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Robots in Museums
             An Analysis of Best Practice in Human Robot Interaction

                                                 Andreas Bischof, M.A. Cultural Science
                                                         Graduate School CrossWorlds
                                                    University of Technology Chemnitz
                                                                           06/14/2012



14.06.2012                                                                 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
Content




1. What Robots?        From a Cultural Concept to „Robotics“,                  3 Min.
                       Social Robots as border crossers


2. Robots in Museums   Scenario „Tour Guide“; Timeline; 3 Examples:            8 Min.
                       Pioneer, robust & class winner

3. Designing HRI       Having Ideas, lacking Methods; What can HRI             7 Min.
                       learn from Museums Robots?

4. What‘s up?          Open Issues; Project Idea CrossWorlds                   2 Min.




14.06.2012                                                        Andreas Bischof, M.A.
1. What Robots?

                 Cultural Concept “Robot”
                What does „Robotics“ do?
             Social Robots as border crossers




14.06.2012                                      Andreas Bischof, M.A.
1. What Robots?


                                            Cultural Concept „Robots“

   ANCIENT WORLD
   -   artificial, man-like, subserving (i.e. Talus)


   MIDDLE AGES & RENAISSANCE
   -   mechanic / automatic (DaVinci, Al-Jazari)
   -   souled, threatening (Golem)


   18th & 19th CENTURY
   -   androids (Jaquet-Droz, E.T.A. Hoffmann )
   -   artificial life (Frankenstein‘s Monster)


   20th CENTURY
   -   Robots as Members of Society
   -   Robots as Replacement for Humans




14.06.2012                                                                  Andreas Bischof, M.A.
1. What Robots?



             3 Strands from Cultural concepts of „Robots“




14.06.2012                                             Andreas Bischof, M.A.
1. What Robots?



             What is „Robotics“ doing?




14.06.2012                                   Andreas Bischof, M.A.
1. What Robots?



                    Social Robots as border crossers



- Informational Gap due to Perspective Problem: users are not experts; creators
  are not users


- People make sense about machines:
       Theory of Mind
       Uncanny Valley

- Robots in social and everyday scenarios are confronted with these cultural
  concepts!



14.06.2012                                                       Andreas Bischof, M.A.
2. Robots in Museums

                   Scenario “Tour Guide”
                    Lock Back - Timeline
                   Minerva – The pioneer
             Fraunhofer Robots – robust species
                   RoboX – Class Winner




14.06.2012                                        Andreas Bischof, M.A.
2. Robots in Museums



                            Scenario „Tour-Guide Robots“

Challenges:
              crowded ‘real’ environment, no laboratory
              uninformed, untrained users
              set of everyday tasks
              short length of use            „Spontaneous Short-Term Interaction“


Motivations:
              Robots as Demonstrators
              Robots as learning objects
              Robots as attraction for museal context
              Robots as Products



 14.06.2012                                                                Andreas Bischof, M.A.
2. Robots in Museums




14.06.2012            Andreas Bischof, M.A.
2. Robots in Museums


             Minerva – The Pioneer




14.06.2012                                Andreas Bischof, M.A.
2. Robots in Museums



                                 Minerva – The Pioneer

Features making her a Trendsetter:

-     on the fly task planning

-     constructors aim: „believable agent“ - display internal states to reach attended goals




    14.06.2012                                                                 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
2. Robots in Museums


             Fraunhofer Robots – robust species




14.06.2012                                        Andreas Bischof, M.A.
2. Robots in Museums



                   Fraunhofer Robots – robust species



- 40 km / day each
- working since 11 years

- simple Navigation (scratched map)
- simple Presentation (everything fixed)

- limited interactional potential
                                     darlings of the public!



