The Aviation History
                 
.. Chinese and Greek myths..
Icarus
In Greek mythology, Icarus is the son of the 
master craftsman Daedalus. The main story 
told about Icarus is his a...
The myth
The Lament for Icarus by H. J. Draper
   Daedalus, a talented and 
remarkable Athenian craftsman, built the La...
Although a clear understanding of bird flight 
was not attained until the twentieth century, 
the issue was considered set...
Nearly all ancient cultures contain myths about 
flying deities. The gods of ancient Egypt, 
Minoa, and Mesopotamia were o...
Aviation TimelineAviation Timeline
1930
 1931 to 1940
 1941 to 1950
1951 to 1960
 1961to1970
1971 to
1980
 1981 to 1990
19...
Sir George Cayley was the Yorkshire-born aristocrat who first
worked out the basic principles of the airplane in the 1790s...
Sir George Cayley
Felix du Temple
1874
• Felix du Temple de la Croix (known almost universally as "Felix du Temple")
patented his design for...
Clément Ader (1841-1926)
• Self-taught French engineer and inventor, and a pioneer
• of flight before the Wright brothers....
Otto Lilienthal: First True Aviator
The German engineer Otto Lilienthal was the first man to
launch himself into the air, ...
Like several others before him, Lilienthal never
quite abandoned the idea that flapping wings
was the key to motion. In 18...
Leonardo
DaVinci Inspiration for this glider may have come from the string-
controlled kite. It has been suggested that L...
Ornithopters, Helicopters and Kites
As the dream of flight lurched toward reality during
the nineteenth century, two devel...
A large number of fanciful inventions surfaced
between the time of Leonardo and the 20th
century.
In 1754, Mikhail Lomonos...
Aviation in Romania

1.-Aurel Vlaicu
2.-Traian Vuia
3.George Valenti Bibescu
Aurel Vlaicu was born in the village of
Binţinţi near Geoagiu, Transylvania. He
attended Calvinist High School in Orăştie
...
• George Valentin, Prince Bibescu  was a Romanian early aviation pioneer. 
Prince George III Valentin Bibescu , nephew of ...
The hot air balloonThe hot air balloon
While some were dreaming of flying like a bird, others preferred to 
take it one st...
In the mid-1770s, Joseph and Etienne 
Montgolfier, brothers who worked in their 
father’s paper factory in Annonay in Sout...
After experimenting with smaller models, 
they constructed a large balloon of linen 
covered with stiff paper—prints of th...
And we are here in the 21th century with 
new technologies … and new sciences 
about space ships, robots and alien 
techno...
The Aviation History by Petcu Corina
The Aviation History by Petcu Corina
The Aviation History by Petcu Corina
The Aviation History by Petcu Corina
The Aviation History by Petcu Corina
The Aviation History by Petcu Corina
The Aviation History by Petcu Corina
The Aviation History by Petcu Corina
The Aviation History by Petcu Corina
The Aviation History by Petcu Corina
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The Aviation History by Petcu Corina

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A PPT material about the first attempts to fly and the history of aviation made by a student involved in the Comenius multilateral partnership “From Icarus to Interplanetary Travels”

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The Aviation History by Petcu Corina

  1. 1. The Aviation History                  
  2. 2. .. Chinese and Greek myths..
  3. 3. Icarus In Greek mythology, Icarus is the son of the  master craftsman Daedalus. The main story  told about Icarus is his attempt to escape  from Crete by means of wings that his father  constructed from feathers and wax. He  ignored instructions not to fly too close to the  sun, and the melting wax caused him to fall  into the sea where he drowned. The myth  shares thematic similarities with that  of Phaëton — both are usually taken as tragic  examples of hubris or failed ambition — and is  often depicted in art. Today, the Hellenic Air  Force Academy is named after Icarus, who is  seen as the mythical pioneer in Greece's  attempt to conquer the skies.
