High Renaissance in ItalyMichelangelo, Da Vinci, Raphael, and the Venetian SchoolMannerism appears late century…
Italian City States were conquered bySpanish & French invaders.. Venicestayed independent.High Renaissance flourished in courts ofprinces, dukes & popes… artisticcompetition
High Renaissance Italy…. 1495-1527 Big Ideas• Pope Julius II revitalizes the city of Rome• High Renaissance artists try to emulate Roman grandeur with enormous frescoes, statues, and amazing architecture• Compositions marked by balance, symmetry, and ideal proportions.. Triangular layout is favored.• Venetian painters take up oil with school of painting with sophisticated color harmonies• Portraiture reveals likeness of subject PLUS their character and personality
High Renaissance Italy…. Patronage• Pope Julius II is biggest patron.. Powerful force in Roman and European politics and religion.• Transformed Rome, a ramshackle medieval town, into an artistic center to rival Florence.• Women were also key patrons, such as Queen Isabella d’Este• St. Peter’s church in Rome is rebuilt, first by Bramante then by Michelangelo.• Medici still have influence; Michelangelo originally studied sculptures on one of their estates• Kings and Queens of Europe become patrons of artists such as Da Vinci and Titian.
High Renaissance Italy…. Perspective• Artists continue to build on Brunelleschi’s work and Albertis, using architectural & atmospheric perspective.• Raphael’s School of Athens is a masterpiece of architectural perspective.• Remember this painting from the early Renaissance?
School of Athens, fresco, Vatican Raphael painted this in Pope Julius II library; Philosophy books shelved below Vastness & variety of papal library and interests Buliding behind-Bramante’s plan for St. PetersBramante is bald figure of Euclid Nobility & monumentality ofRaphael in extreme right corner formsMichelangelo is resting on stone block writing a Plato (w/Leonardo’s face)poem pointing up and AristotleOverall composition influenced by Da Vinci’slast supper flashcardRaphael continued to work for Julius II’successor, born Giovvanie de Medici
Small Cowper Madonna, Raphael,Oil on wood panel, 1505 (highRenaissance)Triangular composition favored inRenaissanceClassical allusions; frequentlypainted holy familyAtmospheric perspective behindMaryRaphael was very youngClarity of forms, sweet expressions;chiaroscuro renders modeling.
Raphael continuedworking for the next Pope,Leo X (who was a Medicifamily member)…Pope Leo X with CardinalsGiulio de’ Medici and Luigide’ Rossi1517Oil on wood
La Pieta, MichelangeloMarble, 1500, 6’ tallSt. Peter’s, Vatican,La Pieta in the roundPyramidal compositionMonumentalHeavy drapery masksMary’s size as she easilyholds Jesus in here lapOnly work Michelangeloever signedShows Mary’s beautyand griefMichelangelo wasGhirlandaio’s apprenticePatron French cardinal“Set free the image fromthe stone”
MichelangeloDavid (flashcard)Medium: MarbleSize: height 17 (5.18 m) without pedestalDate: 1501–04Source/ Museum: Galleria dell’Accademia, FlorenceCommissioned as symbol of Florence, representing Florence asshe faced enemies like FranceFirst colossal nude since ancient worldMuscular, tense, at the readyDavid anticipated challenge of Goliath, great concentration onthe faceSlight contrapposto, little negative spaceMarble, not bronze.. Evoked power of ancient art.. Purity ofexpressionInfluence of Spear Bearer by Polykleitos2 minute video on Michelangelos David
Sistine Chapel, Vatican, RomeMichelangelo, Last Judgment andceiling (45’ x 128’)Ceiling 1508-12; end wall 1536-41La Capella Sistina (part 1)Botticelli and Perugino, Ghirlandio,and Raphael also painted areas ofthe Sistine Chapel (not ceiling)New popes are elected here
Last Judgment, Sistine Chapel, Michelangelo1536-41, Vatican, RomeNo cornice divisions like ceilingMannerism shown in distortions of body, elongations, crowded groups1. Bottom: dead rising/mouth of hell2. Ascending elect, desc. Sinners, angels3. Saved around Jesus4. Lunette: Angels w/crossJustice shownSpiraling composition a reaction against High Renaissance harmony; disunity of church from the ReformationDrapery added laterSt. Bartholomew modeled on contemporary critic LOLMichelangelos’ face in St. Bart’s skin
Moses, Michelangelo, 1513-16, 1542-45,Commissioned for tomb of Julius IINever finished (was to be part of a hugeinstallation of sculptures, he was pulled of thisproject to do the Sistine ChapelMeant to be viewed from belowHorns are mistranslation of Bible; Moses thoughtto have had HORNS coming out of his head,really RAYS (like a halo)Figure is in awe, heroic bodyInspired by Laocoon
Last Supper, da Vinci, 1495-98,Monastery in Milan, ItalyExperiment with tempera and oilon plaster (FAIL)Painted for dining hall of amonasteryLinear perspective; orthogonalspoint to JesusGroupings of 3Drama: Jesus says, One of Youwill Betray MEJudas falls back clutching his bagof coins (bribe to betray Jesus)
Leonardo was a genius, scientist,inventor, and artist who was the 1stmodern mind… because he wantedto observe, not just take the Greeksword for it.Born illegitimate (bastard), he couldnot study Greek nor Latin, so couldnot read much. Instead he learnedto observe, draw, and document,filing thousands of pages ofsketches of inventions, botanicaland anatomical illustrations.This is a charcoal for a paintingfrom around 1500.Da Vincis Genius
Mona Lisa, Leonardo da Vinci1503, Louvre, Paris…21” x 30”3/4 profile, triangular compositionSfumato, chiaroscuro used infigure, atmospheric perspective inbackgroundMysterious smile, psychologicalintensityLots of mysteries and legendssurround this painting (da Vincicode); recently have discoveredremains of da Vinci’s model(da Vinci code?)
