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VisionMobile

10+1 myths on the Mobile App Economy
Knowledge. Passion. Innovation.




Extracts from Mobile Innovation Economics      January 2012


               10+1 Myths on the
              Mobile App Economy
                                            Andreas Constantinou
                                              Managing Director




                                               Copyright VisionMobile 2011
VisionMobile
Distilling market noise into market sense
Research                                 Workshops                          Market maps                                Strategy definition
competitive                              mobile industry dynamics           Competitive landscape maps                 strategy design, ecosystem
analysis, commissioned                   for telcos and OEMs                                                           positioning, product
research                                                                                                               definition
                Developer
                Economics 2011:
                How developers and
                brands are making
                money in the mobile
                app economy



                                         Mobile Innovation
Clash of                                 Economics                                                                      Mobile Megatrends
                                                                            Mobile Industry Atlas, 3rd ed.
ecosystems                               how Internet business models are                                               series
                                                                            1,100+ companies, 69 market sectors
mobile platforms and                     impacting telecoms and how to
the battle for                           innovate in the age of software
dominance
                                                                                                                       Top-100 analyst blog
                                                                                                                       4,000+ subscribers
                                                                                                                       20,000+ monthly uniques
                                                                                                                       90% mobile industry insiders
                 HTML5
                 and its impact to the
                 mobile industry

                                         The Android Game Plan              100 million club
                                         the commercial mechanics           tracking successful businesses
                                         behind Android and how             in mobile
                                         Google runs the show


                                                                                                                  Copyright VisionMobile 2011
VisionMobile - Trusted by industry brands
Clients




              selected
   VisionMobile clients
           2009-2011

                                            Copyright VisionMobile 2011
Myth: Apps are making profits
     for Apple & Google
Reality: Apps drive the platform’s
core business - not content profits
for Apple this is device sales; for Google this is on-line ads
Industry focuses on app revenues
but misses the point




                              Copyright VisionMobile 2011
The mobile platform landscape
platforms are winning and losing by ecosystem strength



                               iOS          550 K
          BlackBerry OS                                  Symbian
             40 K                                              90 K



          Windows Phone                                         Android
               50 K                                            400 K
                                                         Copyright VisionMobile 2011
Apps and content create new empires
Apple Q2’2011: 4.2% of volume, 52% of profits




                                                Copyright VisionMobile 2011
Apple core business is consumer electronics
    Apple’s app revenues are small compared to the core business




                   Apple revenue by segment Q3 2011 ($ billions).
                                                                    Copyright VisionMobile 2011
Apple core business is consumer electronics
    Apple’s app revenues are small compared to the core business




          “
                  We run the App Store just a little
                  over breakeven”
                                       Peter Oppenheimer,
                                       Apple CFO, Feb 2011




                   Apple revenue by segment Q3 2011 ($ billions).
                                                                    Copyright VisionMobile 2011
Apple iOS platform and ecosystem
apps drive hardware sales for Apple
                                                    $$$                                                 developers
      media                                                                                           sw publishers
      buyers                                                                                         content retailers
                                          user
                                                                                                     internet players
                                                           $$$/users
                                       engagement


                                                                       applications
                                $$$                                                                                 same-side
                                                                       and services

                users and data plans
                                                                                                  +                 network
                                                                                                                    effects



                    subsidies

    operators                             iOS platform

                                 premium                  premium $$$
                             product experience




                                                                                      Copyright VisionMobile 2011
Network effects drive external investment
Network effects attract developer investment and innovation

                                                                                   developers
                         developer & brands
       brands
                             investment       $15B




                                 iOS platform                 $1.5B
     operators

                                                             Apple
                                                          app store cost



           $125B
      iOS device sales                                         Copyright VisionMobile 2011
Myth: It’s all about smartphones
Reality: Ecosystem players battle
         across four screens
Leading ecosystems battle across 4 screens
Experience roaming becomes the key to future platform competition




                Mac computers       iPhone            iPad          Apple TV




               Chrome browser      Android       Android tablets    Google TV




                 amazon.com                          Kindle
Myth: HTML5 is a platform
that can replace native apps
Reality: HTML5 is a
  complementary technology
     needs a leader to deliver a solution for
monetisation, distribution and retailing of HTML5 apps
HTML5 has many benefactors, but no clear leader
all pushing HTML5 and web apps for their own unrelated reasons

