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Ancientegypt

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Ancientegypt

  1. 1. The Art Funerary mask of of Tutankhamun 1327 BC Ancient Gold inlaid with glass and semiprecious Egypt stones Flashcard image Cairo Museum Theme: New funerary Kingdom art 18th Dynasty
  2. 2. Ancient Egypt Timeless ICONOGRAPHY Shows weighing feather of Maat vs. heart of dead Excerpt Annubis balances from the scale, Horus takes Ka to Isis Book of the QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Dead, New Afterlife guide to help Kingdom transition Painted papyrus flashcard Found in tombs
  3. 3. Geography & Ancient Egypt • Nile River - floods, fertile Delta • Farming, irrigation systems • Complex political systems developed • Seas & deserts protected the civilization from invaders… stable civilization for thousands of years • Very advanced civilization
  4. 4. How does Ancient Egypt compare with other civilizations? • http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/ ?period=02&region=afe • http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/? period=02&region=wam
  5. 5. How does Ancient Egypt compare with other civilizations? Votive Statue, 2700 BCE Ancient Near East Sumer Detail of Head of Khafre, 2490 BCE (from Temple/Pyramid)
  6. 6. How does Ancient Egypt compare with other civilizations? Votive Statue, 2700 BC Ancient Near East Sumer Ziggurat of Ur, 3100 BCE Great Pyramids of Giza, 2500 BCE
  7. 7. Why do we know so much about Ancient Egypt? • Dry climate, tombs = survival of art & artifacts • Rosetta stone - decoded language IN 1800S • Herodotus- Greek historian, 500 BC (religious) • Menathos’ list, 3rd century BCE- grouped kings into dynasties between 3000 & 300 BCE • Strabo visited Alexandria, 100 BC • Emperor Hadrian of Rome-took antiquities in 130 AD • Middle ages - Bible studies • 1798-99: Napoleon - military & scholarly visits • Archaelogical excavations & POPULAR interest ever since!! • HOWARD CARTER - King Tut’s Tomb - 1920s
  8. 8. Rosetta Stone 196 BC Religious decree of Pharoah Talmee (Cleopatra) Greek, demotic, hieroglyphic •Jean Francois Champillon, French linguist & Dr. Thomas Young, English scientist… found Cleopatra’s name on the stone •Discovered in early 1800s, took years to decode •Champillon spoke Coptic, figured out sounds, which led to birth of Egyptology
  9. 9. Stone Writing…. • Rosetta Stone 196 BC • Stele of Hamurrabi from 1750 BC
  10. 10. Egyptian Iconography Scepter, 1960s, Ghana
  11. 11. Egypt United: Old Kingdom Begins in 3000 BCE • Dynasty I : Palette of King Narmer • In pre-dynastic Egypt, each village had own gods • King Narmer united upper & lower Egypt (see crown symbols united)
  12. 12. Palette of King Narmer, 3000- Flashcard 2920 BCE image Commemorates unification of Egypt Conquered march dwellers Hierarchy of scale Hierakonpolis / Egyptian Museum, Cairo
  13. 13. Palette of Nar-mer Side 2 Eye makeup Goddess Hathor well on on both sides- palette Horus helping King Marching to view headless bodies Long necked lions symbolize unification
  14. 14. Palette of Narner Firsts 1. Depicted figure in twisted perspective… lasted 3000 yrs 2. Low relief sculpture in registers with groundlines (1st in Egyptian art) 3. Unifed Egypt; depicted beginning of the Old Kingdom; transition away from Paleolithic farming villages 4. Religious iconography.
  15. 15. Palette of Narmer Victory Stele of Naram-Sin, 3000 BCE 2621 BCE
  16. 16. Palette of Naner Victory Stele of Naram-Sin, 3000 BCE 2621 BCE
  17. 17. Egyptian figurative conventions Used for approximately 3000 yrs Twisted Perspective REMEMBER THE ART MADE THE WORLD VIDEO??? How does this perspective reflect their culture and SOCIAL STATUS?
  18. 18. Pyramids & Tombs • 80 pyramids were built • Began with the Mastaba (means Bench).. Mud brick tombs used in the Old Kingdom • Egyptians believed that Isis ruled the underworld and judged dead souls; Ka lived forever • Death & resurrection: Important to preserve/mummify bodies and to provide for life in the next world
  19. 19. Significant: 1st large scale building EVER in world Stepped Pyramid of Djoser, III Dynasty. , 2630 BCE 1st large scale stone building in world, build over mastaba. 14 gateways, facades of buildings. Engaged columns mimicked bunches of reed with papyrus tops.