  4. 4. The myth The Lament for Icarus by H. J. Draper    Daedalus, a talented and  remarkable Athenian craftsman, built the Labyrinth for King  Minos of Crete near his palace at Knossos to imprison  the Minotaur, a half-man, half-bull monster born of his wife  and the Cretan . Minos imprisoned Daedalus himself in the  labyrinth because he gave Minos' daughter, Ariadne, a clew  in order to help Theseus, the enemy of Minos, to survive the  Labyrinth and defeat the Minotaur.    Daedalus fashioned two pairs of wings of wax and  feathers for himself and his son. Daedalus tried his wings  first, but before taking off from the island, warned his son  not to fly too close to the sun, nor too close to the sea, but  to follow his path of flight. Overcome by the giddiness that  flying lent him, Icarus soared through the sky curiously, but  in the process he came too close to the sun, which melted  the wax. Icarus kept flapping his wings but soon realized  that he had no feathers left and that he was only flapping his  bare arms, and so Icarus fell into the sea in the area which  today bears his name, the Icarian Sea near Icaria, an island  southwest of Samos.
  5. 5. Although a clear understanding of bird flight  was not attained until the twentieth century,  the issue was considered settled with the  posthumous publication in 1680 of Giovanni  Alfonso Borelli’s De Motu Animalum. Although a clear understanding of bird flight  was not attained until the twentieth century,  the issue was considered settled with the  posthumous publication in 1680 of Giovanni  Alfonso Borelli’s De Motu Animalum. The history of flight is the history of a dream:  humankind’s dream to soar through the sky  like a bird. Birds seem to fly with so little effort  that it was only natural that early attempts to  fly would be attempts to emulate birds. Early  myths about flight and probably many early  attempts involved fashioning wings out of  birds' feathers. Since ancient times, however,  it was suspected that the mechanism of bird  flight was more complicated than it appeared  to the naked eye. The history of flight is the history of a dream:  humankind’s dream to soar through the sky  like a bird. Birds seem to fly with so little effort  that it was only natural that early attempts to  fly would be attempts to emulate birds. Early  myths about flight and probably many early  attempts involved fashioning wings out of  birds' feathers. Since ancient times, however,  it was suspected that the mechanism of bird  flight was more complicated than it appeared  to the naked eye.
  6. 6. Nearly all ancient cultures contain myths about  flying deities. The gods of ancient Egypt,  Minoa, and Mesopotamia were often depicted  as having magnificent wings, and the Persian  god of gods, Ahura Mazda, is depicted in the  Palace of Darius I at Susa (about 490 B.c.) as  being nearly all wings. The ancient Hebrews  had traditions of placing wings on the  seraphim and on the cherubim that were on  the Ark of the Covenant, but neither they nor  the ancient Greeks and Romans saw wings as  an absolute necessity for flight. Greek gods  flew without any visible means and biblical  descriptions of angels (such as those who  visited Abraham or the one who wrestled with  Jacob) are not depicted as winged. Nearly all ancient cultures contain myths about  flying deities. The gods of ancient Egypt,  Minoa, and Mesopotamia were often depicted  as having magnificent wings, and the Persian  god of gods, Ahura Mazda, is depicted in the  Palace of Darius I at Susa (about 490 B.c.) as  being nearly all wings. The ancient Hebrews  had traditions of placing wings on the  seraphim and on the cherubim that were on  the Ark of the Covenant, but neither they nor  the ancient Greeks and Romans saw wings as  an absolute necessity for flight. Greek gods  flew without any visible means and biblical  descriptions of angels (such as those who  visited Abraham or the one who wrestled with  Jacob) are not depicted as winged.
  7. 7. Aviation TimelineAviation Timeline 1930  1931 to 1940  1941 to 1950 1951 to 1960  1961to1970 1971 to 1980  1981 to 1990 1991 to 2000  2001- present- to future 1930  1931 to 1940  1941 to 1950 1951 to 1960  1961to1970 1971 to 1980  1981 to 1990 1991 to 2000  2001- present- to future
  8. 8. Sir George Cayley was the Yorkshire-born aristocrat who first worked out the basic principles of the airplane in the 1790s. Oddly enough, England was satisfied with Cayley’s theoretical achievement and so it was slower than other European countries in mastering the practical challenges of flight.
