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Aviation History by Moga Ionut

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A PPT material about the first attempts to fly and the history of aviation made by a student involved in the Comenius multilateral partnership “From Icarus to Interplanetary Travels”

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Aviation History by Moga Ionut

  1. 1. From Icarus to Interplanetary TravelsFrom Icarus to Interplanetary Travels Name: Moga IonutName: Moga Ionut School: Sfantul Apostol AndreiSchool: Sfantul Apostol Andrei City: Ploiesti, RomaniaCity: Ploiesti, Romania
  2. 2.           Before the Wright BrothersBefore the Wright Brothers created the first flying Airplanecreated the first flying Airplane able to carry a human, there wereable to carry a human, there were those who inspired the idea. If notthose who inspired the idea. If not for their ideas and experimentsfor their ideas and experiments perhaps airplanes as we knowperhaps airplanes as we know today might not have been. Thetoday might not have been. The first ideas of the perfect airplanefirst ideas of the perfect airplane were the flapping-wing machines,were the flapping-wing machines, called ornithopters. Thecalled ornithopters. The Ornithopter is where the wings areOrnithopter is where the wings are providing both the lift and thrust.providing both the lift and thrust. Apart from ornithopters threeApart from ornithopters three devices important to aviation haddevices important to aviation had been invented in Europe in thebeen invented in Europe in the Middle Ages and had reached aMiddle Ages and had reached a high stage.high stage.
  3. 3. Traian VuiaTraian Vuia Traian VuiaTraian Vuia (August 17, 1872 (August 17, 1872 - September 3, 1950) was a - September 3, 1950) was a  RomanianRomanian inventor and aviation inventor and aviation pioneer who designed, built andpioneer who designed, built and tested a tested a monoplanemonoplane. His first. His first airborne test travelled aboutairborne test travelled about 12 metres (39 feet) on March12 metres (39 feet) on March 18, 1906, and his best distance18, 1906, and his best distance was 24 m (79 ft). Vuia neverwas 24 m (79 ft). Vuia never achieved sustained andachieved sustained and controlled flight with his earlycontrolled flight with his early aircraft, and his experiments didaircraft, and his experiments did not result in advances innot result in advances in aviation.aviation.
  4. 4. Flying experimentsFlying experiments By December 1905, Vuia finished construction of his first aircraft, theBy December 1905, Vuia finished construction of his first aircraft, the "Traian Vuia 1“, a high-wing monoplane powered by a "Traian Vuia 1“, a high-wing monoplane powered by a carbonic acidcarbonic acid gas engine. The liquid carbon dioxide was vaporized in a gas engine. The liquid carbon dioxide was vaporized in a SerpolletSerpollet  boiler; the fuel supply gave a running duration of about three minutes. boiler; the fuel supply gave a running duration of about three minutes. Vuia chose a site in Vuia chose a site in MontessonMontesson, near Paris, for testing. At first he used, near Paris, for testing. At first he used the machine only as a car, without the wings mounted, so he couldthe machine only as a car, without the wings mounted, so he could gather experience driving it. On March 18, 1906, he made his first flightgather experience driving it. On March 18, 1906, he made his first flight attempt. After accelerating for about 50 meters (160 ft), the plane leftattempt. After accelerating for about 50 meters (160 ft), the plane left the soil and flew about 1 m (3 ft 3 in) high for about 12 m (39 ft)the soil and flew about 1 m (3 ft 3 in) high for about 12 m (39 ft) distance, then landed. The British aviation historian distance, then landed. The British aviation historian  Charles Harvard Gibbs-SmithCharles Harvard Gibbs-Smith described this aircraft as "the first man- described this aircraft as "the first man- carrying monoplane of basically modern configuration", yetcarrying monoplane of basically modern configuration", yet "unsuccessful" because it was incapable of sustained flight."unsuccessful" because it was incapable of sustained flight.
