Assessing Degrees of Web-2.0-ness of Websites

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This paper describes the development of a maturity model to assess the Web-2.0-ness of websites. The model draws on O’Reilly’s Web 2.0 principles and patterns. It distin¬guishes six dimensions with four degrees of 2.0-ness each. The rating scheme has been evaluated and refined to improve inter-rater reliability in a discussion and a coding iteration. This model raises awareness for 2.0-ness, helps to bench¬mark website design, and supports decisions about 2.0-ness adoption. Based on aggre¬gated scores and a normal distribution, our sample of 44 pharma¬ceutical over-the-counter (OTC) product websites is classified in three maturity stages: Innovators, Adopters, and Laggards. The model can also be used for other industries and website types. In five of the six dimen¬sions, at least one website reaches the top degree, but n one achieves top grades in every dimension. Diversity in 2.0-ness is observed for product websites in the pharma¬ceutical industry, as well as for one company’s different product brands. Further re¬search will extend the 2.0-ness analysis to the overall web presence, including social media sites. Another next step is to relate 2.0-patterns to websites’ success measures

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Assessing Degrees of Web-2.0-ness of Websites

  1. 1. Assessing Degrees of Web-2.0-ness Model and Results for Product Websites in the Pharma-IndustryUniversität St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Andrea Back, Competence Network Business 2.0 Seite 1 Prof. Dr. Andrea Back (UniSG) – Christoph Haager (IBM Germany) Bled eConference, June 14, 2011 Image: http://bigperfectdiet.com/weight-loss-scale-pictures
  2. 2. Outline Cite as: Back, Andrea; Haager, Christoph: Assessing Degrees of Web-2.0-ness for Websites: Model and Results for the Pharmaceutical Industry. In:Universität St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Andrea Back, Competence Network Business 2.0 Seite 2 Proceedings of the 24th Bled eConference: eFuture – Creating Solutions for the Individual, Organisations and Society (June 12-15), p. 321 – 334. 1 Context Enterprise 2.0 2 Research Question and Sample 3 Theoretical Background 4 Methodology of Model Development and Application 5 Limitations and Further Research 6 Discussion and Supplements
  3. 3. Context: Transformation to the Enterprise 2.0 Web 2.0 Principles used internally and in relationships to customers or business partnersUniversität St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Andrea Back, Competence Network Business 2.0 Seite 3 2. Auflage 2009; 3. vollständig überarbeitete Auflage in 2011/12
  4. 4. McKinsey Quarterly Survey: Business and Web 2.0 Interactive Feature: Web 2.0 Use in B2C-ProcessesUniversität St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Andrea Back, Competence Network Business 2.0 Seite 4 https://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Business_and_Web_20_An_interactive_feature_2431 Customer Purposes/
  5. 5. McKinsey Quarterly Survey: Business and Web 2.0 Interactive Feature: Web 2.0 Use in B2C-ProcessesUniversität St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Andrea Back, Competence Network Business 2.0 Seite 5 https://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Business_and_Web_20_An_interactive_feature_2431 Customer Purposes/
  6. 6. OutlineUniversität St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Andrea Back, Competence Network Business 2.0 Seite 6 1 Context Enterprise 2.0 2 Research Question and Sample 3 Theoretical Background 4 Methodology of Model Development and Application 5 Limitations and Further Research 6 Discussion and Supplements
  7. 7. Research Question: How „much“ 2.0 is in this Website? How to measure 2.0-ness? Universität St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Andrea Back, Competence Network Business 2.0 Seite 7
  8. 8. Transition of Business Websites from 1.0 to Web 2.0 Similar Research Questions and Concepts – But: What is Proven Theory?Universität St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Andrea Back, Competence Network Business 2.0 Seite 8 Pole, A: Web 2.0 Applications in Private Banking, Fig. 4 (MA, St.G. Nov. 22, 2010 following Kolo, Eicher 2006: Web 2.0 und der neue Internet Boom, p. 73
  9. 9. Sample: Pharmaproduct (OTC) Websites 44 Websites of Over-the-Counter Products, German MarketUniversität St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Andrea Back, Competence Network Business 2.0 Seite 9 • One Industry • Pharma (local) • German Market • International Companies • Pharma (Marketing Budgets) • Pharma (Regulations) • Over-the-Counter Products • Publicly Accessible • Website only etc.: non-prescription = over-the-counter
  10. 10. Summary: Results of the 2.0-ness Assessment Executive Summary: 44 Websites, Overt-the-Counter Pharmaceutical Products, GermanyUniversität St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Andrea Back, Competence Network Business 2.0 Seite 10 1 Diversity in 2.0-Adoption: Within Industry & Company 2 Results Match the Innovation Adoption Life Cycle 3 Companies Upgrade Websites Regarding 2.0-ness
  11. 11. OutlineUniversität St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Andrea Back, Competence Network Business 2.0 Seite 11 1 Context Enterprise 2.0 2 Research Question and Sample 3 Theoretical Background 4 Methodology of Model Development and Application 5 Limitations and Further Research 6 Discussion and Supplements
  12. 12. Theory I: Dot-com Bubble Burst 2000 What did the surviving companies‘ business models have in common? Folie von EMBE wg. O‘Reilly li und unsere rechtsUniversität St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Andrea Back, Competence Network Business 2.0 Seite 12 10 years ago: Dotcom-Bubble Image: http://www.bigmouthmedia.com/live/images/Social%20bubble.png
  13. 13. Theory I: What is Common to Surviving Businesses ? O‘Reilly/Musser: Web 2.0 Principles and Patterns Harnessing Collective IntelligenceUniversität St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Andrea Back, Competence Network Business 2.0 Seite 13 Data is the next “Intel Inside” Innovation in Assembly Rich user Experience Software above the level of a Single Device Perpetual Beta Leveraging the Long Tail Lightweight Models and Cost Effective Scalability Web 2.0 Principles and Patterns: O‘Reilly (2005, 2007); Long Tail added by Musser/O‘Reilly
