Yules’s Classification Displacement We can refer to past, present and future time, and others locations, no Only the here and now. Arbitrariness It implies that there is no necessary A natural (iconic) connection between a linguistic form and its meaning Productivity This property is linked to the fact that the potential number of utterances in any human Language is infinite. Discreteness: The sounds used in a language are meaningful distinct. Duality : Meaningless units are combined to form arbitrary signs. Other properties: Specialization = function Communicate Feedback = Any speaker/sender can be a Listener/ Receiver. Vocal – auditory channel. Cultural Transmission: The process whereby the language is passed on from one generation to the next. This is crucial in the human acquisition process. Lic. Mahly Martínez, 2007
Birds have two types of sound signals-- calls and songs . Bird calls consist of one or more short notes and seem to be instinctive responses to danger, nesting, flocking and a few other basic situations. Bird songs are used primarily by males to attract mates or establish territory. Although bird songs are inborn, and young birds naturally begin producing them at a certain age even if raised away from their species, some species must experience adult songs to reproduce the song perfectly.
<ul><li>Among apes communication generally takes place within a single social group composed of members of both sexes and of disparate ages, who have spent most or all of their lives together. </li></ul><ul><li>Primates have very good eyesight and much of their communication is accomplished in gestures or body language. </li></ul><ul><li>The meaning of gestures differs from species to species. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The signs of animal systems are inborn. </li></ul><ul><li>Animal systems are set responses to stimuli. </li></ul><ul><li>In animal systems, each signal has one and only one function. </li></ul><ul><li>Animal signals are not naturally used in novel ways. Animal systems are essentially non-creative. </li></ul><ul><li>Because they are non-creative, animal systems are closed inventories of signs used to express a few specific messages only. </li></ul><ul><li>Animal systems seem not to change from generation to generation . </li></ul>