  20. 20. Flashcard image - Great Pyramids of Giza IV Dynasty (Old Kingdom) Khafre, Khufu, Menkaure. Granite and limestone Size: height of pyramid of Khufu, 450' (137 m)
  21. 21. How Pyramids Were Built • http://touregypt.net/construction/construc.htm 2 million blocks, 1-2 tons each! How did they get them up there?
  22. 22. Great Sphinx, believed to be a portrait of Khafre. Originally painted & had a beard.
  23. 23. Menkaure and Queen Khamerernebty Flashcard image Medium: Graywacke with traces red & black paint 54½ inches high Date: Fourth Dynasty (ruled 2490–2472 BCE) OLD KINGDOM Source/Museum: from Giza / Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Harvard University–MFA Expedition Equal scale Embrace Sheer dress on Queen
  24. 24. Pepy II and His Mother, Queen She ruled until he Ankhnes-Meryre was old enough, carved more naturalistically Egyptian alabaster 15¼ X 9 13/16" Arms posed away from side.. Less permanence.. Reflects her status as temporary ruler rather than permanent ruler
  25. 25. Shows how different Seated Scribe classes were (FLASHCARD) portrayed. Painted limestone; eyes of rock crystal mounted in copper Much smaller than Size: height 21" statues of Pharoahs, Date: Fifth Dynasty, c. 2450– etc. (21” vs life size or 2325 BCE over sized” OLD KINGDOM Limestone, not more Musée du Louvre, Paris elegant materials
  26. 26. The Middle Kingdom • 1975-1640 BCE (intermediate thru 1520) • Mentuhop (11th Dynasty) kings reunited Egypt. • Powerful, unified govt w/ strong military • Arts & literature flourished • Portraiture became more sensitive & realistic
  27. 27. Head of Senusret III Yellow quartzite 17¾ X 13½ X 17" Middle Kingdom More realistic Twelfth Dynasty, c. c. Looks tired, 1836–1818 BCE older Dynamic King who led 4 expeditions into Nubia; overhauled administration
  28. 28. Rock-cut tombs, Beni Hasan. Middle Kingdom Date: Twelfth Dynasty, c. 1938– 1755 BCE
  29. 29. “May the sun god give eternal life to Senusret II” … ankh, falcons, cobras, Ra… Pectoral of Senusret II, Gold and semiprecious stones Date: Twelfth Dynasty, c 1938–1755 (ruled c 1842–1837 BCE) Tomb of Princess Sithathoryunet, el-Lahun. / The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
  30. 30. Stele of Amemhat I, 12th Dynasty (Middle Kingdom)… Portrays daily family life. Found in his tomb. 11” x 15”
  31. 31. The New Kingdom • 1539-1075 BCE • Hykkos invaded; 18th Dynasty reunited kingdom • Thutmose III (1st Pharoah) expanded Egypt into present day Syria • Trade with near East • Built New Kingdom Temples & tombs to glorify kings / Pharoahs
  32. 32. Ruins of the Great Temple of Amun at Karnak, Egypt (New Kingdom, 1579 BCE)
  33. 33. Symmetrical & Axial Design (processional path) Covered area size of 60 football fields; hypostyle hall w/ lots of columns Statues of gods clothed and “fed” daily by priests Added to by various Pharoahs; sacred lake, coronation rooms
  34. 34. Flower & Bud columns Hypostyle Hall Great Temple of Amun at Karnak http://dlib.etc.ucla.edu/proje cts/Karnak/experience/Intro ductionToTheTempleOfKar nak/1
  35. 35. Queen Hatshepsut Enthroned New Kingdom, 1473-1458 BCE 20 year reign, 1st female Pharoah portrayed in art Sometimes shown as male w/false beard Led diplomacy with Punt Built incredible funerary temple positioned against high cliffs, oriented towards Karnak
  36. 36. Funerary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut, Deir El-Bahri 1473 BCE (New Kingdom)
  37. 37. Fowling Scene, Tomb of Nebamum, 1400 BCE (New King.), fragment of wall painting, British Flashcard image, not in book Museum •18th dynasty •Suggests distance & movement •Animals, butterflies naturalistic •Wife/daughter smaller than Nebamum (hierarchy of scale) •Hieroglyphic: enjoying himself and seeing beauty, (Forever young?) •Marsh symbolizes rebirth •Cat can symbolize deity hunting enemies of light and order
  38. 38. Amarna Period: Revolution in Art and Religion • 1353-1336 BCE • Changed name to Akhenaten (one who is effective for Aten, a god) • 1st Monotheist in Egypt: Worshipped Aten (sun god) • New capital in Tell el-Amarna • Changed typical Egyptian figurative style in artworks • Promoted glass making
  39. 39. Akhenaten, Colossal Figure, located at Temple of Karnak (16 ‘ tall) Long face, thin neck, swollen belly, somewhat androgynous looking. Built temples to Aten.. Sun disk, open courtyards Wife Queen Nefertiti was priestess Truth (Maat) emphasized… more realistic artwork and informal situations.
