issue of RetentionRetention
  194. 194. The retention challenge  Although the Public Service offers stability, security, good health care benefits and a strong pension, government jobs are often viewed as being bureaucratic and frustrating.  The level of trust that citizens have for Government (and its workers) is relatively low. Hence, most departments have problems in recruiting new quality employees to the public work force (PS Commission Report).  To ensure that the public sector workforce remains competitive and staffed with quality employees, decision- makers should understand the complexities of the recruitment and retention challenges that they face. Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 194
  195. 195. ‘Branding’ the Public Service as ‘Employer- of-choice’  From an organisation's perspective, its brand, equity, philosophy, vision, mission, culture, and values have a direct bearing on talent attraction and retention.  Other related attributes that impact employee retention include high demand on performance, need for new competencies, broader, deeper and diverse job expectations, need for re-skilling and re-deployment, career offerings and growth prospects, goal and role clarity, policies and processes, and organisational communication Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 195
  196. 196. Why do people seek positions in the Public Service? • (1) timing of the job offer was right (89%) • (2) opportunity to apply academic background and related education (69%) • (3) career opportunities within the PS (48%) • (4) salary (41%) • (5) opportunity to serve the public (41%) • (6) the good reputation of the department making the offer (29%) • (What about the availability of jobs?) Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 196
  197. 197. What will keep you in the Public Service once employed? • Clear Sense of Direction and Purpose • Caring Management • Flexible Benefits and Schedule Adapted to my needs • Open Communication • A Charged Work Environment • Performance Management • Recognition and Reward • Training and Development opportunities Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 197
  198. 198. Job ‘turn-ons’ and ‘turn-offs’  Main turn-ons:  Challenges  Change on the job  Opportunities for growth with the employer  Rewards system based on performance  Autonomy to complete work assignments  Most unattractive employment attributes:  Rules and regulations  Policy manuals  Long meetings  Job descriptions and duty statements (Research undertaken by Towers Perrin, 2003). Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 198
  199. 199. Declared Drivers of Loyalty • 93% Open and honest communication • 93% Strong teamwork • 88% Giving employees recognition • 88% Job Interest / Variety • 87% Rewarding the right people • 86% Having visible values lived Copyright M.A.R.C. Consulting, 2008 199

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