  5. 5. Romanian enthusiasts emphasize that Vuia's machine was able toRomanian enthusiasts emphasize that Vuia's machine was able to take off from a flat surface by on-board means without outsidetake off from a flat surface by on-board means without outside assistance, such as an incline, rails, or catapult. Such definitions areassistance, such as an incline, rails, or catapult. Such definitions are intended to take away the title of "first manned, powered flight" fromintended to take away the title of "first manned, powered flight" from the the Wright brothersWright brothers despite the fact that on December 17, 1903, the despite the fact that on December 17, 1903, the Wrights flew from level ground without a catapult, using a rail only toWrights flew from level ground without a catapult, using a rail only to guide the wheeled dolly or truck that the guide the wheeled dolly or truck that the Wright FlyerWright Flyer biplane shed biplane shed upon lifting from the ground. As well, the Wrights were able to makeupon lifting from the ground. As well, the Wrights were able to make sustained and controlled flights in a complete circuit by Septembersustained and controlled flights in a complete circuit by September 1904, returning to land where they started.1904, returning to land where they started. After his March 1906 takeoff, Vuia made several more powered hopsAfter his March 1906 takeoff, Vuia made several more powered hops or short flights later that year and in 1907. In August 1906 he built aor short flights later that year and in 1907. In August 1906 he built a modified version of his flying machine, the "Vuia I modified version of his flying machine, the "Vuia I bisbis." None of these." None of these were successful in achieving sustained flight, so Vuia abandoned themwere successful in achieving sustained flight, so Vuia abandoned them and from that time forward he "ceased to play an important part inand from that time forward he "ceased to play an important part in aviation", according to Gibbs-Smith.aviation", according to Gibbs-Smith. In 1907, his "Vuia II" airplane, with an Antoinette 25 horsepower (19In 1907, his "Vuia II" airplane, with an Antoinette 25 horsepower (19 kilowatts) internal combustion engine, was exhibited at the firstkilowatts) internal combustion engine, was exhibited at the first Aeronautical Salon in Paris.Aeronautical Salon in Paris. Aviation pioneer Aviation pioneer Alberto Santos DumontAlberto Santos Dumont, who made famous short, who made famous short flights in Paris in October and November 1906, recognized Vuia as aflights in Paris in October and November 1906, recognized Vuia as a "forerunner" of his efforts, as described by"forerunner" of his efforts, as described by Charles DollfusCharles Dollfus, the curator, the curator of an aeronautical museum in Paris.of an aeronautical museum in Paris.
  6. 6. Wright brothersWright brothers Most people don't know that it was not in 1903, but in the 1800s, thatMost people don't know that it was not in 1903, but in the 1800s, that the Wright brothers, working with kites, had worked out the key issuethe Wright brothers, working with kites, had worked out the key issue for flight: control.for flight: control. While other aviators searched in vain for "inherent stability," OrvilleWhile other aviators searched in vain for "inherent stability," Orville and Wilbur created a method for the pilot to control the airplane. Theand Wilbur created a method for the pilot to control the airplane. The real breakthrough was their ingenious invention of "wing-warping." Ifreal breakthrough was their ingenious invention of "wing-warping." If the pilot wanted to bank a turn to the left, the wings could be warpedthe pilot wanted to bank a turn to the left, the wings could be warped to provide more lift on the wings on the right side of the biplane. Theto provide more lift on the wings on the right side of the biplane. The brothers worked out a system for 3-axis control that is still used todaybrothers worked out a system for 3-axis control that is still used today on fixed-wing aircraft: left and right like a car or boat (a rudder), upon fixed-wing aircraft: left and right like a car or boat (a rudder), up and down (the 1903 Wright "Flyer" had its elevator in the front), andand down (the 1903 Wright "Flyer" had its elevator in the front), and banking a turn as birds do (or like leaning to one side while riding abanking a turn as birds do (or like leaning to one side while riding a bicycle). Working with kites in 1899, the brothers figured out andbicycle). Working with kites in 1899, the brothers figured out and tested their systems for 3-axis control, and in the next two years theytested their systems for 3-axis control, and in the next two years they did experiments with gliders at Kitty Hawk, and then with their winddid experiments with gliders at Kitty Hawk, and then with their wind tunnel, to find the proper lift. They found that the formula for lift -tunnel, to find the proper lift. They found that the formula for lift - namely the "Smeaton coefficient" that everybody had been using fornamely the "Smeaton coefficient" that everybody had been using for over 100 years - was wrong. By the time they built their 1902 glider,over 100 years - was wrong. By the time they built their 1902 glider, they had worked out all the problems and they knew it would fly.they had worked out all the problems and they knew it would fly.