  14. 14. Theory I: Selection and Adaptation for Websites Three Principles Do Not Apply – Six Dimensions of the Maturity Model Participation Harnessing Collective IntelligenceUniversität St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Andrea Back, Competence Network Business 2.0 Seite 14 Knowledge Data is the next “Intel Inside” Innovation in Assembly Mashup Rich user Experience Usability Multimedia Software above the level of a Single Device Mobile Device Perpetual Beta Leveraging the Long Tail Lightweight Models and Cost Effective Scalability Web 2.0 Principles and Patterns: O‘Reilly (2005, 2007); Long Tail added by Musser/O‘Reilly
  15. 15. Theory II: Maturity Model or Typology ? How to Approach the Classification of Websites?Universität St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Andrea Back, Competence Network Business 2.0 Seite 15 Maturity Typology (Innovation Adoption) (2.0-ness Footprint) Social Media Maturity in Digital Communication, Aug. 17, 2010: http://www.letterpress.se/2010/08/social-media-maturity-in-digital-communication/
  16. 16. Theory II: Innovation Adoption Life Cycle Three Maturity Levels of Websites regarding 2.0-ness (Maturity-Model-Terminology)Universität St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Andrea Back, Competence Network Business 2.0 Seite 16 Innovators Adopters Laggards (11,36% - 5 out of 44) (70,45% - 31 out of 44) (18,18% - 8 out of 44) Top Website 13 out of max. 18 points
  17. 17. OutlineUniversität St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Andrea Back, Competence Network Business 2.0 Seite 17 1 Context Enterprise 2.0 2 Research Question and Sample 3 Theoretical Background 4 Methodology of Model Development and Application 5 Limitations and Further Research 6 Discussion and Supplements
  18. 18. Method: Rating Scheme Design and Validation (1)Universität St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Andrea Back, Competence Network Business 2.0 Seite 18 Rating Scheme Design V0 F2F-Discussion (Thesis-Author/Advisor) F2F Test-Rating and Discussion Rating of two Websites (low – high) 1st Iteration Bad Hohes C Dürrheimer Website Website Rating Scheme Design V1 Common Understanding by two Raters
  19. 19. Method: Rating Scheme Design and Validation (2)Universität St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Andrea Back, Competence Network Business 2.0 Seite 19 Rating 44 Websites using V1 Independently by two Raters  Deviations Calculating Interrater Reliability Cohen‘s Kappa and Landis (1977) 2nd Iteration Error Rating Scheme Rating Scheme Correction Clarification Revision D1 Rating Scheme Design V2 Re-Rating the Sites with Deviations Definite Rating Reaching Consensus
  20. 20. Rating Scheme for Degrees of 2.0-ness (1) Grades are „Capability Levels“ of the Dimensions (Maturity-Model-Terminology) Grade P: Participation PM: Platform Integration: PD: Platform Integration:Universität St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Andrea Back, Competence Network Business 2.0 Seite 20 Mashups Devices 0 Contact form only (Web 1.0) No mashup-like integration of Single device (e.g. content PC/Notebook) 1 Facebook Like; and/or Widget-like elements even if One option only: Website one or two user activity types, from company’s own content optimized for mobile devices, such as ‘recommend page via e- base (incl. blog as part of the or smartphone app in one app mail-form’, e-cards, interactive product website) (e.g. store tests, online games, Gesundheitsnavigator and competitions to win a prize Pollenvorhersage) 2 Three or more of grade 1 Machup with company external Combination of one app store interactions or several options web-content (e.g. Google Maps plus optimized website. of social bookmarking, like, or allergie.com glossary) Special case: SMS-interaction tell-a-friend (similar to (e.g. in nicorette) Forrester’s Collect) 3 Comments (text), upload of Mashup with a diversity of Apps for more than one app own fotos to e-cards e.g., company external webcontent store (whether optimized forums, blog or community as services website or not) part of the site (similar to Forrester’s Critic/Create)
  21. 21. Rating Scheme for Degrees of 2.0-ness (2) Grade K: Knowledge RU: Rich User Interface: RM: Rich User Interface: Usability Multimedia 0 Hardly any valuable Design mostly text-oriented Mostly text-oriented content information beyond core and textual hyperlinksUniversität St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Andrea Back, Competence Network Business 2.0 Seite 21 product information (only via links to other websites) 1 Diversity and richness of Uses current technologies, has Uses topic relevant fotos, information beyond the product a functional design. But look- animated pictures/graphs plus perceivable as added value and-feel is not 2.0-style (see perhaps a singular Video, (servicing and teaching the grade 2 description) especially the products TV-spot customer; a reason to revisit). 2 Collaboratively user generated Like 1, but look-and-feel is Three or more of these: content or knowledge, openly clearly 2.0-style (among other fotoslideshows, animated visible, in 1.0-format, such as characteristics: minimalistic, pictures/graphs, ringtones, discussion forum simple navigation, header- audio podcast, singular video/s banner, blog-design-like, (esp. TV-spot) visual, similar to e.g. styles of youtube, ning, mixxt.) 3 Community-like and Allows personalization Several elements (on top of an collaboratively user generated (personalization), e.g. including at least RM-grade 1 website): content or knowledge, openly or excluding widgets or video-podcast beyond TV-spots visible, in 2.0-format, such as customizing other design (e.g. expert interviews or blog and idea contests with user elements. customer statements); video interaction such as voting and Often Login required (e.g. tutorials (CommonCraft-like or commenting) interactive migraine diary) similar to web-based trainings), Interactive games, paint apps.