  9. 9. Sir George Cayley
  10. 10. Felix du Temple 1874 • Felix du Temple de la Croix (known almost universally as "Felix du Temple") patented his design for an aerial machine in 1857. The design featured retractable wheeled landing gear, a tractor propeller, an internal engine and a boat-shaped hull (Mons. Du Temple had been a French Naval officer). He believed that a 6 h.p. engine would suffice to lift the machine, which had an estimated weight of about one ton. To pursue his design, Felix du Temple constructed numerous bird-shaped models and deduced that a dihedral angle to the wings would assist in stability, as well as placing most of the weight to the front of the machine. He ultimately worked with his brother, Louis, to build a large-sized version of his design. Finding existing steam engines to not be lightweight and powerful enough, in 1867 the two brothers built and patented an innovative "hot air" steam engine. • By 1874 the du Temples had constructed a large finely-built monoplane, at Brest, France, with a wing span of some 40 feet and a weight (minus the operator) of only about 160 pounds. At least one attempt to actually fly the machine was made and it is generally agreed that after gaining speed down an incline, the flying machine lifted off for a short time and then returned to the ground, with both machine and operator uninjured.
  11. 11. Clément Ader (1841-1926) • Self-taught French engineer and inventor, and a pioneer • of flight before the Wright brothers. • He was an early enthusiast of aviation who • constructed a balloon at his own expense during the Franco-German War of 1870-71. In 1876 he quit his job in the Administration of Bridges and Highways to make more money to support his hobby. His early inventions in electrical-communications included a microphone and a public-address device. • He then focused on the problem of heavier-than-air flying machines and in 1890 built a steam-powered, bat-winged monoplane, which he named the Eole. On October 9 he flew it a distance of 50 m (160 feet) on a friend's estate near Paris. The steam engine was unsuitable for sustained and controlled flight, which required the gasoline engine; nevertheless, Ader's short hop was the first demonstration that a manned heavier-than- air machine could take off from level ground under its own power.
  12. 12. Otto Lilienthal: First True Aviator The German engineer Otto Lilienthal was the first man to launch himself into the air, fly, and land safely. He also was an important source of inspiration and information for the Wright brothers in the next decade. Lilienthal was born in Pomerania, Germany in 1848. Even as a teenager, he was interested in flight.
  13. 13. Like several others before him, Lilienthal never quite abandoned the idea that flapping wings was the key to motion. In 1893 and again in 1896, he built gliders with flapping wings in the ornithopter fashion. Each machine had a lightweight carbonic acid engine that produced about two horsepower (1.5 kilowatts). The engine was supposed to make the wing tips flap up and down and move the aircraft forward. Neither model was successful. On August 9, 1896, the glider he was piloting stalled and went into a nosedive. It had nothing to protect him, and he died the next day of a broken spine. His last words were: “Sacrifices must be made”.
  14. 14. Leonardo DaVinci Inspiration for this glider may have come from the string- controlled kite. It has been suggested that Leonardo may have built and tested it.  In the drawing the feet of the pilot are placed at 'm' and the body is at 'a,b'. He has clearly thought about how the pilot controlled the flight, using cords. But it is not clear from the drawing which is the nose and which is the tail of the glider.  Leonardo's design for a glider. Original drawing by kind permission of Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid. Manuscript I, f 64r. A glider based on this drawing was successfully flown by the paraglider Robbie Whittall. After 40 crashes, a tail was added to make it fly properly.  Reminiscent of the modern hang glider, Leonardo's glider with controls relies on pure gliding without flapping.
  15. 15. Ornithopters, Helicopters and Kites As the dream of flight lurched toward reality during the nineteenth century, two developments begun centuries earlier came to a climax. One was the failure of attempts to create an ornithopter—a flying machine that emulated birds by having flapping wings—and its cousin, the helicopter. The other was the development of the kite, which had been around in some form or other for centuries. Front and aerial views of Jacob Degen’s flying machine as it appeared in the early nineteenth century, but with one important element missing: the huge balloon that actually carried Degen aloft.
