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Rococo & Neoclassicism In Early 18th Century

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Rococo & Neoclassicism In Early 18th Century

  1. 1. Rococo and Neoclassicism 18th Century Europe The Reader , Fragonard Death of Socrates , David
  2. 2. Europe and North America in the 18th Century - European Conquest
  3. 3. Early 18th Century Political Context <ul><li>Shift of power from French royal court to aristocrats after Louis XIV died </li></ul><ul><li>Small middle class of merchants, lawyers, doctors, artisans, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Baroque interest in royalty shifts to aristocratic, Paris townhouses (Rococo style hotels) </li></ul><ul><li>Began in architectural style, spread to painting and sculpture-all arts unified in Rococo style </li></ul>Salon de la Princesse, Hôtel de Soubise , 1732
  4. 4. Early 18th Century Political Context <ul><li>European conquests in the Americas and world </li></ul><ul><li>Landed aristocracy still has most of power and wealth </li></ul><ul><li>This will change in the middle of the 18th century with the Enlightenment and the Revolutions -French & America </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of maintaining foreign armies began to outweigh benefits of colonies </li></ul><ul><li>European colonists brought styles to new World </li></ul><ul><li>Neoclassicism will become popular as aristocracy loses power in the Revolutions </li></ul>George Washington, 1788, Jean-Antoine Houdon
  5. 5. The Rococo - 1700-1750 <ul><li>“ Rococo” derived from rocaille, (pebble or shell) and barocco. Motifs in Rococo art resemble ornate shell or pebble work popular in gardens. </li></ul><ul><li>Refined, fanciful, and often playful style fashionable in France at turn of century, spread thru Europe in 18th century </li></ul><ul><li>Pastel colors, delicately curving forms, dainty figures, light hearted </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction against rigidity and solemnity of 17th century court </li></ul>The Swing , Fragonard, 1766
  6. 6. <ul><li>Rococo Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Exterior: undulating forms in complex curved shapes </li></ul><ul><li>Unity with other arts.. Painting and sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic and moving spatial environment </li></ul><ul><li>No empty spaces </li></ul><ul><li>More is MORE </li></ul>
  7. 7. Church of the Vierzenheiligen StaffelStein, Germany Johann Balthasar Neumann FLASHCARD TO OOMPLETE
  8. 8. THIS PAINTING BY TIEPOLO, VENETIAN PAINTER DECORATED INSIDE OF KAISERSALL IN WURZBURG PAINTING WAS INTEGRATED WITH DECORATION FRAME ACTUALLY INTEGRATED INTO PIECE. FRESCO INSPIRED BY VERONESE AND OTHERS PRESENTED AS IF THEATER IMPERIAL WEDDING DAZZLING LIGHT AND PASTEL COLORS
  9. 9. Pilgrimage to the Island of Cythera , Jean-Antoine Watteau, oil, 1717 - FLASHCARD Know about fete galante paintings
  10. 10. Signboard of Gersaint, Jean Antoine Watteau, oil on canvas 5’4” x 10’, 1721
  11. 11. Triumph of Venus, Francois Boucher, Oil on canvas, 4’3” x 5’3”, 1740 Flashcard… Rococo style in Paris
  12. 12. The Meeting , Jean-Honore Fragonard, oil on canvas, 10’ x 7’, 1771-73 Part of a series of paintings on Rococo romantic adventures Also did the Swing Pastel colors, aristocracy at play FLASHCARD ADD MORE
  13. 13. CIODION, THE INVENTION OF THE BALOON TERRA COTTA MODEL FOR A MONUMENT, 43” HIGH 1784 ROCOO STYLE SCULPTURE, FIGURES EVERYWHERE, CURVING UNDULATING FORMS COMING OUT OF THE OBJECT
  14. 14. mid-18th Century Ideology <ul><li>Enlightenment rejected Royal and artistocratic authority </li></ul><ul><li>Jefferson, philosophes </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. youtube .com/watch? v=hhgTc-PdHuE &feature=related </li></ul><ul><li>In sculpture Neoclassical styles was like this one, contemporary dress, but classical poses </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery of ruins of Pompeii led to fashion of all things Greek/Roman..women wore white muslin gowns, people built mini replics of roman ruins in their gardens </li></ul>George Washington, 1788, Jean-Antoine Houdon
  15. 15. Cupid and Psyche , Antonio Canova, 1787. Neoclassic sculpture revived eroticism of mythology