  40. 40. How is this Relief so Different? Akhenaten & his Family, 1353 BCE (New Kingdom), painted limestone sunken relief
  41. 41. Queen Tiye, New Kingdom Funerary piece of yew wood, ebony, glass, silver, gold, lapis, cloth, clay & wax Entire sculpture was 1/3 life size Older woman, mom of Akhenanten Married for love. Played key role in affairs of state husband Amenhotep III. Realistic style; African features
  42. 42. Queen Nefertiti Diplomacy (flashcard) w/Hittites 1302-1234 BCE “mother of kings” 18th Dynasty/ Book of Dead New Kingdom Shown w/God Horus frequently Painted limestone 21” (life size) Tomb found in 1904. Most impressive Queen’s tomb found
  43. 43. Tutankhamun & Ramses II: Return to Tradition • Priesthood of Amun regained former power a few years after Akhenaten’s death • Tutankhaten = Tutankhamun (changed name) • Court moved back to Thebes • Tutankhamun’s tomb discovered in 1922-incredible riches captured public imagination (died young) • Ramses II built mighty empire.. Peace with Hittites • Amazing Temple of Ramses II at Abu Simbel (see Object Speaks in book)
  44. 44. Flashcard Funerary image mask of Tutankhamun 1327 BC Gold inlaid with glass and semiprecious stones Flashcard image Cairo Museum New Kingdom 18th Dynasty
  45. 45. Temple of Ramses II at Abu Simbel 4 65 foot statues of Ramses Association w/Gods, Religious & political power
  46. 46. Queen Nefertrari, wife of Ramses II, shown behind his leg Hieratic scale?
  47. 47. Judgment of Hunefer before Osiris, Scene from Book of the Dead Eater waits for Painted papyrus, height 15⅝" (39.8 cm), Nineteenth Dynasty, c. 1285 BCE NEW KINGDOM judgment Illustration From a Book of The Dead. The British Museum, London Feather of Maat vs. KNOW RELIGIOUS SIGNIFICANCE, HOW THIS WAS USED! Heart Osiris, king of underworld
  48. 48. Mummy wrapping of a young boy Medium: Linen wrappings with gilded stucco buttons and inserted portrait in encaustic on wood Size: height of mummy 53⅜" (133 cm) portrait 9½ X 6½" Date: Roman period, c. 100–120 CE AFTER NEW KINGDOM ENDED, ROMAN RULE Source/Museum: Hawara / The British Museum, London Conventions of Roman painting not Egyptian

Editor's Notes

  • Artist: n/a Title: Funerary mask of Tutankhamun Medium: Gold inlaid with glass and semiprecious stones Size: Height 21¼" (54.5 cm) Weight 24 pounds (11 kg) Date: Eighteenth Dynasty (Tutankhamun, ruled 1332–1322 BCE), c. 1327 BCE Source/Museum: Egyptian Museum, Cairo
  • Artist: n/a Title: Ancient Egypt Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: n/a Source/Museum: n/a
  • Artist: n/a Title: The Rosetta Stone Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: 196 BCE Source/Museum: The British Museum, London
  • Artist: n/a Title: Art and its Context: Hieroglyphic, Hieratic, and Demotic Writing Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: n/a Source/Museum: Hieroglyphic signs for the letters P, T, O, and L, which were Champollion's clues to deciphering the Rosetta Stone, plus M, Y, and S: Ptoymys
  • Artist: n/a Title: Ancient Egypt Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: n/a Source/Museum: n/a
  • Artist: n/a Title: The Narmer Palette Medium: Green schist Size: height 25" (64 cm) Date: Early Dynastic period, c. 2950–2775 BCE Source/Museum: Hierakonpolis / Egyptian Museum, Cairo
  • Artist: n/a Title: The Narmer Palette Medium: Green schist Size: height 25" (64 cm) Date: Early Dynastic period, c. 2950–2775 BCE Source/Museum: Hierakonpolis / Egyptian Museum, Cairo
  • Artist: n/a Title: The Narmer Palette Medium: Green schist Size: height 25" (64 cm) Date: Early Dynastic period, c. 2950–2775 BCE Source/Museum: Hierakonpolis / Egyptian Museum, Cairo
  • Artist: n/a Title: The Narmer Palette Medium: Green schist Size: height 25" (64 cm) Date: Early Dynastic period, c. 2950–2775 BCE Source/Museum: Hierakonpolis / Egyptian Museum, Cairo