  7. 7. Following the first sustained flight of a heavier-than-air vehicleFollowing the first sustained flight of a heavier-than-air vehicle in 1903, the Wright brothers refined their design, eventuallyin 1903, the Wright brothers refined their design, eventually selling airplanes to the U.S. Army. The first major impetus toselling airplanes to the U.S. Army. The first major impetus to aircraft development occurred during aircraft development occurred during World War IWorld War I, when, when aircrafts were designed and constructed for specific militaryaircrafts were designed and constructed for specific military missionsmissions, including fighter attack, bombing, and, including fighter attack, bombing, and reconnaissance. The end of the war marked the decline ofreconnaissance. The end of the war marked the decline of military high-technology aircraftmilitary high-technology aircraft and the rise of civil airand the rise of civil air transportation. Many advances in the civil sectortransportation. Many advances in the civil sector were due towere due to technologies gained in developing military and racing aircraft.technologies gained in developing military and racing aircraft. A successful military design that found many civil applicationsA successful military design that found many civil applications was the U.S. Navy Curtiss NC-4 flying boat, powered by fourwas the U.S. Navy Curtiss NC-4 flying boat, powered by four 400-horsepower V-12 400-horsepower V-12 Liberty enginesLiberty engines. It was the British,. It was the British, however, who paved the way in civil however, who paved the way in civil aviationaviation in 1920 with a in 1920 with a 12-passenger Handley-Page transport. Aviation boomed after12-passenger Handley-Page transport. Aviation boomed after Charles A. Lindbergh’s solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean inCharles A. Lindbergh’s solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean in 19271927. Advances in metallurgy led to improved strength-to-. Advances in metallurgy led to improved strength-to- weight ratios and, coupled with a mono-coque design,weight ratios and, coupled with a mono-coque design, enabled aircraft to fly farther and faster. enabled aircraft to fly farther and faster. Hugo JunkersHugo Junkers, a, a German,German, built the first all-metal monoplane in 1910, but thebuilt the first all-metal monoplane in 1910, but the design was not accepted until 1933, when the design was not accepted until 1933, when the Boeing 247-DBoeing 247-D  entered service entered service. The twin-engine design of the latter. The twin-engine design of the latter established the foundation of modern air transport.established the foundation of modern air transport.
  8. 8. Aurel VlaicuAurel Vlaicu Aurel VlaicuAurel Vlaicu  (November 19, 1882 – September 13, 1913) was a  (November 19, 1882 – September 13, 1913) was a  RomanianRomanian engineer, inventor, airplane constructor and early pilot,engineer, inventor, airplane constructor and early pilot, one of the first Romanian pioneers of aviation.one of the first Romanian pioneers of aviation.
  9. 9. Aurel Vlaicu was born in the village ofAurel Vlaicu was born in the village of Binţinţi (now Aurel Vlaicu) near Binţinţi (now Aurel Vlaicu) near  GeoagiuGeoagiu, , TransylvaniaTransylvania. He attended . He attended  CalvinistCalvinist High School in Orăştie High School in Orăştie (renamed "Liceul Aurel Vlaicu" in his(renamed "Liceul Aurel Vlaicu" in his honour in 1919) and took his honour in 1919) and took his  BaccalaureateBaccalaureate in  in SibiuSibiu in 1902. He in 1902. He furthered his studies at furthered his studies at  Technical University of BudapestTechnical University of Budapest and  and  Technische Hochschule MünchenTechnische Hochschule München in  in  GermanyGermany, earning his engineer's, earning his engineer's diploma in 1907.diploma in 1907. After working at After working at OpelOpel car factory in  car factory in  RüsselsheimRüsselsheim, he returned to Binţinţi, he returned to Binţinţi and built a and built a gliderglider he flew in the he flew in the summer of 1909. Later that year hesummer of 1909. Later that year he moved to moved to BucharestBucharest in the  in the  Kingdom of RomaniaKingdom of Romania, where he, where he began the construction of began the construction of Vlaicu IVlaicu I  airplane that flew for the first time on airplane that flew for the first time on June 17, 1910 over June 17, 1910 over CotroceniCotroceni airfield. airfield.