             Apple looks to move the web away from Flash
                 offers best-in-class support for HTML5 in mobile Safari browser
             Google searches for more ways to commoditize complements
                 offers strong HTML support in Chrome and Android web browsers
             Facebook aims to break-down Apple/Google silos and distance Adobe
                 looks to take over native and web app discovery
             Microsoft tries to leverage web innovation to Windows 8
                 designs strong support for HTML5 into next generation Windows versions
             Mobile operators hope to regain control lost to native platforms
                 promote HTML5 as an alternative to smartphone platforms
             Qualcomm works to create competitive advantage for its chips
                 offers hardware-acceleration for mobile browsers
             Brands look use web as a low-cost way to go cross-screen
                 fund mobile web developers through projects
             Tool makers facilitate web-to-native hybrid development
                 Adobe (PhoneGap), Sencha, The M Project, Red Foundry

                                                                             Copyright VisionMobile 2011
HTML5 cannot compete with platforms
HTML5 is a complementary technology, not yet a full-fledged platform

App platform ingredients


                 Software            Developer
                                                  Monetisation Distribution                      Retailing
               foundations           ecosystem



  HTML5              ✔                  =                ✖                 ✖                           ✖

       fragmented platform
       always a step behind native                                will depend on app store

       complex tool-chain                                       waiting for a leader
                                                           Facebook? Google? Microsoft? Other?

             most appealing to those who do not yet develop for mobile
             complimentary tech to those who develops native apps

                                                                               Copyright VisionMobile 2011
Platforms differ in level of HTML5 support

                                           HTML5 Test Score
                                  iOS 5                                                                    296
                                MeeGo                                                               272
                 Opera Mobile 11.10                                                                269
                    BlackBerry OS 7                                                             260
                     FirefoxMobile 6                                                          254
        Android 3.2 'Honeycomb'                                                        222
                          Android 2.3                                         177
    Windows Phone 7.5 (Mango)                                          140

                                          0        50       100       150      200       250          300              350


Source: html5test.com, Nov 2011. See also: http://www.lostinmobile.com/home/for-html5-ios5-wins.html

                                                                                         Copyright VisionMobile 2011
Myth: Android’s success is
mostly to do with its openness
Reality: Android is the most closed
    open source project in mobile
              software

          ..and we have proved it.
Source: Google-internal presentation disclosed as a result of Oracle's patent and copyright infringement lawsuit against
                                                                                                                   Google

                                                                                                       Copyright VisionMobile 2011
How Google runs the show:
      Six control points:

      - Private codelines (6+ months ahead) available to 2 OEM partners per release

      - Exceptionally fast pace of innovation 5 new versions (2 major, 3 minor) released in 1 year

      - Gated developer community Android Market is the default channel for 300,000+ apps

      - Closed-source    apps Android Market, GMail, Google Maps, GTalk, etc under commercial agreement

      - Android   trademark use of Android trademark subject to commercial terms

      - Controlled review process all reviewers work for Google, plus rampant NIH culture




109                                                                                Copyright VisionMobile 2011
Closed governance is used to control
clever use of governance models can be used to control products based on OSS

                                                                                     license type


                                                                                      dual license
                                    Foundation                                        (commercial + copyleft)
                              Qt      (58%)
                            (58%)

                                                                                      strong copyleft
                                                           Linux kernel               (GPL)
                                                              (71%)

                                                                                      weak copyleft
                                       MeeGo               WebKit Foundation          (LGPL, MPL, EPL,..)
                                       (61%)     Mozilla   (68%)    (84%)
                                                 (65%)

                                                                                      permissive
            Android                                                                   (APL, BSD, MIT, ..
             (23%)                                                                    .)



        Closed governance                                         open governance

                            open governance index
                                                                               Copyright VisionMobile 2011
Myth: Apple directly competes
 with Google and Microsoft
Reality: Apple, Google and Microsoft
  have very different core businesses

   They just establish the same complementary assets
                  across the value chain
Key players have very different core businesses
Players old and new expand across value-chain to capture more profits


                 Apps
    Content
                 Services


                                                                 Ads                                         Ads
                 App Stores / Portals
  Distribution
                 Billing

                 Telephony
  Connectivity
                                         Access
                 Network access


                                                                            software
                 Software platform
                                                                            licensing
    Screen
                 Devices                             Devices


