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Migration numbers and refugees emergency across the mediterrenean

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Migration numbers and refugees emergency across the Mediterrenean.
“Lampedusa Berlin, Travel journal” project
Europe for Citizens Program – Strand2: Democratic engagement and civic participation 
First project meeting, January 16th 2017 – Palermo

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Migration numbers and refugees emergency across the mediterrenean

  1. 1. Migration numbers and refugees emergency across the Mediterrenean “Lampedusa Berlin, Travel journal” project Europe for Citizens Program – Strand2: Democratic engagement and civic participation First project meeting, January 16th 2017 – Palermo This project has been funded with support the Europe for Citizens programme of the European Union. This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.   Elena Canestrari Asinitas
  2. 2. Refugees worldwide
  3. 3. 65.3 million forcibly displaced worldwide65.3 million forcibly displaced worldwide as a result of persecution, conflict, generalized violence, or  human rights violations. This is 5.8 million more than the  previous year.  21,3 million refugees 40,8 million internally displaced  3,2 million asylum-seekers  21,3 million refugees 40,8 million internally displaced  3,2 million asylum-seekers  20152015 Global forced displacement has  increased with record-high numbers.  Global forced displacement has  increased with record-high numbers.  Refugees worldwide Source: Unhcr “Global Trends 2015”
  4. 4. Syrian Arab Republic 4.9 million  Afghanistan 2.7 million Somalia 1.1 million.  More than half (54%) of all refugees worldwide came from  just 3 countries  Refugees worldwide Source: Unhcr “Global Trends 2015”
  5. 5. At the end of 2005 on average 6 people worldwide were displaced from their home. Ten years later, in 2015, 24 people per minute, some 34000 per day were displaced from their home Refugees worldwide Source: Unhcr “Global Trends 2015”
  6. 6. 2015 Europe faced the so called “Refugees crisis” But actually 9 out of 10 persons found protection  in the South of the world • Asia 29,7 million of  forced displaced people + 5,7 million  of Palestinian refugees under Unrwa protection, settled in  Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Gaza and the West Bank  • Africa 20,3 million  • Central and South America 7,7 million  • Europe 5,5 million • North America 715,000  Source: Dossier Statistico 2016, IDOS Refugees worldwide
  7. 7. Refugees worldwide 1.Turkey 2. Pakistan 3. Lebanon 4. Iran 5. Ethiopia 6. Jordan
  8. 8. Migration and refugee emergencies across the Mediterranean
  9. 9. Migration and refugee emergencies across the Mediterranean •In 2010 the people arrived in Europe through the  Mediterranean with improvised barges, were only 9,700;   •In 2011 with the start of the Arab Spring (end of 2010)  and especially with the removal of the Libyan regime and  Gaddafi's death (October 2011) the number increased to  70,000.  The number of migrants and refugees entering Europe in  the last five years has increased dramatically The number of migrants and refugees entering Europe in  the last five years has increased dramatically Source: UNHCR
  10. 10. Migration and refugee emergencies across the Mediterranean • In 2014 (with the destabilization of the whole area),  have landed on European shores 220,000 people, a  number three times higher than the previous year.  • 2015 and 2016 have far exceeded these numbers  (more than 1 million)  We are really facing a historic and momentous social phenomenon Source: UNHCR “Global Trends 2015”
  11. 11. Migration and refugee emergencies across the MediterraneanSource: UNHCR
  12. 12. Source:Unhcr: Report Sep 2016 IDOS p. 120 Migration and refugee emergencies across the Mediterranean 1,014,973 2015 303,838 2016 (January to September) 1,014,973 2015 303,838 2016 (January to September) SEA ARRIVALS
  13. 13. Balkan route Migration and refugee emergencies across the Mediterranean
  14. 14. Migration and refugee emergencies across the Mediterranean Balkan route Before 2015 the Balkan route played a rather marginal role but from spring into the summer of 2015, the refugee crisis built up, as the number of arrivals to Greece grew and accelerated. The number of arrivals to Greece rose from 8,000 in March to 108,000 arrivals in August. Authorities in the Western Balkans were caught unprepared, as were their counterparts in the EU. source: UNHCR data, available at: http://data.unhcr.org/mediterranean/regional.php
  15. 15. Migration and refugee emergencies across the MediterraneanSource:Unhcr: Report Sep 2016
  16. 16. Migration and refugee emergencies across the MediterraneanSource:Unhcr: Report Sep 2016
  17. 17. Recorded deaths in the Mediterranean by route 2016 : Source OIM 6th January 2017 - Western Mediterranean 69 - Central Mediterranean 4576 - Eastern Mediterranean 434 Migration and refugee emergencies across the Mediterranean Total death in the Mediterranean 2015: 3770 (77% in the Central Mediterranean) TOTAL DEATHS 2016 5079 + 34% compared to 2015 TOTAL DEATHS 2016 5079 + 34% compared to 2015
  18. 18. What happens in the countries of arrival La porta del rischio La porta è la barca che mi porta in Europa. Una volta quella porta si è chiusa e sono tornato in Africa. Dopo per fortuna la porta si è aperta e sono arrivato in Europa. La barca è una porta. Deq, Somalia
  19. 19. Why they come?