 14.06.2012                                                     Andreas Bischof, M.A.
2. Robots in Museums


             RoboX – class winner




14.06.2012                               Andreas Bischof, M.A.
2. Robots in Museums



                           RoboX – class winner



secret of success: human-like interactional behaviour


- ‚natural‘ perception (Face, Voice)

- ‚natural‘ expression (facial expression, 7 emotional states)

- includes Reactive Presentation Scenarios




 14.06.2012                                                      Andreas Bischof, M.A.
2. Robots in Museums



                                                    Comparing

                                     Minerva           Fraunhofer-Robots                        RoboX
                        built 1997                   built 2000                    built 2002
      Main Task                       Guiding                      Attracting                   Guiding

      Mapping                           live                       scratched                      live

      Task Planning                  on the fly                       fixed              on the fly, reactive

      Perception              obstacle avoidance           obstacle avoidance           Face, Voice, Buttons

      Internal States                4 States                       2 States                    7 States

      Expression              Screen, Voice, Face                 Screen, Voice          Screen, Voice, Face

      Presentation of                                                                    Reactive Scenarios:
      Content*               adapted: "crowded?"          initialized: "people?"             "yes/no?"
      (canned)


14.06.2012                                                                                                 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
3. Designing HRI

              Colliding Term “Interaction”
             Having ideas, lacking Methods
                   Results of Inquiry
                      2 principles




14.06.2012                                   Andreas Bischof, M.A.
3. Designing HRI



  Human Robot Interaction: Colliding Definitions of „Interaction“



Informatics: one-way; Human > Computer
             i.e. dragging, pushing, zooming, manipulating



                   Average Joe: mixture of both; tends to anthropomorphise
                                technical artifacts



Social Sciences: both ways; Human <> Human (or others?)
                  i.e. talking, coordination on sidewalk, presenting a paper


14.06.2012                                                                 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
3. Designing HRI



                     Having Ideas, lacking Methods



- a lot of (successfull) ideas in designing HRI, but no methodical reflected
  procedures to modell user or specific interaction scenarios up front



- i.e. „What does it mean for the user to be in a Museum?“



- Newer developments: Axiomatic Design, Interaction Design




14.06.2012                                                       Andreas Bischof, M.A.
3. Designing HRI



             What is the problem about this HRI trial and error?

What they say…                                         … what happens

    We thought…                     ?             … this specific Voice /
                                                  Content / Menu would
                                                  be approperiate.




    The Robot does…                                … recognizes
                                                   person, asks for
                                                   aternatives.



14.06.2012                                                     Andreas Bischof, M.A.
3. Designing HRI



                     Nevertheless they evaluated HRI
                                  (3 out of 60 papers)



- "people are basically destructive" (Nourbakhsh et al. 2002a)

- most attracting: motion and awareness of human presence

- most effective: dialogical interactions, multi modality

- Physical design: height between 1.50 - 1.60 m for interactional robots

- Children are significantly higher attracted by robots than adults




 14.06.2012                                                           Andreas Bischof, M.A.
Which principles make HRI successfully?
                          (making the other 57 papers talking)




- Knowing about interactional structures makes robots better interaction
  partners

- Form follows function: HCI input can be adopted easily

- Perception of humans in a human way raises potential for adaptive behaviour
  (from „something?“ to „somebody!“)




14.06.2012                                                       Andreas Bischof, M.A.
3. Designing HRI




             „Honesty“                                „Deception“

transparent design:                                        impressive design:
tutorial-welcoming                                           character design
showing (real) states and goals                use of professional Storytellers

allowing the user to understand              using the (cultural and social pre-
the machine‘s (and it‘s                     formed) narratives and Typecasts
constructor‘s) intention                                        of everyday-life

              both principles can achieve trust (Reliability)!
              both principles can lead to Uncanny Valley problems!



14.06.2012                                                      Andreas Bischof, M.A.
4. What‘s up?

                 Fields to Improve
             Questions on our Project
             Project Idea CrossWorlds




14.06.2012                              Andreas Bischof, M.A.
4. What‘s up?



                               Fields to improve
                                (technical & HRI)



Everything concerning human speech
                                                              more ‚natural‘ HRI

                         Multi-User Usability (i.e. age)

Interacting with Web Devices                           Locomotion Concepts

                                   adjust robot‘s features to the Museum‘s goals




14.06.2012                                                       Andreas Bischof, M.A.
Questions for our Project


- Motivation: learning object, demonstrator, museum feature?