                                                                                           retailing
                 Discovery / retailing
      User
                 Customer insights
                                           denotes vendor’s core business      Copyright VisionMobile 2011
Myth: All developers want
      is to sell apps
Reality: Distribution is overall
  more important than money
for most developer segments and consumer brands
Copyright VisionMobile 2011
VisionMobile

Developer segments and their motivations
Builds on jobs-based approach, i.e. what developers are trying to get done




                                                                Motivations & drivers

         Hobbyist developers/students                     Fun and coolness

         Independent software vendors                     Sales and opportunity

         Commissioned developers                          Probability of winning a project

         Marketing agencies                               Client requests                                              User reach
                                                                                                                       is the key
                                                                                                                       factor for
         Brands and verticals                             Brand affinity and user engagement
                                                                                                                        making
                                                                                                                        platform
         Digital content publishers                       Large addressable market                                     decisions


         Venture-backed startups                          Attract investment

         Corporate IT                                     ROI, information security

                                                                                         Copyright VisionMobile 2011
Myth: All you need to attract
    developers is APIs
Reality: The bar for developer
      offerings is very high

   You need simple, zero-entry-cost offerings
 Programs need to consider entire developer journey
Developers need zero barriers
-   Developer pays      +
                2    developer
                                                                                            ✖
            pays for API use
                                                                                  broken loop

                               1   user pays for app or service


+   User pays           -
             1 developer                         3   users pay for
            gets free APIs                      telco services
                                                                                  + ✔
             4      gets rev share
                                                                       positive feedback loop
                    2       developer deploys app or service

                                                                     Copyright VisionMobile 2011
Supply vs demand mismatch in developer programs
  most vendor effort goes here   opportunities in last mile to user




                                          Copyright VisionMobile 2011
Myth: Telcos need to find a way
        to increase ARPU
Reality: ARPU has a ceiling because
  it deals with comms needs only

Communications spend needs to be seen in the context of
           overall consumer spend by segment
Apps tap consumer $$$ beyond telecoms
              1990-2010                                     2011+
Operators targeting comms needs                 Apps opening mobile to all needs




 Source: US consumer expenditure survey, 2009                    Copyright VisionMobile 2011
Myth: Voice is the most stable
       telco business
Reality: Voice is under pressure
          to unbundle

    The integrated telco will always by more
   expensive/slower/worse than OTT alternatives.
The domino effect in mobile value-chain
from handsets, to value-added services, to core services
                                                OTT messaging and voice

                     platform app stores




    iOS   Android




                                                                      Copyright VisionMobile 2011
The case for voice APIs
Huge spike in developer interest for voice/SMS APIs

   Last 14 days                        All time
   (to 4 October 2011)




 Telcos need to compete with OTT players on voice APIs

                                                      Copyright VisionMobile 2011
Myth: Traditional telco economic
 tools are good to compete with
              OTT
Reality: Telco need new economic
      tools to play in the software era

Two such economic tools are demand-side economies of scale;
               and economics of complements
Google Android ecosystem
drives commoditization of mobile

    industry                                        $$$                                             app developers
    verticals                                                                                      media publishers

                                                          monetisation                                                  same-side
                                       Ad network
                                                          & user reach                                    +             network
                                                                                                                        effects
                              $$$                                        applications
                                                                         and services


                users and data plans                                   ticket to smartphone market


                    subsidies                                                   devices

    operators                              Android platform                                         Handset OEMs

                                   End-to-end               Eyeballs
                                Product Experience




                                                                                          Copyright VisionMobile 2011
Networks effects stronger than economies of scale
   user value

                   Platform business
                        value grows
                   exponentially due to
                    increased number
                    of interconnections

                                              Conventional business
                                             value grows linearly due to
                                          cost saving and decreasing price




                                                               scale

                                                 Copyright VisionMobile 2011
The economics of complements
widely used by Internet players in competitive strategies


       Core Business                                Complement




                                                    A product consumed
           Main product
                                                     with the main product



                           Product demand increases
                          as complement prices decrease




                                                            Copyright VisionMobile 2011
How Google uses economics of complements
to drive its core business of online advertising


  Google Core Business                                     Google Complements




        On-line advertising                           mobile networks   handsets              browsers
         (95% of profits)



                          Commoditisation of mobile
                              increases demand
                             for Google products
              Closed                                         net        open source            Chrome,
            ad network                                    neutrality        OS                  WebKit

