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  1. 1. The Art Funerary mask ofof Tutankhamun 1327 BCAncient Gold inlaid with glass and semipreciousEgypt stones Flashcard image Cairo MuseumTheme: Newfunerary Kingdomart 18th Dynasty
  2. 2. Ancient Egypt Timeless ICONOGRAPHY Shows weighing feather of Maat vs. heart of deadExcerpt Annubis balancesfrom the scale, Horus takes Ka to IsisBook of the QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.Dead, New Afterlife guide to helpKingdom transition Painted papyrusflashcard Found in tombs
  3. 3. Geography & Ancient Egypt• Nile River - floods, fertile Delta• Farming, irrigation systems• Complex political systems developed• Seas & deserts protected the civilization from invaders… stable civilization for thousands of years• Very advanced civilization
  4. 4. How does Ancient Egyptcompare with other civilizations?• ?period=02&region=afe• period=02&region=wam
  5. 5. How does Ancient Egyptcompare with other civilizations? Votive Statue, 2700 BCE Ancient Near East Sumer Detail of Head of Khafre, 2490 BCE (from Temple/Pyramid)
  6. 6. How does Ancient Egypt compare with other civilizations? Votive Statue, 2700 BC Ancient Near East SumerZiggurat of Ur, 3100 BCE Great Pyramids of Giza, 2500 BCE
  7. 7. Why do we know so much about Ancient Egypt?• Dry climate, tombs = survival of art & artifacts• Rosetta stone - decoded language IN 1800S• Herodotus- Greek historian, 500 BC (religious)• Menathos’ list, 3rd century BCE- grouped kings into dynasties between 3000 & 300 BCE• Strabo visited Alexandria, 100 BC• Emperor Hadrian of Rome-took antiquities in 130 AD• Middle ages - Bible studies• 1798-99: Napoleon - military & scholarly visits• Archaelogical excavations & POPULAR interest ever since!!• HOWARD CARTER - King Tut’s Tomb - 1920s
  8. 8. Rosetta Stone196 BCReligious decreeof PharoahTalmee(Cleopatra)Greek, demotic,hieroglyphic•Jean Francois Champillon,French linguist & Dr.Thomas Young, Englishscientist… foundCleopatra’s name on thestone•Discovered in early 1800s,took years to decode•Champillon spoke Coptic,figured out sounds, whichled to birth of Egyptology
  9. 9. Stone Writing….• Rosetta Stone 196 BC• Stele of Hamurrabi from 1750 BC
  10. 10. Egyptian Iconography Scepter, 1960s, Ghana
  11. 11. Egypt United: Old Kingdom Begins in 3000 BCE• Dynasty I : Palette of King Narmer• In pre-dynastic Egypt, each village had own gods• King Narmer united upper & lower Egypt (see crown symbols united)
  12. 12. Palette of King Narmer, 3000-Flashcard 2920 BCEimage Commemorates unification of Egypt Conquered march dwellers Hierarchy of scale Hierakonpolis / Egyptian Museum, Cairo
  13. 13. Palette of Nar-merSide 2 Eye makeupGoddess Hathor well onon both sides- paletteHorus helping KingMarching to viewheadless bodiesLong necked lionssymbolizeunification
  14. 14. Palette of Narner Firsts1. Depicted figure in twisted perspective… lasted 3000 yrs2. Low relief sculpture in registers with groundlines (1st in Egyptian art)3. Unifed Egypt; depicted beginning of the Old Kingdom; transition away from Paleolithic farming villages4. Religious iconography.
  15. 15. Palette of NarmerVictory Stele of Naram-Sin, 3000 BCE2621 BCE
  16. 16. Palette of NanerVictory Stele of Naram-Sin, 3000 BCE2621 BCE
  17. 17. Egyptian figurative conventionsUsed for approximately 3000 yrsTwisted PerspectiveREMEMBER THE ART MADE THEWORLD VIDEO???How does this perspective reflect theirculture and SOCIAL STATUS?
