Legal Framework For Securitisation And Mortgage Bonds In Romania

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Legal framework for securitisation and mortgage bonds in Romania

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Legal Framework For Securitisation And Mortgage Bonds In Romania

  1. 1. The Romanian Legal Framework for Mortgage Bonds and Mortgage Backed Securities Mortgage Securitisation: Making the Deal 23 February 2007, Istanbul, Turkey Andrei Burz Pinzaru Senior Manager Reff & Associates is the correspondent law firm of Deloitte Romania
  2. 2. Overview Prerequisites to the secondary mortgage market Reff & Associates is the correspondent law firm of Deloitte Romania
  3. 3. Overview The legal framework for new financial instruments in Romania Four laws that were recently published (March 2006), are expected to have a significant impact on the Romanian banking and financial market in general and on the Romanian mortgage lending market in particular. Amendments the Mortgage Lending Act (Law No. 34/2006, published on 3 March 2006, amending Law 190/1999) The main legal The Mortgage Banks Law (Law No.221/2006, published on 3 March framework for 2006) Romanian primary and secondary The Securitisation Law (Law 31/2006, published on 13 March 2006) mortgage market The Mortgage Bonds Law (Law 32/2006, published on 23 March 2006)
  4. 4. Prerequisites to the secondary market Origination rules. New players. Upgrade of the origination rules (Amendments the Mortgage Lending Act) • Defining with increased accuracy the area of applicability of the Act (“mortgage loans” versus “real estate loans”) • Both Romanian and foreign persons can benefit of mortgage loans • Clarifications on mortgaging future properties • Increased flexibility in property insurance related to mortgage lending • Detailed regulation of mechanisms and requirements for assignments of mortgage loans portfolios • Separate regulation of the primary mortgage market from the secondary mortgage market New players: mortgage banks (The Mortgage Bonds Law )
  5. 5. The Romanian legal framework for Mortgage Backed Securities Reff & Associates is the correspondent law firm of Deloitte Romania
  6. 6. The Romanian legal framework for MBS Securitisation of mortgage loans: the concept • Securitisation (in Romanian “securitizare”)under Romanian Securitisation Law: a financial operation whereby an investment vehicle purchases pecuniary claims (all accessory rights included), (“assets”), groups them in pools and issues securities backed by the respective assets’ corresponding cash-flows (“asset-backed securities”, in Romanian “instrumente financiare securitizate”). • Securitisation of mortgage loans: a securitisation whereby asset-backed securities (in this case, “mortgage backed securities”) are issued based on a pool of pecuniary claims arising out of mortgage loans (“mortgage backed claims”, in Romanian “creante ipotecare”).
  7. 7. The Romanian legal framework for MBS Key aspects under Romanian law: The pool of assets • Securitisable assets: Any pecuniary claims can be securitisable assets provided that: • the claims are transferable • the claims were originated in full compliance with the applicable law • the claims are free of any encumbrances prior to being pledged as collateral for a securitisation. • Mortgage backed claims are expressly mentioned as securitisable assets (Article 2(2)(a) in the Securitisation Law).
  8. 8. The Romanian legal framework for MBS Key aspects under Romanian law: The pool of assets • Who can purchase mortgage backed receivables? • Originators: universal and mortgage banks, National Housing Agency, mortgage lending companies • Other entities authorised by special laws. In particular, SPVs established under the Securitisation Law. • Publicity and enforcement of assignment • Versus third parties: by registration in Electronic Archive • Versus borrowers: by registered letter • Post-assignment servicing (cash collection and foreclosure) • can be structured contractually • if not structured contractually, it must be done by the originator (assignor)
  9. 9. The Romanian legal framework for MBS Key aspects under Romanian law: The pool of assets Key legal The SPV’s unchallenged ownership of collateral (asset pool) – issue the true sale • Special protection for assignments to an SPV: • Limited duration for challenging the validity of an assignment of mortgage loans if assigned to an SPV established under the Securitisation Law (45 days as of registration with the archive and notification of the assignor’s creditors). • Not subject to insolvency claw-back: express exclusion of the possibility to challenge the assignment by administrators, liquidator or creditors of the transferor under a judicial reorganization or bankruptcy procedure).