- Scenario: What Problem does the robot solves in the Museum?

- Fame: What do we do better than others?




14.06.2012                                                      Andreas Bischof, M.A.
4. What‘s up


                             Just an Idea…




- foster interactions between visitors
- attach robot features to the museum‘s needs
- foster collaboration between graduate school members



14.06.2012                                               Andreas Bischof, M.A.

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Robots in Museums - An Analysis of Best Practice in HRI

  • 1. Robots in Museums An Analysis of Best Practice in Human Robot Interaction Andreas Bischof, M.A. Cultural Science Graduate School CrossWorlds University of Technology Chemnitz 06/14/2012 14.06.2012 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
  • 2. Content 1. What Robots? From a Cultural Concept to „Robotics“, 3 Min. Social Robots as border crossers 2. Robots in Museums Scenario „Tour Guide“; Timeline; 3 Examples: 8 Min. Pioneer, robust & class winner 3. Designing HRI Having Ideas, lacking Methods; What can HRI 7 Min. learn from Museums Robots? 4. What‘s up? Open Issues; Project Idea CrossWorlds 2 Min. 14.06.2012 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
  • 3. 1. What Robots? Cultural Concept “Robot” What does „Robotics“ do? Social Robots as border crossers 14.06.2012 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
  • 4. 1. What Robots? Cultural Concept „Robots“ ANCIENT WORLD - artificial, man-like, subserving (i.e. Talus) MIDDLE AGES & RENAISSANCE - mechanic / automatic (DaVinci, Al-Jazari) - souled, threatening (Golem) 18th & 19th CENTURY - androids (Jaquet-Droz, E.T.A. Hoffmann ) - artificial life (Frankenstein‘s Monster) 20th CENTURY - Robots as Members of Society - Robots as Replacement for Humans 14.06.2012 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
  • 5. 1. What Robots? 3 Strands from Cultural concepts of „Robots“ 14.06.2012 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
  • 6. 1. What Robots? What is „Robotics“ doing? 14.06.2012 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
  • 7. 1. What Robots? Social Robots as border crossers - Informational Gap due to Perspective Problem: users are not experts; creators are not users - People make sense about machines: Theory of Mind Uncanny Valley - Robots in social and everyday scenarios are confronted with these cultural concepts! 14.06.2012 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
  • 8. 2. Robots in Museums Scenario “Tour Guide” Lock Back - Timeline Minerva – The pioneer Fraunhofer Robots – robust species RoboX – Class Winner 14.06.2012 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
  • 9. 2. Robots in Museums Scenario „Tour-Guide Robots“ Challenges: crowded ‘real’ environment, no laboratory uninformed, untrained users set of everyday tasks short length of use  „Spontaneous Short-Term Interaction“ Motivations: Robots as Demonstrators Robots as learning objects Robots as attraction for museal context Robots as Products 14.06.2012 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
  • 10. 2. Robots in Museums 14.06.2012 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
  • 11. 2. Robots in Museums Minerva – The Pioneer 14.06.2012 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
  • 12. 2. Robots in Museums Minerva – The Pioneer Features making her a Trendsetter: - on the fly task planning - constructors aim: „believable agent“ - display internal states to reach attended goals 14.06.2012 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
  • 13. 2. Robots in Museums Fraunhofer Robots – robust species 14.06.2012 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
  • 14. 2. Robots in Museums Fraunhofer Robots – robust species - 40 km / day each - working since 11 years - simple Navigation (scratched map) - simple Presentation (everything fixed) - limited interactional potential  darlings of the public! 14.06.2012 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
  • 15. 2. Robots in Museums RoboX – class winner 14.06.2012 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