  18. 18. Pyramids & Tombs• 80 pyramids were built• Began with the Mastaba (means Bench).. Mud brick tombs used in the Old Kingdom• Egyptians believed that Isis ruled the underworld and judged dead souls; Ka lived forever• Death & resurrection: Important to preserve/mummify bodies and to provide for life in the next world
  19. 19. Significant: 1st large scale building EVER in worldStepped Pyramid of Djoser, III Dynasty. , 2630 BCE 1st large scale stonebuilding in world, build over mastaba. 14 gateways, facades of buildings.Engaged columns mimicked bunches of reed with papyrus tops.
  20. 20. Flashcard image - Great Pyramids of GizaIV Dynasty (Old Kingdom) Khafre, Khufu, Menkaure. Granite and limestoneSize: height of pyramid of Khufu, 450 (137 m)
  21. 21. How Pyramids Were Built• 2 million blocks, 1-2 tons each! How did they get them up there?
  22. 22. Great Sphinx, believed to bea portrait of Khafre. Originallypainted & had a beard.
  23. 23. Menkaure and QueenKhamerernebty Flashcard imageMedium: Graywacke with traces red & black paint54½ inches highDate: Fourth Dynasty (ruled 2490–2472 BCE)OLD KINGDOMSource/Museum: from Giza / Museum of FineArts, Boston Harvard University–MFA Expedition Equal scale Embrace Sheer dress on Queen
  24. 24. Pepy II and HisMother, Queen She ruled until heAnkhnes-Meryre was old enough, carved more naturalisticallyEgyptian alabaster15¼ X 9 13/16" Arms posed away from side.. Less permanence.. Reflects her status as temporary ruler rather than permanent ruler
  25. 25. Shows how differentSeated Scribe classes were(FLASHCARD) portrayed.Painted limestone; eyes of rockcrystal mounted in copper Much smaller thanSize: height 21" statues of Pharoahs,Date: Fifth Dynasty, c. 2450– etc. (21” vs life size or2325 BCE over sized”OLD KINGDOM Limestone, not moreMusée du Louvre, Paris elegant materials
  26. 26. The Middle Kingdom• 1975-1640 BCE (intermediate thru 1520)• Mentuhop (11th Dynasty) kings reunited Egypt.• Powerful, unified govt w/ strong military• Arts & literature flourished• Portraiture became more sensitive & realistic
  27. 27. Head of Senusret III Yellow quartzite 17¾ X 13½ X 17" Middle KingdomMore realistic Twelfth Dynasty, c. c.Looks tired, 1836–1818 BCEolderDynamic Kingwho led 4expeditions intoNubia;overhauledadministration
  28. 28. Rock-cut tombs, Beni Hasan.Middle KingdomDate: Twelfth Dynasty, c. 1938–1755 BCE
  29. 29. “May the sun god give eternal life to Senusret II” … ankh, falcons, cobras, Ra… Pectoral of Senusret II, Gold and semiprecious stones Date: Twelfth Dynasty, c 1938–1755 (ruled c 1842–1837 BCE) Tomb of Princess Sithathoryunet, el-Lahun. / The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
  30. 30. Stele of Amemhat I, 12th Dynasty (Middle Kingdom)… Portrays daily family life. Foundin his tomb. 11” x 15”
  31. 31. The New Kingdom• 1539-1075 BCE• Hykkos invaded; 18th Dynasty reunited kingdom• Thutmose III (1st Pharoah) expanded Egypt into present day Syria• Trade with near East• Built New Kingdom Temples & tombs to glorify kings / Pharoahs
  32. 32. Ruins of the Great Temple of Amun at Karnak, Egypt(New Kingdom, 1579 BCE)
  33. 33. Symmetrical & Axial Design (processional path)Covered area size of 60 football fields; hypostyle hall w/ lots of columnsStatues of gods clothed and “fed” daily by priestsAdded to by various Pharoahs; sacred lake, coronation rooms
  34. 34. Flower & Bud columnsHypostyle HallGreat Temple of Amun atKarnak