             Closed                                                       Open
                                                                             Copyright VisionMobile 2011
Myth: Telcos can directly
compete with OTT players
Reality: Telcos need to unbundle
    in order to compete in software era

The integrated telco will always be more expensive/slower than
                           OTT alternatives.
The all in one telco business
..is take all or nothing




               Telephony
               Messaging
               Services
               Voice plans
               Data plans
               Access




                                Copyright VisionMobile 2011
Unbundling the telco
into three business layers



                                    Leverage digital channels, retail and OTT
                                    assets plus local presence as a profit
                                    center.
            Distribution business

                                    Unbundled voice
                                    Messaging APIs
                                    Billing APIs
            Services business       Authentication APIs
                                    Customer analytics as a service


                                    Ubiquitous data connectivity
                                    across billions of terminals
            Access business




                                                  Copyright VisionMobile 2011
Knowledge. Passion. Innovation.




want more?




                                Updated: 12 November 2010


             visionmobile.com/workshops

                               Copyright VisionMobile 2011
                                     Copyright VisionMobile 2011
get in touch                                             Knowledge. Passion. Innovation.




       andreas@visionmobile.com
       Andreas Constantinou | Managing Director | +44 2033 844163




                                                  Updated: 12 November 2010




                                                 Copyright VisionMobile 2011
                                                       Copyright VisionMobile 2011

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10+1 myths about the mobile economy

