NUTR 101: Fat Soluble Vitamins - PPT Version (Wonky)


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Lecture slides for my Principles of Nutrition course at Lipscomb University. I teach from the 12th edition of Sizer and Whitney's Nutrition Concepts and Controversies.

This is the PPT version of the slides, so things could look wonky. Notes are included. The pdf version is available in another download. Please note that fonts and spacing may not look the same as in the pdf. Looking for the keynote version? That's what I use to create all my presentations. Just shoot me an email.

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  • A ton of roles in the body... some people believe they can cure diseases
    The only disease a vitamin can cure is the one caused by deficiency
    We love vitamins! But we LOVE vitamins in the form of WHOLE FOODS
    Not supplements
  • Some vitamins occur in foods in the form of precursors or provitamins.
    Once inside the body they transform to a more active form.
    * so we look at not just whole vitamins, but of potential vitamin activity from foods
  • Solubility determines how they’re absorbed and transported into blood stream
    Determines whether they can be stored in body
    And how easily they’re eliminated from the body
  • Different names that can be confusing
    - Fat Soluble can be stored in liver or with lipids in fatty tissue (don’t need all the time)
    - So they can build up
    - Water soluble absorbed directly into bloodstream where they travel freely
    - Most not stored in tissue but excreted in urine
  • - like other fats, fat-soluble vitamins absorbed into the lymph
    - travel with protein carriers (lipoproteins)
  • Found in fats and oils of food
    Require bile for absorption (what does bile do?... emulsifier)
    A and D act like hormones (directly cells to convert one thing to another or to store or release
    Also directly influence genes (thereby influences protein production)
    E acts as an antioxidant (guarding body against harmful oxidative reactions)
    K is known for blood clotting and connections to bone health.
  • When you eat animal products you can get forms of Vit A that are readily absorbed in body
    Plant derived precursor is BETA-CAROTENE... it has to be converted to Vit A in the body
  • Plant derived precursor is BETA-CAROTENE
    Beta-carotene is an ORANGE PIGMENT with antioxidant activity
    Made by plants and stored in fat tissue... can’t convert to retinol efficiently enough to be toxic
    So eat your heart out! Can turn skin orange b/c the pigment stored in fat beneath skin
  • There are 3 forms of vitamin A that are active in the body
    Retinol is most active form
    Body makes other 2 from Retinol
  • Sustain healthy eyesight... works at the RETINA and the CORNEA w/ light perception and clarity.
    Deficiency can lead to night blindness and full blindness
  • Other roles
  • Although a simple, cost-effective solution exists, vitamin A deficiency remains the No. 1 cause of preventable blindness in children. It also claims an estimated 670,000 lives each year by weakening the immune system, increasing the risk of death from common diseases like measles and diarrhea.
  • As dangerous as deficiency
    Supplementation of active Vitamin A, along w/ fortified foods
    Weakens bones, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, rashes, hair loss, liver damage, etc.
    *** For pregnancy, there are birth defects
    (VITAMIN A cures acne? It’s chemically altered form... not pure vitamin A)
  • Active vitamin A in products of animal origin. (liver, fish oil, eggs, milk... also, fortified foods)
    Precursor food sources: Mango, pumpkin, apricot, carrots, sweet potatoes, etc.
    Also, green vegetables like spinach, bok choy
  • Body can synthesize all it needs by using sunlight (isn’t that cool??)
    Vitamin D undergoes chemical chemical transformation in liver and kidneys to activate it.
    That goes for sun or food derived
    Easy to get, but a LOT of people don’t get enough, esp. african americans and mexican americans.
    2/3 (as many) of americans are insufficient.
  • Best known for bone health
    Vitamin D acts at 3 different sites in the body to replenish calcium in the blood
    Calcium indispensable for proper functioning of cells in all body tissues (nerves, muscle, glands) that draw calcium from the blood when it needs it.
  • (Skeleton, digestive tract... from food, and kidneys that recycle calcium that would otherwise be lost in urine.
  • This means that it’s a compound made by one organ that acts on other organs and tissues
    Acts on 30 body tissues (hair to reproductive system)
  • CVD, some cancers, high blood pressure, depression, TB, flu, diabetes, arthritis, psoriasis, and even higher risk of dying...
    Reads like a new prescription drug disclaimer
  • Rickets is a softening of bones d/t to deficiency or impaired metabolism of vitamin D, phosphorus or calcium, potentially leading to fractures and deformity
    - gravity pulls body weight against weak bones and legs bow
    - beaded ribs also a sign
  • As children grow up, choose soda and juice, not milk... spend more time indoors
    At risk for bone disease.
    In adults, this results in a painful bone disease, osteomalacia (can be mistaken for joint pain and arthritis).
    Calcium loss from bones results in osteoporosis.
    ---take vitamin D and calcium supplement (not D alone)
  • Vit D can be toxic... can raise blood Calcium levels, which can collect in soft tissues, forming stones... like kidney stones. Other complications as well.
    Sunlight... wrinkles, skin cancer, etc.
    --> what’s contributed to decrease in vitamin D? (public health campaigns against skin cancer, increased sunscreen, more indoor jobs, activities, sedentary lifestyles.)
  • Pigments of dark skin protect against UV radiation, but dark skinned people need up to 3 hours of direct sunlight for several days worth of Vit D
    Light skinned people need about 15 minutes.
  • Advanced age increases risk of Vit D deficiency, so recommendations increase
    Also, experts calling for significant changes.... (currently 2,000 IU... up to 5 and 10k IU)
  • You also have these cool “Snapshot” info graphics in this chapter that are great visuals.
  • Summarizes Vitamin D
  • So... a lot of whole wheat products
    Sources are Kardashians and Ryan Seacrest
  • Alpha-tocapherol is the gold standard... others are of interest for research
  • Wheat germ is the best source. So... a lot of whole wheat products.
    Antioxidant... protects against oxidative damage.
  • Wheat germ is the best source. So... a lot of whole wheat products.
    Antioxidant... protects against oxidative damage.
  • 1) LUNGS - a lot of oxygen that could harm vulnerable membranes
    2) RED BLOOD CELLS - need protection when transport oxygen
    3) WHITE BLOOD CELLS - rely on Vit E as they fight diseases ....
    brain tissue relies on vitamin E as well
  • Not really seen in humans... possible in people who have diseases that cause fat malabsorption... or with people who deliberately do this (mineral oil as laxative) or
    or with premature babies
    Anything that injures liver or gallbladder (makes and stores bile) could result in deficiency
    or the pancreas (makes fat digesting enzymes)
    Or extremely low fat diets
  • There’s a transfer of Vitamin E from mom to baby that happens late in pregnancy
    Premature babies can be deficient
    W/o Vitamin E, baby’s red blood cells rupture (Erythrocyte hemolysis) and baby becomes anemic.
  • Rare... could interfere w/ blood clotting medication (causing you to not clot)
    If you take supplements, keep dosage low
    Fine to eat it from food (precursors)
  • Summarizes Vitamin D
  • Helps blood clot... helps you heal... helps you not bleed to death
    MAIN ROLE: Activate proteins that clot blood.
    Doesn’t help with genetic diseases... such as hemophilia
  • Some people have problems w/ blood clotting and take medicine to THIN their blood
    Vitamin K would counteract the medicine (Coumadin is one)
  • Best source is dark green, leafy vegetables.
    Only rich animal source is liver
  • Toxicity is rare, so no Tolerable Upper Intake Level has been set by DRI.
    For pregnant women and infants, can be toxic and lead to jaundice if taking too much
    --causes liver to release bilirubin into the blood (instead of excreting it into bile) and into general circulation system, leading to yellow coloring.
  • NUTR 101: Fat Soluble Vitamins - PPT Version (Wonky)