  16. 16. A large number of fanciful inventions surfaced between the time of Leonardo and the 20th century. In 1754, Mikhail Lomonosov, the "Father of Russian Science," suggested that a coaxial rotor machine could be used to lift meteorological instruments. He developed a small coaxial rotor modeled after the Chinese top and the wound-up spring was demonstrated to the Russian Academy of Sciences in July 1754. J.P. Paucton seems to have been the first European to propose the helicopter as a man-carrying vehicle. In his Theorie de la vis d'Archimedes, he described a man- powered machine called a Pterophere with two airscrews— one to support the machine in flight and the second to provide forward propulsion. In 1783, the French naturalist Launoy, with the assistance of his mechanic Bienvenu, used a version of the Chinese top in a model consisting of two sets of rotors made of turkey feathers that rotated in opposite directions.
  17. 17. Aviation in Romania  1.-Aurel Vlaicu 2.-Traian Vuia 3.George Valenti Bibescu
  18. 18. Aurel Vlaicu was born in the village of Binţinţi near Geoagiu, Transylvania. He attended Calvinist High School in Orăştie and took his Bacalaureate in Sibiu in 1902. He furthered his studies at Technical University of Budapest and Technische Hochsch München in Germany, earning his engineer's diploma in 1907. After working at Opel car factory in Rüsselsheim, he returned to Binţinţi and built a glider he flew in the summer of 1909. Later that year he moved to Bucharest in the Kingdom of Romania, where he began the construction of Vlaicu I airplane that flew for the first time on June 17, 1910 over Cotroceni airfield.
  19. 19. • George Valentin, Prince Bibescu  was a Romanian early aviation pioneer.  Prince George III Valentin Bibescu , nephew of Gheorghe Bibescu, domnitor  of Wallachia, was born in Bucharest. In 1902, he married Marthe Lucie Lahovary,  who took the name Marthe Bibesco. They had one daughter, Valentina, born 27  August 1903. In 1912, he gave his wife as a present the Mogoşoaia Palace. •         Bibescu had an early interest in aviation; he flew a balloon named "Romania"  brought from France 1905. Later he tried to teach himself how to fly  a Voisin airplane, also brought from France, but without success. After Louis  Blérist's demonstrative flight in Bucharest on October 18, 1909, he went to Paris  and enrolled in Blériot's school in Pau. On January 23, 1910, he obtained the  International Pilot License number 20.
  20. 20. The hot air balloonThe hot air balloon While some were dreaming of flying like a bird, others preferred to  take it one step at a time and simply try to lift into the air. The idea of  using Archimedes’ buoyancy principle to rise in the atmosphere by  creating an object lighter than the air it displaces had been introduced  in 1670 by a Jesuit priest, Father Francesco de Lana of Brescia, Italy.  De Lana suggested (in print) that copper could be used to create  spheres thin enough to be light- weight yet strong enough to  be evacuated of all air, thereby making the total sphere lighter than  the air the sphere displaced. The theory was sound, but producing  sufficiently light spheres that would not collapse under the pressure  of the air proved too difficult. In 1766, the British scientist Henry  Cavendish discovered hydrogen gas (as the product of mixing iron,  tin, zinc shavings, and sulfuric acid) and found it to be one-tenth the  weight of air. This should have stirred someone to realize that  hydrogen gas could be used to fill a balloon and the result would be a  lighter-than-air object. Inexplicably, it did not, and the first balloons to  fly were filled with hot air. Barthelmy-Laurent de Gusman’s flying boat, from a  1709 engraving.  The craft was to be kept aloft  by magnets in the two globes fore and aft. How this  was to be accomplished was never explained.