  • 1. VisionMobile 10+1 myths on the Mobile App Economy
  • 2. Knowledge. Passion. Innovation. Extracts from Mobile Innovation Economics January 2012 10+1 Myths on the Mobile App Economy Andreas Constantinou Managing Director Copyright VisionMobile 2011
  • 3. VisionMobile Distilling market noise into market sense Research Workshops Market maps Strategy definition competitive mobile industry dynamics Competitive landscape maps strategy design, ecosystem analysis, commissioned for telcos and OEMs positioning, product research definition Developer Economics 2011: How developers and brands are making money in the mobile app economy Mobile Innovation Clash of Economics Mobile Megatrends Mobile Industry Atlas, 3rd ed. ecosystems how Internet business models are series 1,100+ companies, 69 market sectors mobile platforms and impacting telecoms and how to the battle for innovate in the age of software dominance Top-100 analyst blog 4,000+ subscribers 20,000+ monthly uniques 90% mobile industry insiders HTML5 and its impact to the mobile industry The Android Game Plan 100 million club the commercial mechanics tracking successful businesses behind Android and how in mobile Google runs the show Copyright VisionMobile 2011
  • 4. VisionMobile - Trusted by industry brands Clients selected VisionMobile clients 2009-2011 Copyright VisionMobile 2011
  • 5. Myth: Apps are making profits for Apple & Google
  • 6. Reality: Apps drive the platform’s core business - not content profits for Apple this is device sales; for Google this is on-line ads
  • 7. Industry focuses on app revenues but misses the point Copyright VisionMobile 2011
  • 8. The mobile platform landscape platforms are winning and losing by ecosystem strength iOS 550 K BlackBerry OS Symbian 40 K 90 K Windows Phone Android 50 K 400 K Copyright VisionMobile 2011
  • 9. Apps and content create new empires Apple Q2’2011: 4.2% of volume, 52% of profits Copyright VisionMobile 2011
  • 10. Apple core business is consumer electronics Apple’s app revenues are small compared to the core business Apple revenue by segment Q3 2011 ($ billions). Copyright VisionMobile 2011
  • 11. Apple core business is consumer electronics Apple’s app revenues are small compared to the core business “ We run the App Store just a little over breakeven” Peter Oppenheimer, Apple CFO, Feb 2011 Apple revenue by segment Q3 2011 ($ billions). Copyright VisionMobile 2011
  • 12. Apple iOS platform and ecosystem apps drive hardware sales for Apple $$$ developers media sw publishers buyers content retailers user internet players $$$/users engagement applications $$$ same-side and services users and data plans + network effects subsidies operators iOS platform premium premium $$$ product experience Copyright VisionMobile 2011
  • 13. Network effects drive external investment Network effects attract developer investment and innovation developers developer & brands brands investment $15B iOS platform $1.5B operators Apple app store cost $125B iOS device sales Copyright VisionMobile 2011
  • 14. Myth: It’s all about smartphones
  • 15. Reality: Ecosystem players battle across four screens
  • 16. Leading ecosystems battle across 4 screens Experience roaming becomes the key to future platform competition Mac computers iPhone iPad Apple TV Chrome browser Android Android tablets Google TV amazon.com Kindle
  • 17. Myth: HTML5 is a platform that can replace native apps
  • 18. Reality: HTML5 is a complementary technology needs a leader to deliver a solution for monetisation, distribution and retailing of HTML5 apps
  • 19. HTML5 has many benefactors, but no clear leader all pushing HTML5 and web apps for their own unrelated reasons Apple looks to move the web away from Flash offers best-in-class support for HTML5 in mobile Safari browser Google searches for more ways to commoditize complements offers strong HTML support in Chrome and Android web browsers Facebook aims to break-down Apple/Google silos and distance Adobe looks to take over native and web app discovery Microsoft tries to leverage web innovation to Windows 8 designs strong support for HTML5 into next generation Windows versions Mobile operators hope to regain control lost to native platforms promote HTML5 as an alternative to smartphone platforms Qualcomm works to create competitive advantage for its chips offers hardware-acceleration for mobile browsers Brands look use web as a low-cost way to go cross-screen fund mobile web developers through projects Tool makers facilitate web-to-native hybrid development Adobe (PhoneGap), Sencha, The M Project, Red Foundry Copyright VisionMobile 2011
  • 20. HTML5 cannot compete with platforms HTML5 is a complementary technology, not yet a full-fledged platform App platform ingredients Software Developer Monetisation Distribution Retailing foundations ecosystem HTML5 ✔ = ✖ ✖ ✖ fragmented platform always a step behind native will depend on app store complex tool-chain waiting for a leader Facebook? Google? Microsoft? Other? most appealing to those who do not yet develop for mobile complimentary tech to those who develops native apps Copyright VisionMobile 2011
  • 21. Platforms differ in level of HTML5 support HTML5 Test Score iOS 5 296 MeeGo 272 Opera Mobile 11.10 269 BlackBerry OS 7 260 FirefoxMobile 6 254 Android 3.2 'Honeycomb' 222 Android 2.3 177 Windows Phone 7.5 (Mango) 140 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Source: html5test.com, Nov 2011. See also: http://www.lostinmobile.com/home/for-html5-ios5-wins.html Copyright VisionMobile 2011
  • 22. Myth: Android’s success is mostly to do with its openness
  • 23. Reality: Android is the most closed open source project in mobile software ..and we have proved it.
  • 24. Source: Google-internal presentation disclosed as a result of Oracle's patent and copyright infringement lawsuit against Google Copyright VisionMobile 2011
  • 25. How Google runs the show: Six control points: - Private codelines (6+ months ahead) available to 2 OEM partners per release - Exceptionally fast pace of innovation 5 new versions (2 major, 3 minor) released in 1 year - Gated developer community Android Market is the default channel for 300,000+ apps - Closed-source apps Android Market, GMail, Google Maps, GTalk, etc under commercial agreement - Android trademark use of Android trademark subject to commercial terms - Controlled review process all reviewers work for Google, plus rampant NIH culture 109 Copyright VisionMobile 2011