  10. 10. With his With his Vlaicu IIVlaicu II model, built in 1911, model, built in 1911, Aurel Vlaicu won several prizesAurel Vlaicu won several prizes summing 7,500 summing 7,500  Austro-Hungarian kroneAustro-Hungarian krone (for precise (for precise landing, projectile throwing and tightlanding, projectile throwing and tight flying around a pole) in 1912 at flying around a pole) in 1912 at AspernAspern  Air Show near  Air Show near ViennaVienna, where he, where he competed against 42 other aviators ofcompeted against 42 other aviators of the day, including the day, including Roland GarrosRoland Garros.. Aurel Vlaicu died on September 13,Aurel Vlaicu died on September 13, 1913 near 1913 near CâmpinaCâmpina while attempting while attempting to be the first to cross flying the to be the first to cross flying the  Carpathian MountainsCarpathian Mountains in his old  in his old VlaicuVlaicu IIII airplane. He was expected to airplane. He was expected to participate in the ASTRA (Asociaţiaparticipate in the ASTRA (Asociaţia Transilvană pentru Literatura RomânăTransilvană pentru Literatura Română şi Cultura Poporului Român) festivitiesşi Cultura Poporului Român) festivities in in OrastieOrastie, near Binţinţi. His body was, near Binţinţi. His body was buried five days later in buried five days later in BelluBellu cemetery, in Bucharest.cemetery, in Bucharest.
  11. 11. Aircraft Composite DesignAircraft Composite Design -- Composite Design SimulationComposite Design Simulation Specialist For Aircraft StructuresSpecialist For Aircraft Structures To drive a propeller, you need power. The Wright brothersTo drive a propeller, you need power. The Wright brothers wanted a lightweight gasoline engine that would provide thewanted a lightweight gasoline engine that would provide the necessary oomph. They tried to buy an engine, but no onenecessary oomph. They tried to buy an engine, but no one was willing to build one to their specifications. So, with thewas willing to build one to their specifications. So, with the capable assistance of Charles Taylor, they built their owncapable assistance of Charles Taylor, they built their own engine. It was a state-of-the-art four-cylinder model. Taylorengine. It was a state-of-the-art four-cylinder model. Taylor hand-tooled the crankshaft on the Wright shop lathe. Itshand-tooled the crankshaft on the Wright shop lathe. Its power-to-weight ratio was better than anything around. Evenpower-to-weight ratio was better than anything around. Even still, in the words of Charles Taylor, "It wasn't much of anstill, in the words of Charles Taylor, "It wasn't much of an engine." There was no carburettor. The raw gas was justengine." There was no carburettor. The raw gas was just dumped into the cylinders. It was air-cooled, without evendumped into the cylinders. It was air-cooled, without even the benefit of fins. To control the engine speed, the sparkthe benefit of fins. To control the engine speed, the spark could be advanced or retarded. It had the horsepower -could be advanced or retarded. It had the horsepower - barely - to drag the 1903 machine into the dense Decemberbarely - to drag the 1903 machine into the dense December ocean air. As the engine broke in the next year, it began toocean air. As the engine broke in the next year, it began to produce more horsepower, and better flights.produce more horsepower, and better flights.