  • 16. 2. Robots in Museums RoboX – class winner secret of success: human-like interactional behaviour - ‚natural‘ perception (Face, Voice) - ‚natural‘ expression (facial expression, 7 emotional states) - includes Reactive Presentation Scenarios 14.06.2012 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
  • 17. 2. Robots in Museums Comparing Minerva Fraunhofer-Robots RoboX built 1997 built 2000 built 2002 Main Task Guiding Attracting Guiding Mapping live scratched live Task Planning on the fly fixed on the fly, reactive Perception obstacle avoidance obstacle avoidance Face, Voice, Buttons Internal States 4 States 2 States 7 States Expression Screen, Voice, Face Screen, Voice Screen, Voice, Face Presentation of Reactive Scenarios: Content* adapted: "crowded?" initialized: "people?" "yes/no?" (canned) 14.06.2012 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
  • 18. 3. Designing HRI Colliding Term “Interaction” Having ideas, lacking Methods Results of Inquiry 2 principles 14.06.2012 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
  • 19. 3. Designing HRI Human Robot Interaction: Colliding Definitions of „Interaction“ Informatics: one-way; Human > Computer i.e. dragging, pushing, zooming, manipulating Average Joe: mixture of both; tends to anthropomorphise technical artifacts Social Sciences: both ways; Human <> Human (or others?) i.e. talking, coordination on sidewalk, presenting a paper 14.06.2012 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
  • 20. 3. Designing HRI Having Ideas, lacking Methods - a lot of (successfull) ideas in designing HRI, but no methodical reflected procedures to modell user or specific interaction scenarios up front - i.e. „What does it mean for the user to be in a Museum?“ - Newer developments: Axiomatic Design, Interaction Design 14.06.2012 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
  • 21. 3. Designing HRI What is the problem about this HRI trial and error? What they say… … what happens We thought… ? … this specific Voice / Content / Menu would be approperiate. The Robot does… … recognizes person, asks for aternatives. 14.06.2012 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
  • 22. 3. Designing HRI Nevertheless they evaluated HRI (3 out of 60 papers) - "people are basically destructive" (Nourbakhsh et al. 2002a) - most attracting: motion and awareness of human presence - most effective: dialogical interactions, multi modality - Physical design: height between 1.50 - 1.60 m for interactional robots - Children are significantly higher attracted by robots than adults 14.06.2012 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
  • 23. Which principles make HRI successfully? (making the other 57 papers talking) - Knowing about interactional structures makes robots better interaction partners - Form follows function: HCI input can be adopted easily - Perception of humans in a human way raises potential for adaptive behaviour (from „something?“ to „somebody!“) 14.06.2012 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
  • 24. 3. Designing HRI „Honesty“ „Deception“ transparent design: impressive design: tutorial-welcoming character design showing (real) states and goals use of professional Storytellers allowing the user to understand using the (cultural and social pre- the machine‘s (and it‘s formed) narratives and Typecasts constructor‘s) intention of everyday-life both principles can achieve trust (Reliability)! both principles can lead to Uncanny Valley problems! 14.06.2012 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
  • 25. 4. What‘s up? Fields to Improve Questions on our Project Project Idea CrossWorlds 14.06.2012 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
  • 26. 4. What‘s up? Fields to improve (technical & HRI) Everything concerning human speech more ‚natural‘ HRI Multi-User Usability (i.e. age) Interacting with Web Devices Locomotion Concepts adjust robot‘s features to the Museum‘s goals 14.06.2012 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
  • 27. Questions for our Project - Motivation: learning object, demonstrator, museum feature? - Scenario: What Problem does the robot solves in the Museum? - Fame: What do we do better than others? 14.06.2012 Andreas Bischof, M.A.
  • 28. 4. What‘s up Just an Idea… - foster interactions between visitors - attach robot features to the museum‘s needs - foster collaboration between graduate school members 14.06.2012 Andreas Bischof, M.A.