  10. 10. The Romanian legal framework for MBS Key aspects under Romanian law: the investment vehicle (SPV) • What is an investment vehicle? An entity with or without legal personality having as exclusive object of activity the issuance of asset-backed securities on the basis of a pool of receivables (Article 3(23) in the Securitisation Law). • Types of SPVs under Romanian law: Securitisation company • joint stock company, i.e., having legal personality. • MBS issued: mortgage backed bonds • pay-trough” structure • may be used for multiple securitisations Securitisation fund • civil partnership contract, i.e., no legal personality • MBS issued: mortgage backed units • “pass-through” structure • for one securitisation only • Key features of SPVs • may only engage in activities necessary in order to effect the securitisation • has no employees;SPV’s operations are undertaken by specialised providers • is subject to legal restrictions, including without limitation: • Limited rights to transfer, pledge, dispose of the asset pool • No offsetting; limited withholding rights from the claims in the pool • Limited rights to incur debt
  11. 11. The Romanian legal framework for MBS Key aspects under Romanian law: the investment vehicle (SPV) Key legal SPV’s bankruptcy’s remoteness issue • “Limited purpose concept” • Undertaking all purchases at fair value (the Securitisation law stipulates absolute nullity for transfers of claims to the SPV without consideration) • Aiming for management and operational independence from the Originator: by use of specialised legal entities: • corporate servicing: done by SPV administrator • pool servicing and payment agent function: done by Portfolio Management Company (specialised legal entity). When the transferor (or one of its affiliates) acts as PMC, the law regulates immediate termination of contract in case of breach of duties. • Creation of charges on the pool other than in favor of ABS holders is void • In case of SPV bankruptcy, the cover pool is isolated from the bankrupt estate
  12. 12. The Romanian legal framework for MBS Key aspects under Romanian law: the SPV Administrator • The corporate servicer (“SPV administrator”): • Specialised service provider (joint stock company) subject to CNVM supervision; Minimum share capital €125,000; At least two shareholders are credit or financial institutions • Services which cannot be delegated to third parties • Represents the SPV in the purchase of the assets • Represents the SPV in the process of the MBS issue; • Reports to the Securities Commission and to the Agent • Services which can be delegated to third parties • Provide administrative activities to the SPV; • Maintain the register of the note-holders; • Structure the portfolio of receivables; • Registers the security interest over the cover pool (when no Agent was appointed); • Ensure the correct publicity of the pledge; • Represents the SPV in the process of the MBS issue; • Maintains the registry of MBS holders; • Represents the SPV in relation to third parties
  13. 13. The Romanian legal framework for MBS Key aspects under Romanian law: servicer and paying agent (the PMC) • The servicer: Portfolio Management Company (“PMC”) • Specialised service provider. Legal entity, either a credit institution (subject to NBR supervision) or a financial institution (subject to CNVM supervision) • Manages the cash collection and foreclosure for the claims included in the pool • Monitors the performance of the portfolio • Responsible for making payments on the securities to the investors • Must isolate each portfolio managed
  14. 14. The Romanian legal framework for MBS Key aspects under Romanian law: the Agent • Mission: the agent is “a legal person or entity without legal personality assigned and authorised […] to represent the interests of the holders of asset- backed securities” • Agent and Trustee: interchangeable concepts? • Considering the securitisation function of the trustee under common law jurisdictions (holding securitised assets in trust on behalf of the SPV/ note holders[1] and/or holding the SPV shares in trust), it can be stated as not appropriate to use the word “trustee” for the Agent. • Considering the role of trustee under European securitisation best practices (i.e., less referred in connection with actually holding assets in trust and focusing more on the monitoring and reporting function of the trustee), one can say the agent, as defined under the Romanian Mortgage Bonds Law and referred in the Romanian Securitisation law, fulfills the monitoring and reporting functions specific to the trustee.