Da Vinci studied anatomy,dissected cadavers, and wasin reality a scientist.Vitruvian Man, ink, 1490He studied and quantifiedhuman proportions with theVitruvian man, based on thework of the Greek scholdVitruvius.amazon video, go to 24minutes
High Renaissance Italy…. Women and the Arts• Women generally not allowed to study or apprentice, with a few exceptions• Women were also key patrons, such as Queen Isabella d’Este• Properzia de’Rossi notable exception - sculptor• Sofia Anguissola - skilled painter who did many portraitsQueen Isabella d’Este,by Titian, oil on canvas
Joseph & Potiphar’s Wife1525, Properzia de’ RossiBolognaFamous woman sculptor;mastered miniaturecarvings such as the LastSupper on a peach pit!Carving in cathedral ofSan Petronio in BolognaOnly woman included inVasari’s biographyGot over an unhappy loveaffair by carving thispanel, according to VasariRival male sculptor kepther from being paid fairlyfor her work
The Chess Game1525, Sofia AnguissolaflashcardWell known portait painter,eventually went to theSpanish courtWell educated in the arts,did portraits but due tohere social status andgender could not sell themMichelangelo critiquedone of her drawingsCourt painter in Spain for20 yersRivaled Titianflashcard
Self-portrait,SofonisbaAnguissolaOil on cardboard2.5” x 3.25”1552
Noli Me Tangere, LaviniaFontanaOil on canvas1581Bologna was center foraccopmlished women paintersShe was in her 20s when shepainted scene of Jesusappearing to Mary Magdalenbefore returning to heavenTiny figures at tomb inbackground give plunge intodepth and sapceMannerist style painting
Venice & the Venetto• Venice was major naval power• Rich light, pattern, and color inspired by Byzantium• Oil painting universally preferred on both wood and canvas• Giorgione & Titian early; later Veronese and Tintoretto
The Tempest,Giorgione (f. card)1506 (Venetian School)Oil on canvasStudied w/BelliniMeaning debatedPOESIE- paintedpoems, viewersenjoyed trying tounderstand what ishappeningEmerging use of oil inVenice; softer tonesEmerging landscapetraditionLightning, mysteriousruins in landscapeGypsy girlbreastfeeding baby
Pastoral Concert, Allegory on the Invention of Pastoral Poetry Titian, Venetian School, 1510 Oil on canvas Louvre Chiaroscuro, no clear cut edgesTitian was Giogrione’s apprentice. Also studied with Bellini … again poesie, paintedpoem. Are the 2 nudes the musician’s muses? Mythical world plus real world,landscape
Venus of Urbino, Titian, oil on canvas, 1538.Sensuous painting, skin tones, probably a courtesan, looks directly at viewer, deepspace in picture, flora motif. Dog = faithful, standard for future reclining female nudes
Titian’s later workbecame moreexpressive.This piece has loosebrushstrokes anddiagonals, finishedin late 1570s inVenicePieta
Feast in the House of Levi, Veronese, oil on canvas, 1573 (Venetian school). Originallylast supper, was called before Pope’s Inquisition to question presence of drunks,dwarves, etc. at last supper…. Changed title to another supper instead to avoid beingjailed and tortured. Continued classical perspective and painted for Dominicanmonastery
Last Supper, Tintoretto, 1594, Oil on canvas (Venetto), developed from Titian’s style,mannerist elongated forms, radiant light around Christ and angels, corner view, still lifeon tables and cat - deep chiariscuro… fast painter, Daughter became artist.
MANNERISM INITALY•Intellectually intricate subjects•Highly skilled techniques•Beauty for beuaty’s sake•Elegeant, elongated figures•Distortionf of formal conventionsFall of the GiantsFresco, 1530-32,Palazzo del Te, Mantua(Mannerist architecture)Unusual spiraling compositionGiulio Romano
Entombment, PontormoOil & tempera on wood, altarpiecein church in FlorenceMannerist painting with twisted,elongated figures and spiralingcomposition (what’s in center?)Little background.High key colorsYearningWhich are men and which arewomen???flashcard
Astronomy, or Venus UraniaBronze gilt, 15” high, 1573Mannerist sculpture
Assumption of the Virgin,Correggio, fresco, dome inParma Cathedral, Italy, 1530Spiraling composition againtypical of mannerismSaints at bottom, thjen Virginescorted to heaven with angels,Christ waits for MaryGlowing colors prefigures theBaorqueflashcard
Madonna with the long Neck,Parmigianino, oil on wood, 1534-40,Florence7 feet by 4 feetSmall head, long neck, delicate,graceful gesturesElongated and detahced limbsColumn perspective looks oddPose reminiscent of la Pietaflashcard
Portrait of a YoungMan, Bronzino, oil onwood, 1540Mannerist painter.Captures subject’sphysical appearanceas well as personality.Bronzino worked forthe Medici as well asPontormo.