  16. 17. ROCOCO & ARTISTIC PATRONAGE: SALONS/ACADEMIES PLAYED A HUGE ROLE STUDENT PRESENT
  17. 18. Women portraitists break ground in early 18th Century <ul><li>Rosalba Carriera in Italy leading portrait artist in Venice. </li></ul><ul><li>Honorary member of Rome’s St. Luke Academy; eventually admitted to French </li></ul><ul><li>Vigee-Lebrun as court painter; fled France afer Revolution but lived abroad for years as portrait painter </li></ul><ul><li>Adelaide Labille-Guillard lobbied to allow women painters in the French Academy… joined in 1783 </li></ul>
  18. 19. Charles Sackville, 2nd Duke of Dorset, 1730 , pastel on paper Flashcard Know about Rosalba Carriera’s role with women and academies Pastels are chalk-like crayons of ground pigment mixed with a binder, give beautiful radiant colors
  19. 20. Self-Portrait with Two Pupils Adelaide Labille-Guiard 1785, 7’ x 5’ What is Labille-Guiard saying about the role of women painters? Enlightenment and the role of women painters? She was one of 2 women elected to French Academy What type of composition is shown?
  20. 21. Marie Antoinette with Her Children Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun Oil on canvas, 1787 How does this painting try to give a message? Who was the patron of this painting? What kind of career did Vigee-Lebrun have? Allegory of abundance
  21. 22. Neoclassical Art Social Influences <ul><li>Inspired by ruins of Pompeii & ideas of Winckelman </li></ul><ul><li>Even when showing current events or contemporary portraits, classical allusions </li></ul><ul><li>Late 18th century industrial & scientific revolution </li></ul>
  22. 23. This painting, Parnassus, by Raphael Mengs, is often considered the first Neoclassical painting… inspired by the writings of Johann Wincklemann’s The History of Ancient Art, the 1st art history book. Wincklemann criticized Rococo as decadent; celebrated ancients for purity of form and crispness of execution.
  23. 24. THE APOTHEOSIS OF HOMER flashcard WEDGWOOD VASE, white jasper body with a mid blue dip and white relief 18” 1786 Wedgwood showed classical figures against a pink or blue background Recognize wedgwood, not necessarily this specific piece Neoclassicism in England-revival of classical traditions How did Josiah Wedgwood feel about Enlightenment ideals?
  24. 25. Am I not a Man and a Brother? Black & white Jasperware Political message Wedgwood supported the idea of gradual emancipation of slaves 1787 Enlightenment ideals
  25. 26. Lady Sarah Banbury Sacrificing to the Graces, oil on canvas, Joshua Reynolds, 1765 Grand Manner portrait with style of classical history painting combined with portraiture Reynolds - 1st President of British Royal Academy, wrote book on history painting as highest form of art & preserving classical traditions Lady Banbury playing role of a Roman priestess making sacrifice to the gods flashcard
  26. 27. Blue Boy , Thomas Gainsborough Oil on canvas, 2 m x 1.5 m, late 18th century Gainsborough studied portraits of Van Eyck - painted over 700 portraits Influenced by Watteau in feathery landscapes Son of a friend (ironmonger), legend that he painted it in blue to prove Reynolds wrong about the viability of blue as a central color in a portait Disagreed with Sir Reynolds about having to do classical or history style in portraits
  27. 28. The Marriage Contract, William Hogarth, 1743, from Marriage a la Mode series Flashcard.. Know about satirical paintings & how this showed Hogarth’s views on society
  28. 29. Anteroom, Syon House, Robert Adam (architect to King George III) Middlesex, England (Duke of Northumberland’s home) Flashcard Developed style of interior decoration based on applied ornament; fit taste of wealthy Aim: “to transform the beautiful spirit of antiquity with novelty and variety” Used motifs from Pompeii and rococo Never accepted by British Royal Academy Unearthing of Pompeii ruins big influence in Neoclassicism
  29. 30. Richard Boyle, Chiswick House . Gardens designed by landscape architect William Kent, west London. Revised classical principles into modern framework; tailored with 18th century living. Neoclassic architects studied Palladio and incorporated Greek columns and pediments.