  22. 22. Grading Results: Distribution of 44 Websites‘ Maturity Assessment of Dimensions‘ Degrees based on Websites as of May 1st, 2011Universität St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Andrea Back, Competence Network Business 2.0 Seite 22 Back, Haager (2011 Bled Conf): Assessing Degrees of Web-2.0-ness …
  23. 23. OutlineUniversität St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Andrea Back, Competence Network Business 2.0 Seite 23 1 Context Enterprise 2.0 2 Research Question and Sample 3 Theoretical Background 4 Methodology of Model Development and Application 5 Limitations and Further Research 6 Discussion and Supplements
  24. 24. Limitations in Interpreting the Results Strategy of Companies might be a deliberate 1.0-Design-Decision: 2.0 not an End in itselfUniversität St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Andrea Back, Competence Network Business 2.0 Seite 24 Risk Managment Customer Focus Performance Impact Regulatory Contexts Non-2.0-Customers Insecurity about Link Image: http://www.danielkogan.com/online-web-marketing-strategy/
  25. 25. Further Research Our Current State-of-Research (analysed May 11) - and Work-in-ProgressUniversität St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Andrea Back, Competence Network Business 2.0 Seite 25 Website-2.0-ness Social Media Presence (published, Bled 11) & Performance (unpublished) Platform: Mobile Device
  26. 26. OutlineUniversität St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Andrea Back, Competence Network Business 2.0 Seite 26 1 Context Enterprise 2.0 2 Research Question and Sample 3 Theoretical Background 4 Methodology of Model Development and Application 5 Limitations and Further Research 6 Discussion and Supplements
  27. 27. Discussion Suggested topicsUniversität St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Andrea Back, Competence Network Business 2.0 Seite 27 1 Are the 2.0 patterns a theory? What theories to use? 2 Do you know similar research and its terminology? 3 Suggestions for extended research (relevant & rigorous)?
  28. 28. Thank You, and the Reviewers !Universität St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Andrea Back, Competence Network Business 2.0 Seite 28 Supplement Presentation on Slideshare http://www.slideshare.net/andreakback Contact Prof. Dr. Andrea Back Universität St. Gallen Müller-Friedberg-Str. 8 CH-9000 St. Gallen andrea.back@unisg.ch
  29. 29. ContactUniversität St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Andrea Back, Competence Network Business 2.0 Seite 29 Prof. Dr. Andrea Back is full professor and director at the Institute of Information Management (IWI) at the prestigious Swiss University of St. Gallen (HSG) since 1994. Her research focuses on the area of Online Collaboration, Corporate eLearning, and Management in the Digital Economy (Enterprise 2.0/Business 2.0 paradigm) with an emphasis on applicability and knowledge transfer. She has published several books on the subject and publishes collaboratively online with a broad community of corporate and academic followers/contributors (cf. personal vlog at www.business20experts.unisg.ch, finalist in the European E-Learning-Award in 2009; Blog-Carnival www.wissenscarnival.net on Enterprise 2.0, Knowledge Management and eLearning nominated for the D-Elina Innovation Award 2011). She is a regular consultant for international corporations in regard to eLearning, Social Media, mobile services, most recently Swisscom, T-Systems Multimedia, Lufthansa, Bayer, UBS as well as a contributor to management education programs. For a list of consulting and research projects cf. • http://www.business20.unisg.ch/index.php?id=11 • http://www.learningcenter.unisg.ch/index.php?id=93 Prof. Dr. Andrea Back Institute of Information Management University of St Gallen Müller Friedberg Strasse 8 9000 St. Gallen, Switzerland

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