  20. 20. Among the main countries of origin of migrants landed in Europe there are Syria, Afghanistan, Eritrea, Nigeria and Somalia. But other countries are being added to this list unfortunately, although in smaller numbers: Sudan, Gambia, Senegal, Ghana, Mali. The reasons are always the same: internal instability to the limits of civil war, the presence of radical Islamist groups, extreme poverty. “ (From an article by Fabio Colombo on ww.lenius.it http://www.lenius.it/perche-stanno-arrivando-cosi-tanti-migranti-in- europa/). Why they come?
  21. 21. Syria • Syria is devastated since five years by a confused civil war from which, simply, people run away. Since the conflict began in 2011 more than 200,000 people died, and 11 million people have been forced to leave their homes. Of these, about 7.000.000 are still in Syria, while 4 million have left the country. Why they come? Source: Fabio Colombo on ww.lenius.it http://www.lenius.it/perche-stanno- arrivando-cosi-tanti-migranti-in-europa/).
  22. 22. Syria •The vast majority of these exiles is located in Turkey (2 million people), Lebanon (1 million) and Jordan (600,000). •Other Syrian refugees are scattered between Iraq and Egypt, or are on their way to Europe. So far in 2016 have arrived in the EU, 126 000 Syrians, 43% of the total arrivals in 2015. Why they come? Source: Fabio Colombo on ww.lenius.it http://www.lenius.it/perche-stanno- arrivando-cosi-tanti-migranti-in-europa/).
  23. 23. Afghanistan The country, is still not stabilized. After the war started in 2001, the country entered in a deep crisis in 2014. The new political instability, that followed the uncertain election of June 2014, gave new impetus to the Taliban, who have increased their attacks on the civil population (+ 24% compared to 2013). Why they come? Source: Fabio Colombo on ww.lenius.it http://www.lenius.it/perche-stanno- arrivando-cosi-tanti-migranti-in-europa/).
  24. 24. Afghanistan •Added to this are the chronic problems of the country: abuses by the security forces (including the massive use of torture), threats to freedom of expression, denial of women's rights. •Over 700,000 Afghans are displaced within their country, about 2.5 million have left the country, of which the vast majority living in Iran and Pakistan. •35,000 Afghans have landed in Europe (almost everyone in Greece) in 2015. Why they come? Source: Fabio Colombo on ww.lenius.it http://www.lenius.it/perche-stanno- arrivando-cosi-tanti-migranti-in-europa/).
  25. 25. Eritrea Eritrea suffers from 20 years with the dictatorship of Isaias Afewerki, which obliges all, men and women, to a mandatory military service and an almost perennial uses of torture, arbitrary detentions, disappearances and State murders. Why they come?  Source: Fabio Colombo on ww.lenius.it http://www.lenius.it/perche-stanno-arrivando- cosi-tanti-migranti-in-europa/).