  30. 31. IRON - industrial revolution made technological advances in use of IRON. First substantial structoure made of iron, in Coalbrookdale, England. Five parallel metal Roman arches. Built by Abraham Darby Economic and aesthetical. Soon builders adopted ironwork in buildings to replace heavy and costly stonework. Darby and IRON POWER
  31. 32. Monticello , 1782, Thomas Jefferson, Charlottesville, Virginia “ Little mountain” in Italian Brick building, octagonal dome, stucco applied to trim to give effect of marble Tall French doors and windows to ease heat of VA summers Balustrade hides 2nd floor, inspired by Palladio & Roman ruins
  32. 33. Georgian Silver Collection Various women artists.. Elizabeth Morley, and others From National Museum of Women in the Arts Be aware of the role women played and what these objects were used for
  33. 34. An Experiment on a Bird in the Air-Pump , Joseph Wright, oil on canvas, 1768 Showed Industrial Revolution in dramatic and entertaining way, attempted to popularize science. Dramatic lighting influenced by WHO?????? (hint: Baroque). Science brings light into a world of darkness
  34. 35. Cornelia Pointing to her Children as her Treasure , Angelica Kaufmann. Neoclassical moral history painting, illustrates story of Cornelia showing her children as her precious jewels. Places her children above material possessions (Enlightenment reaction vs. aristocratic love of finer things in life.)
  35. 36. Death of General Wolfe, Benjamin West, 1770. The Death of General Wolfe , Benjamin West, 1770, Canada. Battle of Quebec scene; tries to show entire battle in painting - French colors captured and brought to Gen. before he died.. Sniper shots to wrist, groin, & side… surrounded by friends and admirers… idealized his features. Triptych like High Renaissance Bathed in pool of light like Deposition paintings, Native American sets scene.. Pieta
  36. 37. Samuel Adams, John Singleton Copley, oil on canvas 50” x 40”, 1772 Neoclassic style in the colonies What is Copley trying to say? How does this reflect the Enlightenment and what was happening in England and the colonies? flashcard
  37. 38. The Drunken Cobbler , Jean-Baptiste Greuze. Oil on canvas, 1785. Neoclassic morality painting, showing what happens when the dad is out drinking no money for kids and family to eat. Inspired by the writing of Diderot, father of modern art criticism.. Who wrote that art’s proper function was to improve virtue and purify manners… criticized rococo “immoral” art… can you say INSTRUMENTALISM
  38. 39. Oath of the Horatii, Jacques-Louis David, oil on canvas, 11’ x 14’, Louvre, 1785 Exemplum virtuitis.. What story does this show? Neoclassical drapery and tripartite composition, David was sympathizer with human rights, and did not want education by the Church Most famous Neoclassical painter Part of series of Royal commissioned history paintings Emblem of French revolution Sacrifices for good of state
  39. 40. Death of Marat , J. Louis David 1793, oil on canvas 5’5” x 4’2” What event does this painting show? What influences/echoes are there from Michelangelo and Caravaggio? flashcard
  40. 41. Napoleon Crossing the Saint Bernard , David, 1800. David after being in prison, reestablished dominance in French painting. Napoleon used David as propagandist as he abolished aristocracy across Europe Baroque style composition
  41. 42. David (dav-eed) trained and influenced other painters, such as Anne Louis Girodet-Trioson Portrait of an emancipated Haitian slave… … who led the legislative campaign in France to abolish slavery and grant black people full citizenship in the colonies Portrait of Jean-Baptiste Belley.
  42. 43. Napoleon in the Plague House at Jaffa, 1804, Antoine Gros (Student of David) Shows Napoleon visiting sick & dying during Turkish campaign, shallow stage with classical references, exotic locale- Christlike figure of Napoleon helping the sick. (2 months after this was painted, Napoleon ordered all the plague victims poisoned)
  43. 44. Neoclassicism continues <ul><li>Continues through early 19th century </li></ul><ul><li>Romanticism supplants it, though some art historians argue that they are subsections of the same movement </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey and exotic odalisques become fashionable in art and clothing </li></ul>
  44. 45. Jean-Auguste Ingres became famous portraitist.. Wanted to be a history painter, but was renowned for female nudes, numerous representations of Turkish harems, called the odalisque, a female slave Ingres followed some Neoclassical traditions, but some Romantic traditions…

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