  12. 12. Evolution of airplanesEvolution of airplanes The advent of the turbine-powered airplane dramatically changed theThe advent of the turbine-powered airplane dramatically changed the air transportation industry. Germany and Britain were concurrentlyair transportation industry. Germany and Britain were concurrently developing the jet engine, but it was adeveloping the jet engine, but it was a GermanGerman Heinkel He 178 thatHeinkel He 178 that mademade the first jet flight on Aug. 27, 1939the first jet flight on Aug. 27, 1939. Even though World War II. Even though World War II accelerated the growth of the airplane, the jet aircraft was notaccelerated the growth of the airplane, the jet aircraft was not introduced into service until 1944introduced into service until 1944, when the British Gloster, when the British Gloster Meteor became operational, shortly followed by the German Me 262.Meteor became operational, shortly followed by the German Me 262. The first practical American jet was the Lockheed F-80, which enteredThe first practical American jet was the Lockheed F-80, which entered service in 1945.service in 1945. Commercial aircraft after World War IICommercial aircraft after World War II continued to use the morecontinued to use the more economical propeller method of propulsion. The efficiency of the jeteconomical propeller method of propulsion. The efficiency of the jet engine was increased, and inengine was increased, and in 19491949 the British de Havillandthe British de Havilland Comet inauguratedComet inaugurated commercial jet transport flightcommercial jet transport flight. The Comet,. The Comet, however, experienced structural failures that curtailed the service, andhowever, experienced structural failures that curtailed the service, and it was not untilit was not until 1958 that the highly successful Boeing 707 jet transport1958 that the highly successful Boeing 707 jet transport began nonstop transatlantic flightsbegan nonstop transatlantic flights. While civil aircraft designs utilize. While civil aircraft designs utilize most new technological advancements, the transport and generalmost new technological advancements, the transport and general aviation configurations have changed only slightly since 1960.aviation configurations have changed only slightly since 1960. Because of escalating fuel and hardware prices, the development ofBecause of escalating fuel and hardware prices, the development of civil aircraft has been dominated by the need for economicalcivil aircraft has been dominated by the need for economical operation.operation.
  13. 13. Technological improvements in propulsion, materials, avionics, stability andTechnological improvements in propulsion, materials, avionics, stability and controls have enabled aircraft to grow in size, carrying more cargo faster andcontrols have enabled aircraft to grow in size, carrying more cargo faster and over longer distances. While aircrafts are becoming safer and more efficient,over longer distances. While aircrafts are becoming safer and more efficient, they are also now very complex.they are also now very complex. Today’s commercial aircraft are among theToday’s commercial aircraft are among the most sophisticated engineering achievements of the day.most sophisticated engineering achievements of the day. Smaller, more fuel-efficient airliners are being developed. The use of turbineSmaller, more fuel-efficient airliners are being developed. The use of turbine engines in light general aviation and commuter aircraft is being explored, alongengines in light general aviation and commuter aircraft is being explored, along with morewith more efficient propulsion systemsefficient propulsion systems, such as the prop-fan concept. Using, such as the prop-fan concept. Using satellite communication signals, onboard microcomputers can provide moresatellite communication signals, onboard microcomputers can provide more accurate vehicle navigation and collision-avoidance systems. Digital electronicsaccurate vehicle navigation and collision-avoidance systems. Digital electronics coupled with servo mechanisms can increase efficiencycoupled with servo mechanisms can increase efficiency by providing activeby providing active stability augmentation of control systems. New composite materials providingstability augmentation of control systems. New composite materials providing greater weight reduction; inexpensive one-man, lightweight, noncertifiedgreater weight reduction; inexpensive one-man, lightweight, noncertified aircraft, referred to asaircraft, referred to as ultralight; and alternate fuelsultralight; and alternate fuels such as ethanol, methanol,such as ethanol, methanol, synthetic fuel from shale deposits and coal, and liquid hydrogen are all beingsynthetic fuel from shale deposits and coal, and liquid hydrogen are all being explored. Aircraft designed for vertical and short takeoff and landing, which canexplored. Aircraft designed for vertical and short takeoff and landing, which can land on runways one-tenth the normal length, are being developedland on runways one-tenth the normal length, are being developed. Hybrid. Hybrid vehiclesvehicles such as the Bell XV-15 tilt-rotor already combine the vertical and hoversuch as the Bell XV-15 tilt-rotor already combine the vertical and hover capabilities of the helicopter with the speed and efficiency of the airplane.capabilities of the helicopter with the speed and efficiency of the airplane. Although environmental restrictions and high operating costs have limited theAlthough environmental restrictions and high operating costs have limited the success of the supersonic civil transport, the appeal of reduced travelling timesuccess of the supersonic civil transport, the appeal of reduced travelling time justifies the examination of ajustifies the examination of a second generation of supersonic aircraft.second generation of supersonic aircraft.

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