  21. 21. In the mid-1770s, Joseph and Etienne  Montgolfier, brothers who worked in their  father’s paper factory in Annonay in South- Eastern France, noted that paper rose in the  updrafts of the factory’s chimney, and  occasionally a sheet would fold into a dome  and continue rising even after leaving  the  immediate area of the chimney. They  conducted some simple experiments with  silk bags and soon became convinced that a  large bag with heated air inside would rise.  In actuality, this effect had already been  demonstrated nearly seventy-five years  earlier by the Brazilian priest C Bartolomeu  de Guasmao, who conducted a spectacular  demonstration in the court of King John V in  Lisbon, Portugal. But the Montgolfiers knew  nothing of this demonstration, and they  knew little about the reason their balloon  rose into the air. They believed that the  balloon was filled with a gas they called  “Montgolfier gas” that had a special  property they called “levity.” They did not  even associate heated air with Montgolfier  gas—they believed that the levity was  contained in the smoke.  In the mid-1770s, Joseph and Etienne  Montgolfier, brothers who worked in their  father’s paper factory in Annonay in South- Eastern France, noted that paper rose in the  updrafts of the factory’s chimney, and  occasionally a sheet would fold into a dome  and continue rising even after leaving  the  immediate area of the chimney. They  conducted some simple experiments with  silk bags and soon became convinced that a  large bag with heated air inside would rise.  In actuality, this effect had already been  demonstrated nearly seventy-five years  earlier by the Brazilian priest C Bartolomeu  de Guasmao, who conducted a spectacular  demonstration in the court of King John V in  Lisbon, Portugal. But the Montgolfiers knew  nothing of this demonstration, and they  knew little about the reason their balloon  rose into the air. They believed that the  balloon was filled with a gas they called  “Montgolfier gas” that had a special  property they called “levity.” They did not  even associate heated air with Montgolfier  gas—they believed that the levity was  contained in the smoke.  The superstitious peasants of the village, believing the balloon to be a  monster that was attacking them from the sky, proceeded to rip it to  shreds with scythes and pitchforks. The flight of the first “Charliere,”  as hydrogen-filled balloons  were to be called for many years  afterwards, had therefore been a qualified success. The Montgolfier  brothers then built an even larger balloon-some seventy feet high— equipped with a circular gallery for the aeronauts. Two adventurers,  Jean-Francois Pilatre de Rozier and Francois Laurent, Marquis  d’Arandes, volunteered for the flight, which was prepared for and  anticipated with the same nail-biting nervousness that characterized  the first manned rocket launches of modern times. Tests were conducted with animals to determine what possible ill  effects there might be on living beings, and then, beginning on  October 15, tethered flights with humans were conducted from the  courtyard of the Palace of Versailles. On November 21, the same pair  made a free flight in their Montgolfier, landing about ten miles away  about twenty-three minutes after launching. 
  22. 22. After experimenting with smaller models,  they constructed a large balloon of linen  covered with stiff paper—prints of the time  show a large blue ovoid, brightly decorated  and held together with buttons—and  conducted many trials, beginning  on April 25, 1783 (the first known date), and  culminating in a public demonstration in the  town square of Annonay on June 5. Etienne  was immediately summoned to Paris to  address the Academy of Sciences about the  brothers’ invention. Even before Etienne  arrived, the French physicist Jacques Charles,  mistakenly believing the Montgolfiers had  used hydrogen in their ascent, hastily  constructed a balloon of varnished silk, filled  it with hydrogen (an expensive chemical  procedure on such a large scale), and  launched it from the Champs de Mars, Paris,  on August 27. It rose through heavy rains that  fell that day and was carried away by the  storm to the village of Gonesse some fifteen  miles (24km) away, where it finally came to  rest.  After experimenting with smaller models,  they constructed a large balloon of linen  covered with stiff paper—prints of the time  show a large blue ovoid, brightly decorated  and held together with buttons—and  conducted many trials, beginning  on April 25, 1783 (the first known date), and  culminating in a public demonstration in the  town square of Annonay on June 5. Etienne  was immediately summoned to Paris to  address the Academy of Sciences about the  brothers’ invention. Even before Etienne  arrived, the French physicist Jacques Charles,  mistakenly believing the Montgolfiers had  used hydrogen in their ascent, hastily  constructed a balloon of varnished silk, filled  it with hydrogen (an expensive chemical  procedure on such a large scale), and  launched it from the Champs de Mars, Paris,  on August 27. It rose through heavy rains that  fell that day and was carried away by the  storm to the village of Gonesse some fifteen  miles (24km) away, where it finally came to  rest. 
  23. 23. And we are here in the 21th century with  new technologies … and new sciences  about space ships, robots and alien  technologies …   And we are here in the 21th century with  new technologies … and new sciences  about space ships, robots and alien  technologies …  

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