CONSTRUCTIVISM BY: ALJConfucius say: “I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand.”
CONSTRUCTIVIST THEORY• Learning is an active, constructive process.• Knowledge is constructed based on personal experiences and hypothesis of the environment.• Each person has a different interpretation and construction of knowledge process.• Constructivism assumes that all knowledge is constructed from the learner’s previous knowledge, regardless of how they are taught.
KEY PEOPLE• Jean Piaget ~ Psychologist who developed the cognitive learning theory.• Jerome Bruner ~ American psychologist who proposed learning is an active process.• Lev Vygotsky ~ Russian educational psychologist who developed social cognition theory.• John Dewey ~ Educational psychologist, philosopher, and political activist who advocated child-centered learning.
JEAN PIAGET (1896-1980)• Beliefs: • 4 Cognitive Stages: • Children think very differently • Sensorimotor (Birth-2yrs)- learning from adults. takes place mostly through the child’s senses and motor actions. • Children are active learners and don’t need motivation from adults • Preoperational (2yrs-6/7yrs)- to learn. children use symbols and images to learn. • Children were constructing new • Concrete Operational (6/7yrs- knowledge as they moved 11/12yrs)- children begin to learn through different cognitive stages, facts and think logically. building on what they already knew. • Formal Operational (11/12yrs- adult)- children transition from • Children interpret this knowledge concrete thinking to more abstract differently as they progress thinking forming their own beliefs through the stages. and morals.
JEROME BRUNER (1915- )• Stresses that teachers should actively engage their students in their own learning.• Emphasizes an integrated curriculum by using multiple hands on activities to learn a subject.• Agrees that technology driven education offers a better learning environment with the use of computers, books, videos, and other digital media in the classroom.• Theory provides a basis for instruction based on cognition, suggesting that an individual progresses through different intellectual stages.• Believed learning should be through discovery and the teachers roll should be to encourage students through exploration and inquiry.
BRUNER CONT..Discovery Learning Advantages Discovery Learning Disadvantages• Encourages active engagement • Creation of cognitive overload• Promotes motivation • Potential misconceptions• Promotes autonomy, responsibility, • Teachers may fail to detect problems independence and misconceptions• The development of creativity and problem solving skills• A tailored learning experience
LEV VYGOTSKY (1896-1934)• Developed what is known as the social cognition theory that assesses three major themes. • Social learning precedes development • MKO (more knowledgeable other) is anyone with higher knowledge or better understanding than the learner, this can even be a computer or someone younger. • ZPD (zone of proximal development) is the distance between guided instruction and solving the problem independently, this is where learning occurs according to Vygotsky.
JOHN DEWEY (1859-1952)• Huge advocate for child centered instruction.• Began the University Elementary School in 1896, also known as Laboratory School.• Part of the progressive education movement which focusses on education from all aspects of the child’s life including physically, mentally, and socially.• Linked to pragmatism, which states that theory is only valuable for its practical application.• Has been called, by some, the Father of American Education.
CLASSROOM IMPLICATIONSWhat the student does: What the teacher does:• Learn by doing • Encourage students to discover concepts by themselves.• Participate in learning process • Provide a rich learning environment• Create or construct their own with available technology for understanding of a topic. exploration.• Use technology such as • Translate the information to reflect the computers, movies, games, electronic student’s current level of learning. flash cards, paint programs, etc. to learn about a subject. • Be able to use scaffolding techniques to discover the level of each child’s cognitive/social development.
MY VIEWS ON CONSTRUCTIVISM• Important part of instruction but not necessarily the only mode of instruction I’d like to use. It should be combined with elements of the other theories and used when appropriate for the lesson. Resources • Integrating Technology and Digital Media In The Classroom 6th Ed.: Teachers Discovering Computers, Shelly, Cashman, Gunter, and Gunter (2009). • Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2011, November). Discovery Learning (Bruner) at Learning-Theories.com. Retrieved November 22nd, 2011 from http://www.learning- theories.com/discovery-learning-bruner.html • Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2011, November). Constructivism at Learning- Theories.com. Retrieved November 22nd, 2011 from http://www.learning- theories.com/constructivism.html • Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2011, November). Social Development Theory (Vygotsky) at Learning-Theories.com. Retrieved November 22nd, 2011 from http://www.learning-theories.com/vygotskys-social-learning-theory.html