  • 26. Closed governance is used to control clever use of governance models can be used to control products based on OSS license type dual license Foundation (commercial + copyleft) Qt (58%) (58%) strong copyleft Linux kernel (GPL) (71%) weak copyleft MeeGo WebKit Foundation (LGPL, MPL, EPL,..) (61%) Mozilla (68%) (84%) (65%) permissive Android (APL, BSD, MIT, .. (23%) .) Closed governance open governance open governance index Copyright VisionMobile 2011
  • 27. Myth: Apple directly competes with Google and Microsoft
  • 28. Reality: Apple, Google and Microsoft have very different core businesses They just establish the same complementary assets across the value chain
  • 29. Key players have very different core businesses Players old and new expand across value-chain to capture more profits Apps Content Services Ads Ads App Stores / Portals Distribution Billing Telephony Connectivity Access Network access software Software platform licensing Screen Devices Devices retailing Discovery / retailing User Customer insights denotes vendor’s core business Copyright VisionMobile 2011
  • 30. Myth: All developers want is to sell apps
  • 31. Reality: Distribution is overall more important than money for most developer segments and consumer brands
  • 33. VisionMobile Developer segments and their motivations Builds on jobs-based approach, i.e. what developers are trying to get done Motivations & drivers Hobbyist developers/students Fun and coolness Independent software vendors Sales and opportunity Commissioned developers Probability of winning a project Marketing agencies Client requests User reach is the key factor for Brands and verticals Brand affinity and user engagement making platform Digital content publishers Large addressable market decisions Venture-backed startups Attract investment Corporate IT ROI, information security Copyright VisionMobile 2011
  • 34. Myth: All you need to attract developers is APIs
  • 35. Reality: The bar for developer offerings is very high You need simple, zero-entry-cost offerings Programs need to consider entire developer journey
  • 36. Developers need zero barriers - Developer pays + 2 developer ✖ pays for API use broken loop 1 user pays for app or service + User pays - 1 developer 3 users pay for gets free APIs telco services + ✔ 4 gets rev share positive feedback loop 2 developer deploys app or service Copyright VisionMobile 2011
  • 37. Supply vs demand mismatch in developer programs most vendor effort goes here opportunities in last mile to user Copyright VisionMobile 2011
  • 38. Myth: Telcos need to find a way to increase ARPU
  • 39. Reality: ARPU has a ceiling because it deals with comms needs only Communications spend needs to be seen in the context of overall consumer spend by segment
  • 40. Apps tap consumer $$$ beyond telecoms 1990-2010 2011+ Operators targeting comms needs Apps opening mobile to all needs Source: US consumer expenditure survey, 2009 Copyright VisionMobile 2011
  • 41. Myth: Voice is the most stable telco business
  • 42. Reality: Voice is under pressure to unbundle The integrated telco will always by more expensive/slower/worse than OTT alternatives.
  • 43. The domino effect in mobile value-chain from handsets, to value-added services, to core services OTT messaging and voice platform app stores iOS Android Copyright VisionMobile 2011
  • 44. The case for voice APIs Huge spike in developer interest for voice/SMS APIs Last 14 days All time (to 4 October 2011) Telcos need to compete with OTT players on voice APIs Copyright VisionMobile 2011
  • 45. Myth: Traditional telco economic tools are good to compete with OTT
  • 46. Reality: Telco need new economic tools to play in the software era Two such economic tools are demand-side economies of scale; and economics of complements
  • 47. Google Android ecosystem drives commoditization of mobile industry $$$ app developers verticals media publishers monetisation same-side Ad network & user reach + network effects $$$ applications and services users and data plans ticket to smartphone market subsidies devices operators Android platform Handset OEMs End-to-end Eyeballs Product Experience Copyright VisionMobile 2011
  • 48. Networks effects stronger than economies of scale user value Platform business value grows exponentially due to increased number of interconnections Conventional business value grows linearly due to cost saving and decreasing price scale Copyright VisionMobile 2011
  • 49. The economics of complements widely used by Internet players in competitive strategies Core Business Complement A product consumed Main product with the main product Product demand increases as complement prices decrease Copyright VisionMobile 2011
  • 50. How Google uses economics of complements to drive its core business of online advertising Google Core Business Google Complements On-line advertising mobile networks handsets browsers (95% of profits) Commoditisation of mobile increases demand for Google products Closed net open source Chrome, ad network neutrality OS WebKit Closed Open Copyright VisionMobile 2011
  • 51. Myth: Telcos can directly compete with OTT players
  • 52. Reality: Telcos need to unbundle in order to compete in software era The integrated telco will always be more expensive/slower than OTT alternatives.
  • 53. The all in one telco business ..is take all or nothing Telephony Messaging Services Voice plans Data plans Access Copyright VisionMobile 2011
  • 54. Unbundling the telco into three business layers Leverage digital channels, retail and OTT assets plus local presence as a profit center. Distribution business Unbundled voice Messaging APIs Billing APIs Services business Authentication APIs Customer analytics as a service Ubiquitous data connectivity across billions of terminals Access business Copyright VisionMobile 2011
  • 55. Knowledge. Passion. Innovation. want more? Updated: 12 November 2010 visionmobile.com/workshops Copyright VisionMobile 2011 Copyright VisionMobile 2011
  • 56. get in touch Knowledge. Passion. Innovation. andreas@visionmobile.com Andreas Constantinou | Managing Director | +44 2033 844163 Updated: 12 November 2010 Copyright VisionMobile 2011 Copyright VisionMobile 2011

Editor's Notes

  1. Complements are used in three ways:To create competitive advantage To drive core business To commoditise other businesses