  • Artist: n/a Title: The Narmer Palette Medium: Green schist Size: height 25" (64 cm) Date: Early Dynastic period, c. 2950–2775 BCE Source/Museum: Hierakonpolis / Egyptian Museum, Cairo
  • Artist: n/a Title: Old Kingdom standard grid—an Egyptian canon of proportions for representing the human body Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: n/a Source/Museum: n/a
  • Artist: n/a Title: Old Kingdom standard grid—an Egyptian canon of proportions for representing the human body Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: n/a Source/Museum: n/a
  • Artist: n/a Title: The step pyramid and sham buildings. Funerary complex of Djoser, Saqqara Medium: Limestone Size: height of pyramid 204' (62 m) Date: n/a Source/Museum: n/a
  • Artist: n/a Title: Elements of Architecture: Mastaba to Pyramid (Stepped Pyramid) Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: n/a Source/Museum: Stepped Pyramid of Djoser, Saqqara, c. 2667-2648 BCE
  • Artist: n/a Title: Elements of Architecture: Mastaba to Pyramid (Pyramid) Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: n/a Source/Museum: Pyramid: Pyramid of Kafra, Giza, c. 2600 BCE
  • Artist: n/a Title: Great Pyramids, Giza Medium: Granite and limestone Size: height of pyramid of Khufu, 450' (137 m) Date: Fourth Dynasty, c. 2575–2450 BCE Source/Museum: Erected by (from the left) Menkaure, Khafre, and Khufu
  • Artist: n/a Title: Model of the Giza plateau. From left to right: the temples and pyramids of Menkaure, Khafre, and Khufu. (number 4 is the valley temple of Menkaure; number 5 is the valley temple and Sphinx of Khafre.) Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: n/a Source/Museum: Prepared for the exhibition “The Sphinx and the Pyramids: One Hundred Years of American Archaeology at Giza,” held in 1998 at the Harvard University Semitic Museum Harvard University Semitic Museum, Cambridge, Massachusetts
  • Artist: n/a Title: Menkaure and a Queen (perhaps his wife Khamerernebty) Medium: Graywacke with traces of red and black paint Size: height 54½" (142.3 cm) Date: Fourth Dynasty (ruled 2490–2472 BCE) Source/Museum: from Giza / Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Harvard University–MFA Expedition
  • Artist: n/a Title: Khafre (Detail of head) Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: n/a Source/Museum: n/a
  • Artist: n/a Title: Pepy Ii and His Mother, Queen Ankhnes-Meryre Medium: Egyptian alabaster Size: height 15¼ X 9 13/16" (39.2 X 24.9 cm) Date: Sixth Dynasty, c. 2323–2152 BCE (ruled. c. 2246–2152 BCE). Source/Museum: The Brooklyn Museum of Art, New York. Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund (39.119)
  • Artist: n/a Title: Seated Scribe Medium: Painted limestone with inlaid eyes of rock crystal calcite and magnesite mounted in copper Size: height 21" (53 cm) Date: Fifth Dynasty, c. 2450–2325 BCE Source/Museum: found near the tomb of Kai, Saqqara. Musée du Louvre, Paris
  • Artist: n/a Title: Head of Senusret III Medium: Yellow quartzite Size: height 17¾ X 13½ X 17" (45.1 X 34.3 X 43.2 cm) Date: Twelfth Dynasty, c. 1938–1755 BCE (ruled c. 1836–1818 BCE) Source/Museum: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri. Purchase: Nelson Trust (62-11)
  • Artist: n/a Title: Rock-cut tombs, Beni Hasan. Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: Twelfth Dynasty, c. 1938–1755 BCE Source/Museum: n/a
  • Artist: n/a Title: Pectoral of Senusret II Medium: Gold and semiprecious stones Size: length 3¼" (8.2 cm) Date: Twelfth Dynasty, c 1938–1755 (ruled c 1842–1837 BCE) Source/Museum: Tomb of Princess Sithathoryunet, el-Lahun. / The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Purchase, Rogers Fund and Henry Walters Gift, 1916 (16.1.3)
  • Artist: n/a Title: Stele of Amenemhat I Medium: Painted limestone Size: 11 X 15" (30 X 50 cm) Date: Twelfth Dynasty, c. 1938–1755 (ruled c. 1938–1908 BCE) Source/Museum: Assasif. / Egyptian Museum, Cairo. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Excavation 1915–16
