WUXI GCS Workshop
Common mistakes in planning and
installing PV systems in Germany
October 2011
Andreas Iliou
Technical Cu...
Content

2

1. Common mistakes in planning a PV system
2. Common mistakes in installing a PV system

3. Consequences for C...
3

1. Common mistakes in
planning a PV system

Suntech confidential
Planning mistakes
a) Shadowing (can cause Bypass diode
damages)
b) Temperature zones (performance issues)
c) Layout of the...
a) Shadowing (1)
Plan your solar plant w/o shadow (12PM on the
shortest day of the year (Dec/21))!

Suntech confidential

...
a) Shadowing (2)
Plan your solar plant w/o shadow (12PM on the
shortest day of the year (Dec/21))!

Suntech confidential

...
a) Shadowing (3)
Plan your solar plant w/o shadow (12PM on the
shortest day of the year (Dec/21))!

Suntech confidential

...
b) Temperature Zones
Connect all panels together which are in one
horizontal temperature zone!

Suntech confidential

8
c) Layout of the panels
Optimize the string layout aiming for:
• matching string lengths for various strings
(same string ...
d) Snow Load and Wind load
Check for a suitable mounting solution
according to the snow load zone:
• for a higher snow loa...
e) EMC and surge protection
Always do not separate the plus pole and the
minus pole on distance as it creates Electrical
f...
12

2. Common mistakes in
installing a PV system

Suntech confidential
Installation mistakes
a) Mounting systems (glass breakage)
b) Loose cables and connectors (connectors
burnt)
c) Grounding ...
a) Mounting systems

Suntech confidential

14
b) Loose cables and connectors

Suntech confidential

15
c) Grounding and Earthing

Suntech confidential

16
d) Dirty panels

17

Suntech confidential
e) Inverter dimensioning
• For Germany, a typical dimensioning is
DC/AC: 110...115% depending on orientation,
installation...
19

3. Consequences for Claim
Management

Suntech confidential
Planning & Installation mistakes
• Influences on Performance:
– dirty panels cause up to 10% losses

– wrong string connec...
Planning & Installation mistakes
• Influences on Bypass diode:
– missing surge protection can cause
Bypass diode damages
–...
Planning & Installation mistakes
• Further Influences:
– Glass breakage: too tight mounting
solutions can cause glass brea...
THANK YOU!

October 2011
Andreas Iliou
Technical Customer Service Engineers Germany
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20111010 gcs training wuxi common mistakes in planning and installation - v02

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The not so confidential planning and installation issues
made during Energy Audits
2011 onwards

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20111010 gcs training wuxi common mistakes in planning and installation - v02

  1. 1. WUXI GCS Workshop Common mistakes in planning and installing PV systems in Germany October 2011 Andreas Iliou Technical Customer Service Engineers Germany
  2. 2. Content 2 1. Common mistakes in planning a PV system 2. Common mistakes in installing a PV system 3. Consequences for Claim Management Suntech confidential
  3. 3. 3 1. Common mistakes in planning a PV system Suntech confidential
  4. 4. Planning mistakes a) Shadowing (can cause Bypass diode damages) b) Temperature zones (performance issues) c) Layout of the panels (vertical, horizontal) (performance issues with dirt) d) Snow loads (glass breakage or frame damage) e) EMC and surge protection (can cause surges and Bypass diode damages) Suntech confidential 4
  5. 5. a) Shadowing (1) Plan your solar plant w/o shadow (12PM on the shortest day of the year (Dec/21))! Suntech confidential 5
  6. 6. a) Shadowing (2) Plan your solar plant w/o shadow (12PM on the shortest day of the year (Dec/21))! Suntech confidential 6
  7. 7. a) Shadowing (3) Plan your solar plant w/o shadow (12PM on the shortest day of the year (Dec/21))! Suntech confidential 7
  8. 8. b) Temperature Zones Connect all panels together which are in one horizontal temperature zone! Suntech confidential 8
  9. 9. c) Layout of the panels Optimize the string layout aiming for: • matching string lengths for various strings (same string length for all strings) • horizontal or vertical layout for a good mounting solution • inclination should be >10°to effectively remove dirt (self cleaning effect) • leave sufficient space between the panels for thermal expansion Suntech confidential 9
  10. 10. d) Snow Load and Wind load Check for a suitable mounting solution according to the snow load zone: • for a higher snow load zone (Bavarian forest), a higher mechanical load must be chosen • Installation Manual p. 9 • Modules should not be installed to narrow to roof-top limits • mounting surface; >15m space between mounting structures Suntech confidential 10
  11. 11. e) EMC and surge protection Always do not separate the plus pole and the minus pole on distance as it creates Electrical fields! Suntech confidential 11
  12. 12. 12 2. Common mistakes in installing a PV system Suntech confidential
  13. 13. Installation mistakes a) Mounting systems (glass breakage) b) Loose cables and connectors (connectors burnt) c) Grounding and Earthing (equipotential) d) Dirty panels e) Inverter dimensioning (performance issues) Suntech confidential 13
  14. 14. a) Mounting systems Suntech confidential 14
  15. 15. b) Loose cables and connectors Suntech confidential 15
  16. 16. c) Grounding and Earthing Suntech confidential 16
  17. 17. d) Dirty panels 17 Suntech confidential
  18. 18. e) Inverter dimensioning • For Germany, a typical dimensioning is DC/AC: 110...115% depending on orientation, installation type, inverter, heat dissipation • Always double-check with the inverter manufacturer sizing tool if the string length and the dimensioning is done properly! Suntech confidential 18
  19. 19. 19 3. Consequences for Claim Management Suntech confidential
  20. 20. Planning & Installation mistakes • Influences on Performance: – dirty panels cause up to 10% losses – wrong string connections (too short, too long) cause around 1...5% losses – shadowing can cause up to 50% losses – a wrong panel layout (with temperature zones) can cause around 1...10% losses – loose connectors can cause up to 5% losses Suntech confidential 20
  21. 21. Planning & Installation mistakes • Influences on Bypass diode: – missing surge protection can cause Bypass diode damages – permanent shading can cause Bypass diode damages Suntech confidential 21
  22. 22. Planning & Installation mistakes • Further Influences: – Glass breakage: too tight mounting solutions can cause glass breakage – Hot Spots: permanent dirt on the panel has not been cleaned and can cause hot spots – Isolation issues: inconsistent grounding in the field can cause isolation issues with the inverter and the panels Suntech confidential 22
  23. 23. THANK YOU! October 2011 Andreas Iliou Technical Customer Service Engineers Germany

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