  35. 35. Queen Hatshepsut EnthronedNew Kingdom, 1473-1458 BCE20 year reign, 1st female Pharoahportrayed in artSometimes shown as male w/falsebeardLed diplomacy with PuntBuilt incredible funerary templepositioned against high cliffs, orientedtowards Karnak
  36. 36. Funerary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut, Deir El-Bahri1473 BCE (New Kingdom)
  37. 37. Fowling Scene, Tomb of Nebamum, 1400 BCE(New King.), fragment of wall painting, British Flashcard image, not in bookMuseum •18th dynasty •Suggests distance & movement •Animals, butterflies naturalistic •Wife/daughter smaller than Nebamum (hierarchy of scale) •Hieroglyphic: enjoying himself and seeing beauty, (Forever young?) •Marsh symbolizes rebirth •Cat can symbolize deity hunting enemies of light and order
  38. 38. Amarna Period: Revolution in Art and Religion• 1353-1336 BCE• Changed name to Akhenaten (one who is effective for Aten, a god)• 1st Monotheist in Egypt: Worshipped Aten (sun god)• New capital in Tell el-Amarna• Changed typical Egyptian figurative style in artworks• Promoted glass making
  39. 39. Akhenaten, Colossal Figure, locatedat Temple of Karnak (16 ‘ tall)Long face, thin neck, swollen belly,somewhat androgynous looking.Built temples to Aten.. Sun disk, opencourtyardsWife Queen Nefertiti was priestessTruth (Maat) emphasized… morerealistic artwork and informalsituations.
  40. 40. How is this Relief so Different?Akhenaten & his Family, 1353 BCE (New Kingdom), painted limestone sunken relief
  41. 41. Queen Tiye, New KingdomFunerary piece of yew wood,ebony, glass, silver, gold, lapis,cloth, clay & waxEntire sculpture was 1/3 lifesizeOlder woman, mom ofAkhenantenMarried for love.Played key role in affairs ofstate husband Amenhotep III.Realistic style; African features
  42. 42. Queen Nefertiti Diplomacy(flashcard) w/Hittites1302-1234 BCE “mother of kings”18th Dynasty/ Book of DeadNew Kingdom Shown w/God Horus frequentlyPainted limestone21” (life size)Tomb found in 1904.Most impressiveQueen’s tomb found
  43. 43. Tutankhamun & Ramses II: Return to Tradition• Priesthood of Amun regained former power a few years after Akhenaten’s death• Tutankhaten = Tutankhamun (changed name)• Court moved back to Thebes• Tutankhamun’s tomb discovered in 1922-incredible riches captured public imagination (died young)• Ramses II built mighty empire.. Peace with Hittites• Amazing Temple of Ramses II at Abu Simbel (see Object Speaks in book)
  44. 44. Flashcard Funeraryimage mask of Tutankhamun 1327 BC Gold inlaid with glass and semiprecious stones Flashcard image Cairo Museum New Kingdom 18th Dynasty
  45. 45. Temple of Ramses II at AbuSimbel4 65 foot statues of RamsesAssociation w/Gods, Religious &political power
  46. 46. QueenNefertrari,wife ofRamses II,shown behindhis leg Hieratic scale?
  47. 47. Judgment of Hunefer before Osiris, Scene from Book of the Dead Eater waits forPainted papyrus, height 15⅝" (39.8 cm), Nineteenth Dynasty, c. 1285 BCE NEW KINGDOM judgmentIllustration From a Book of The Dead. The British Museum, London Feather of Maat vs.KNOW RELIGIOUS SIGNIFICANCE, HOW THIS WAS USED! Heart Osiris, king of underworld
  48. 48. Mummy wrapping of a young boyMedium: Linen wrappings with gilded stuccobuttons and inserted portrait in encaustic onwoodSize: height of mummy 53⅜" (133 cm) portrait9½ X 6½"Date: Roman period, c. 100–120 CEAFTER NEW KINGDOM ENDED, ROMANRULESource/Museum: Hawara / The BritishMuseum, LondonConventions of Roman painting not Egyptian