  15. 15. The Romanian legal framework for MBS Key aspects under Romanian law: the Agent • Agent’s general duties (defined in the Securitisation law by reference to the Mortgage Bonds Law) • Compliance check • Registration of security interest over the cover pool in favor of the note holders • Notification to NSC and NBR of breach of the issuer’s obligations • Call of general meeting of the note holders • Publication of general meeting of note holders’ decisions • Representation of the note holders in front of the issuer • Appointment & revocation • Mandatory for mortgage bonds • Optional for securitisations • Election by the issuer among the qualified agents authorised by the regulators • Appointed within the prospectus (subject to confirmation by the investors) • Operates based on authorisation issued jointly by the regulators • Who can act as agent? • Audit firms • Credit institutions • Financial investment services companies • Lawyers • Notaries
  16. 16. The Romanian legal framework for MBS Key aspects under Romanian law: issuing MBS • SPV Securitisation company – issues mortgage-backed bonds • SPV Securitisation fund – issues mortgage-backed units • Public offering as regulated under Romanian Securities Law • Minimal content of the Prospectus required by law: • Definition of the Originator, Administrator, Servicer, Trustee and Auditors; • Definition of the main characteristics of the issue: • Total value, nominal value, issue price of the ABS; • Purchase price of the portfolio; • Duration, interests, reimbursement of the ABS; • Costs and expenses; • Etc. • Definition of the portfolio securitized; • Definition of the proceeds and of the financial investments of the SPV
  17. 17. The Romanian legal framework for MBS Key aspects under Romanian law: issuing MBS Key legal Investors’ interest in the collaterall issue • By subscription as part of the mortgage backed securities issue, the investors acquire a first rank guarantee against any other third party creditors • Limited duration for challenging the validity of a security interest created over the asset pool in favour of the investors (45 days as of registration with the archive). • Not subject to insolvency claw-back: express exclusion of the right to challenge the security interest (whether by administrators, liquidator or creditors under a judicial reorganization or bankruptcy procedure). • Over-collateralisation is not mandatory, however the financial equilibrium is required by law: the total value of the receivables in the asset pool securing an issue on the date of the closure of the subscription period shall be at least equal to the total amount of the issuer’s liabilities towards the holders of asset- backed securities in the respective issue.
  18. 18. The Romanian legal framework for MBS Key aspects under Romanian law: issuing MBS Options for the portfolio management • Maintenance of the portfolio The issuer may undertake through the prospectus the obligation to supplement the asset pool in the event the total value of the receivables included in the asset pool diminishes throughout the duration of the issue under the limit provided under paragraph (1), if a higher limit is not provided in the prospectus. • Actively managed portfolios The issuer may include in the asset pool own receivables such as cash collateral and other financial instruments cashable on demand or tradable on a capital market to enhance the value of the pool or compensate for a reduction in the value of any receivables in the pool.
  19. 19. The Romanian legal framework for Mortgage Bonds Reff & Associates is the correspondent law firm of Deloitte Romania
  20. 20. The Romanian legal framework for mortgage bonds The concept. The limited use of mortgage bonds versus MBS Mortgage bonds: securities issued under CNVM’s supervision, based on a offering circular approved by CNVM, for the purpose of refinancing the mortgage lending activity of the issuer, based on a cover pool of mortgage loans over which the investors are granted a first rank security interest and a preference right against any other creditors of the issuer. • Mortgage backed securities: financial instruments accessible to all the mortgage loan originators. • Mortgage bonds: financial instruments accessible only to banks • universal banks • specialised banks: mortgage banks (under the Mortgage Banks Law)
  21. 21. The Romanian legal framework for mortgage bonds Key aspects under Romanian law: cover pool structuring principles • Origination in compliance with applicable laws; • Mortgage loans must be financing real estate in Romania or EU/ EEC • Homogenous pools • The weighted average of the maturities of the mortgage loans in the cover pool must be higher than the maturity of the mortgage bonds secured by such cover pool • The updated value of mortgage backed claims securing an issue of mortgage bonds must be at least equal with the updated value of the payment obligations of the issuer towards the respective mortgage bonds holders; • The aggregated value of the mortgage loans secured with mortgages over lands with no constructions built on and of those secured with mortgages over building in the process of being built, must not exceed 10% of the vale of the portfolio; • Each mortgage loan in the cover pool meets the general eligibility criteria and the performing criteria established in the prospectus.
  22. 22. The Romanian legal framework for mortgage bonds Key aspects under Romanian law: Cover pool general eligibility criteria • The nominal value of a mortgage loan must be: • ≤ 80% of reference value of the mortgaged property (residential mortgages) • ≤ 70% of the reference value of mortgaged property (commercial mortgage) • The principal of the mortgage loan agreement has been fully disbursed • Limited exposure per borrower (max 10% the value of the cover pool) • The mortgage-backed claims in the pool are free of encumbrances • Timely payments of the mortgage loans; max delay period (61 days). • Minimum insurance threshold • First rank mortgage established in favor of the issuer • Additional eligibility criteria may be set by the issuers.
  23. 23. The Romanian legal framework for mortgage bonds Key aspects under Romanian law: The cover pool management • The portfolio quality maintenance - replacement of cover pool assets if • Mortgage loans in breach of the eligibility criteria • Non-performing loans (as defined in the law) • Mortgage loans causing to decrease below legally acceptable limits: • the weighted average of the maturities of the mortgage loans, or • the cumulated principal and/or interest of the mortgage loans • Eligible assets for replacement purposes • The assets must be replaced with other eligible mortgage loans • Other assets (yet to be regulated by Central Bank) may be used if: • other eligible mortgage loans are not available, and • replacement is allowed under the prospectus, and • such other assets are free of encumbrances, and • such other assets’ risks must not be higher than those of the loans in the cover pool.