  • Artist: n/a Title: The ruins of the Great Temple of Amun, at Karnak, Egypt Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: n/a Source/Museum: n/a
  • Artist: n/a Title: Reconstruction Drawing of the Great Temple of Amun at Karnak, Egypt. New Kingdom, c. 1579–1075 BCE Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: n/a Source/Museum: n/a
  • Artist: n/a Title: Reconstruction Drawing of the Hypostyle Hall, Great Temple of Amun, Karnak. Nineteenth Dynasty, C. 1292–1190 BCE Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: n/a Source/Museum: n/a
  • Artist: n/a Title: Flower and bud columns, hypostyle hall, Great Temple of Amun. Karnak Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: n/a Source/Museum: n/a
  • Artist: n/a Title: Hatshepsut Enthroned Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: Eighteenth Dynasty (ruled c. 1473–1458 BCE). Source/Museum: Deir el-Bahri / The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
  • Artist: n/a Title: Funerary temple of Hatshepsut, Deir El-Bahri Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: Eighteenth Dynasty, c. 1473–1458 BCE(At the far left, ramp and base of the funerary temple of Mentuhotep III. Eleventh Dynasty, c. 2009–1997 BCE) Source/Museum: n/a
  • Artist: n/a Title: Inner Coffin of Tutankhamun’s Sarcophagus Medium: Gold inlaid with glass and semiprecious stones Size: height 6'⅞" (1.85 m), weight nearly 243 pounds (110.4 kg) Date: Eighteenth Dynasty, 1332–1322 BCE Source/Museum: Tomb of Tutankhamun, Valley of the Kings, near Deir el-Bahri / Egyptian Museum, Cairo
  • Artist: n/a Title: Akhenaten, Colossal Figure Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: n/a Source/Museum: n/a
  • Artist: n/a Title: Akhenaten and His Family Medium: Painted limestone relief Size: 12¼ X 15¼" (31.1 X 38.7 cm) Date: Eighteenth Dynasty, c. 1353–1336 BCE Source/Museum: Akhetaten (present-day Tell el-Amarna) / Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Ägyptisches Museum
  • Artist: n/a Title: Queen Tiy Medium: Boxwood, ebony, glass, silver, gold, lapis lazuli, cloth, clay, and wax Size: height 3 ¾" (9.4 cm) Date: Eighteenth Dynasty, c. 1352 BCE Source/Museum: Kom Medinet el-Ghurab (near el-Lahun) / Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Ägyptisches Museum
  • Artist: n/a Title: Nefertiti Medium: Painted Limestone Size: height 20" (51 cm) Date: Eighteenth Dynasty, c. 1353–1336 BCE Source/Museum: Akhetaten (modern Tell el-Amarna) / Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Ägyptisches Museum
  • Artist: n/a Title: Funerary mask of Tutankhamun Medium: Gold inlaid with glass and semiprecious stones Size: Height 21¼" (54.5 cm) Weight 24 pounds (11 kg) Date: Eighteenth Dynasty (Tutankhamun, ruled 1332–1322 BCE), c. 1327 BCE Source/Museum: Egyptian Museum, Cairo
  • Artist: n/a Title: Temple of Rameses II (Left) and Nefertari (Right), at Abu Simbel Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: Nineteenth Dynasty, 1279–1213 BCE Source/Museum: n/a
  • Artist: n/a Title: Detail of Nefertari and Ramses’s Leg Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: n/a Source/Museum: Temple of Ramses II
  • Artist: n/a Title: Judgment of Hunefer before Osiris Medium: Painted papyrus Size: height 15⅝" (39.8 cm) Date: Nineteenth Dynasty, c. 1285 BCE Source/Museum: Illustration From a Book of The Dead. The British Museum, London
  • Artist: n/a Title: Mummy wrapping of a young boy Medium: Linen wrappings with gilded stucco buttons and inserted portrait in encaustic on wood Size: height of mummy 53⅜" (133 cm) portrait 9½ X 6½" (24 X 16.5 cm) Date: Roman period, c. 100–120 CE Source/Museum: Hawara / The British Museum, London

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