    1. 1. VITAMINS
    2. 2. Essential, noncaloric, organic nutrient needed in tiny amounts in the body
    4. 4. Vitamins help to drive cell processes in the body. Vitamin precursors in foods are transformed into active vitamins in the body.
    6. 6. VITAMIN
    8. 8. 1. Retinol 2. Retinal 3. Retinoic Acid
    9. 9. EYESIGHT
    10. 10. Bone growth Cell differentiation Immune system
    11. 11. DEFICIENCY
    13. 13. plants, beta-carotene, is an effective antioxidant in the body. Brightly colored plant foods and are richest in beta-carotene, and diets containing these foods are associated with good health.
    14. 14. VITAMI N
    16. 16. Three places vitamin D taps for calcium: 1. Skeleton 2. Digestive tract 3. Kidneys
    18. 18. Vitamin D Deficiency
    19. 19. RICKETS
    21. 21. Can I get too much Vitamin D from the sun?
    22. 22. Is dietary vitamin D the safer source?
    23. 23. KEY POINT Page 238
    24. 24. VITAMIN (aka: Tocopherol)
    25. 25. Alpha, Beta, Gamma,
    26. 26. What does vitamin E do?
    27. 27. ree-Radical Damag & Antioxidant
    28. 28. Where is vitamin E important?
    30. 30. Erythrocyte Hemolysis
    31. 31. TOXICITY
    32. 32. KEY POINT Page 241
    33. 33. VITAMIN
    34. 34. Opposes anti-clotting medicat
    35. 35. TOXICITY
    36. 36. Credits Carrot Embroidery by Dana K on Flickr Pumpkins by the_girl on Flickr Mango Slices Food Macros by Steven Depolo on Flickr Dried Apricots by Itinerant Tightwad on Flickr Pop-Eye Spinach Wheat Germ by Martha and Tom on Flickr Wheat-Rye-Flax Seed Loaf by Mystuart on Flickr Almonds by Tom Woodward on Flickr
    37. 37. Credits Vitamin Eating the Peanut Butter by Brian Dewey Cabbage by Ian Crowther on Flickr Hey Girl Kale Wonderful by Thomas Hawk on Flickr Asparagus asparagus (can you do the fandango) by John on Flickr Horizon Organic Vitamin D Whole Milk 128 fl oz 1 gallon by David Guo on Flickr Old Key, by ClanKennedy of Flickr
    38. 38. Credits Vitamin The Letter “A” Vitamin D The Letter “K” Mindy Kaling on The Mindy Project Vitamin Angels Anchorman Go Greek