  24. 24. The Romanian legal framework for mortgage bonds Key aspects under Romanian law: Issuing mortgage bonds • Public offering as regulated under Romanian Securities Law • Minimal content of the Prospectus required by law: • Definition of the Originator, Administrator, Servicer, Trustee and Auditors; • Definition of the main characteristics of the issue: • Total value, nominal value, issue price of the ABS; • Purchase price of the portfolio; • Duration, interests, reimbursement of the ABS; • Costs and expenses; • Etc. • Definition of the portfolio securitized; • Definition of the proceeds and of the financial investments of the SPV
  25. 25. The Romanian legal framework for mortgage bonds Key aspects under Romanian law: Issuing mortgage bonds Key legal Investors’ interest in the cover pool issue • By subscription as part of the mortgage bonds issue, the investors acquire a first rank guarantee against any other third party creditors • The Agent (mandatory for mortgage bonds) is in charge with execution and registration of security interest over the cover pool in favor of the bond holders • Detailed rules for registration of security interest in Electronic Archive • Registrations regarding the mortgages are subject to prior clearance from Electronic Archive • Assignment/encumbrances of the cover-pool other than as per the prospectus are null an void • Over-collateralisation is not mandatory, however the financial equilibrium is required by law • Portfolio quality maintenance requirements
  26. 26. The Romanian legal framework for mortgage bonds Key aspects under Romanian law: Issuing mortgage bonds Key legal “Bankruptcy remoteness” issue The mortgage Bonds Law derogates from general bankruptcy law: • the cover pool securing a mortgage bonds issue is isolated from the bankrupt estate • the administration of the mortgage credit pools of an issuer undergoing the bankruptcy procedure shall be carried out by a portfolio management company (as defined in Securitisation Law) • the completion of the bankruptcy procedure does not trigger the completion of the mortgage credits pools administration if there are still outstanding obligations to the mortgage bondholders.
  27. 27. The Regulators Reff & Associates is the correspondent law firm of Deloitte Romania
  28. 28. Regulators of the Romanian secondary mortgage market Key competencies: mortgage backed securities • Romanian Securities Commission (“CNVM”). • Regulate minimal contents of the prospectus for issuing MBS • Authorise the MBS public offer • Authorize SPV’s, PMCs (financial institutions) and SPV administrators • Collect current and periodical reports from the servicers and SPV management companies • Authorise and monitor the agents in conjunction with NBR • Central Bank of Romania(“NBR”) • Authorise PMC (credit institutions) • Authorise and monitor the agents in conjunction with CNVM
  29. 29. Regulators of the Romanian secondary mortgage market Key competencies: mortgage bonds • Romanian Securities Commission (“CNVM”). • Regulate minimal contents of the prospectus for issuing MB • Authorise the MB public offer • Authorize PMCs (financial institutions) • Sets minimal contents of the current reports made by the issuer in case of substitution/supplementing the cover pool • Monitors the fulfillment of mortgage bonds issuer’s obligations • Authorise and monitor in conjunction with NBR the agents legal entities or entities without legal personality as well as the representatives of the agents; • Central Bank of Romania(“NBR”) • Authorise PMC (credit institutions) • Authorise and monitor the agents in conjunction with CNVM • Regulate eligible assets for cover pool replacement purposes
  30. 30. Securitisation Services : Financial Advisory in Romania Legal assistance Tax Contacts Financial Advisory Services Legal and regulatory Dragos Neacsu Andrei Burz Pinzaru Director Senior Manager Direct:+40 21 207 54 95 Direct:+40 21 207 52 05 Fax: +40 21 319 51 03 Fax: +40 21 319 51 02 Mobile:+40 744 328 198 Mobile:+40 744 328 928 Email: dneacsu@deloittece.com Email: aburzpinzaru@deloittece.com www.deloitte.ro www.deloitte.com/ro/legal 4-8 Nicolae Titulescu Road, 4-8 Nicolae Titulescu Road, East Entrance, 3rd floor, East Entrance, 3rd floor, Sector 1, Bucharest, 011141 Sector 1, Bucharest, 011141 Romania Romania Reff&Associates is the correspondent law firm of Deloitte Romania

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