Costs of development


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Explores the numerous costs associated with development

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Costs of development

  1. 1. Costs of Development<br />
  2. 2. Race to the Bottom?<br />Globalization contributes to and diminishes impact of development. <br />Globalization can contribute to rising levels of poverty and failing local business and environmental degradation.<br />Globalization can also pressure companies to recognize workers rights, prohibit forced and child labor and reduce environmental damage<br />
  3. 3. Costs of Development<br />Opportunity Cost: Passing up an opportunity to achieve a greater benefit<br />Policymakers must weight the costs of development against benefits of development<br />Interdependence from globalization can affect places far away.<br />Pollution in China can have an effect on the world.<br />Demand for low costs increase demands for sweatshop labor in Asia<br />
  4. 4. Social and Cultural Costs of Development<br />Loss of sense of community, pursuit of consumerism, decline in cultural identity, increase in drug and alcohol abuse. <br />As industries locate in societies, people adjust to conform to their requirements<br />More time devoted to work, equals less interaction<br />
  5. 5. United Arab Emirates<br />Social alienation, pressure to make money and increased exposure to values of modern societies contribute to rise of social problems.<br />Drug abuse, alcoholism and prostitution have accompanied UAE’s rapid economic growth<br />Dubai 1990<br />Dubai Today<br />
  6. 6. Destruction of the Amazon<br />Most cultures are durable but those closely linked to environment are threatened with extinction<br />Development of Amazon has ignored indigenous cultures. <br />
  7. 7. Escalation of Criminal Activities<br />Modernization weakens social bonds that helped to reduce crime.<br />Urbanization, destruction of communities, individualism, alienation and consumerism cause crime rates to rise.<br />Rising prosperity, unequal distribution, and breakdown of traditional societies, makes developing countries vulnerable to widespread crime. <br />
  8. 8. Mexico<br />Mexico City leading example of widespread and uncontrollable crime<br />Rampant Muggings, burglaries, and car thefts.<br />94% of all violent crimes never solved or prosecuted<br />6,200 people killed in drug wars in 2008<br />Salary of Police Officers $200 a month, means incentive to collaborate with criminals and accept bribes. <br />
  9. 9. Child Labor<br />218 million children, age 5-14 are working.<br />317.4 work outside the home part-time<br />Pressure to compete makes countries produce at low price.<br />Child labor, the cheapest labor of all.<br />70% employed in agriculture<br />Without income from child, many families would not survive<br />
  10. 10. Child Labor by Numbers<br />India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines: 153.5 million children employed<br />Africa: 80 million<br />Latin America and Caribbean: 17 million<br />300,000-1 million in the US<br />
  11. 11. India<br />100 million children work, largest number of child laborers in the world<br />Poverty and caste system reinforce the practice <br />Landless, illiterate parents expect children to help<br />Typical rural family with two children earn less than $1 a day.<br />Work in dangerous conditions<br />Most families too poor to abandon system of child labor.<br />
  12. 12. Pakistan<br />Until 1999, Pakistan relied primarily on child labor for the soccer ball industry<br />International pressure is forcing Pakistan to eliminate child workers and employ women.<br />‘Social Labeling’ (no sweat label)<br />
  13. 13. Bangladesh<br />Many children work in garment industry (70% of exports)<br />Women in factories earn $30 a month.<br />Bangladesh adopted a structural adjustment program<br />Program required cuts in govt. spending on health care, education, nutrition and programs that benefit poor.<br />Reduced govt. expenditure, forced more families to rely on children for income. <br />
  14. 14. Sweatshops<br />As old as industrialization <br />Many are small businesses owned by locals who make products for various companies<br />Many workers earn less than $1 a day and work 12-14 hours a day, 6-7 days a week<br />Wal-Mart, Gap, Reebok, Nike, Starbucks, Walt Disney and Mattel<br />
  15. 15. Economic and Political Costs<br />Consumerism and Development<br /><ul><li>What’s the relationship between these two concepts?</li></ul>How has Tourism impacted consumerism?<br />Negative side-effects<br />Fast food<br />Alcohol abuse<br />Smoking <br />
  16. 16. Urbanization and Development<br />World becoming increasingly urbanized (65% by 2025)<br />10 of 13 most populated cities in developing countries<br />Urbanization increases demand for scarce resource<br />Shantytowns destroyed for development<br />Severe traffic and air pollution problems<br />Unsanitary living conditions, limited access to clean waters, untreated sewage. <br />
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  18. 18. Decline of Agriculture and Economic Development<br />Urbanization influence many farmers to leave the rural areas in search of a better life in the cities<br />Fewer farmers=less food<br />Shopping malls, airports, roads and highways, tourist facilities, harbors, hospitals, schools reduce land available for agriculture<br />
  19. 19. Environmental Costs<br />Environmental Costs of Development<br />Pollution, pollution, and more…pollution<br />How bad is it in Ecuador?<br />Many companies are exempt from weak environmental laws and have caused widespread destruction<br />
  20. 20. Polluted Water<br />Most water pollution caused by untreated human waste<br />Ganges River- crowded cities dump millions of gallons of untreated human and industrial waste into the river<br />Ganges believed to cleanse sins by drinking and bathing in it.<br />
  21. 21. Causes and Effects of Pollution<br />Automobiles, factories, and coal<br />Toxic chemicals cross the Pacific and pollute California, Oregon and Washington.<br />Leads to respiratory disease, lung and heart disease, premature births/deaths<br />WHO- Mexico City’s pollution equal to smoking 2 packs of cigarettes a day.<br />China, India, Mexico and Brazil have increased gas prices by 121% to reduce emissions<br />
  22. 22. Deforestation<br />Deforestation<br />How is deforestation linked to modernization?<br />Pressures from population<br />The growth of commercial farming<br />Cattle Ranching<br />Desertification<br />Government Programs<br />Indonesia’s Transmigration Program<br />Trans-Amazon Highway<br />Do they work?<br />
  23. 23. Dam Construction<br />Dam Construction<br />Why would you build a dam?<br />Success in Egypt (Aswan High Dam)?<br />Success in China (Three Gorges Dam)?<br />