  26. 26. Nigeria faces since 2002 the bulky presence of the radical Islamist group of Boko Haram, active mainly in the north of the country, with kidnappings, bombings and real acts of war. Why they come?  Source: Fabio Colombo on ww.lenius.it http://www.lenius.it/perche-stanno-arrivando- cosi-tanti-migranti-in-europa/). Nigeria
  27. 27. Somalia Somalia is grappling with an almost uninterrupted civil war since 1991 that has fostered the development of a strong Islamist group, Al-Shabab, which has come to control large portions of the country, being protagonist of numerous attacks, and is one of the poorest countries in the world: 81% of its inhabitants is considered in poverty. Why they come?  Source: Fabio Colombo on ww.lenius.it http://www.lenius.it/perche-stanno- arrivando-cosi-tanti-migranti-in-europa/).
  28. 28. What happens in the countries of arrival
  29. 29. MAIN DESTINATION COUNTRIES In EU since the beginning of 2016, the number of application for asylum have been 1.171.138, 6% less than the same period of 2015 What happens in the countries of arrival Source: Asylum Quartely Report EUROSTAT- 14 december 2016 http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Asylum_quarterly_report   
  30. 30. What happens in the countries of arrival These 5 Member States together account for nearly 90% of all first time applicants in the EU-28 The highest number of first time asylum applicants in the third quarter of 2016 was registered in Germany (with over 237.400 first time applicants, or 66% of total applicants in the EU Member States), followed by Italy (34 600, or 10%), France (20 000, or 6%), Greece (12 400, or 3%) and the United Kingdom (9 200, or 3%). Source: Asylum Quartely Report EUROSTAT- 14 december 2016 http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Asylum_quarterly_report   
  31. 31. What happens in the countries of arrival
  32. 32. Top 10 nationalities of sea arrivals in ITALY What happens in the countries of arrival Source: Unhcr “Italy Updated Novembre 2016”   1. Nigeria 2. Eritrea 3. Guinea 4. Cote D’Avoire 5. Gambia 6. Senegal 7. Mali 8. Sudan 9. Bangladesh 10. Somalia
  33. 33. Asylum application results in Italy Source: Cir- Italian Council for Refugees What happens in the countries of arrival  Rejections 65%  Refugees 3%  Subsidiary  protection 11%  Humanitarian  protection 21%
  34. 34. New EU agenda for migration policies
  35. 35. The pillars of the European agenda New EU agenda for migration policies 1. Reducing the incentives for irregular migration 1. Saving lives and securing the external borders 1. Strengthening the common asylum policies 1. Developing a new policy on legal migration
  36. 36. Relocation ‘Relocation’ means a distribution among Member States of persons in clear need of international protection. The receiving Member States will be responsible for the examination of the asylum applications in accordance with established rules and guarantees. The relocation Program concerns citizens of countries for which the rate of granting international protection is over 75%, based on the European avarage recognition rates. At the moment it concerns Syrians and Eritreans and the large majority of beneficiaries are the former. Source: ANNEX European schemes for relocationa and resettlemente What happens in the countries of arrival
  37. 37. Between the adoption of the Semptember 2015 EU Council decision on relocation and the end of November 2016, a total of 1,853 persons were relocated from Italy: this is still only 4.7% of the 39,600 target to be met by the end of September 2017. The Relocation Program involves 20.000 people every year for a total of two years. Source: Unhcr “Italy Updated Novembre 2016” What happens in the countries of arrival
  38. 38. Migrant Quotas from each Eu member state according to the European Commission What happens in the countries of arrivalSource: European Commision
  39. 39. Only 5,953 people have been moved to other countries Only 5,953 people have been moved to other countries What happens in the countries of arrival Source: eur-lex.europa.eu – 9 nov 2016
  40. 40. What happens in the countries of arrival (…)With equitable responsibility sharing, there would be no crisis for host countries. We can afford to help, and we know what we need to do to handle large movements of refugees and migrants. Yet too often, we let fear and ignorance get in the way. Human needs end up overshadowed, and xenophobia speaks louder than reason. (…)
  41. 41. “We will all be stronger by buildings bridges instead of walls” Ban Ki-Moon cfr. United Nation General Assembly, of the Millennium Summit. Report of the Secretary-General, 21 aprile 2016
  42. 42. “Lampedusa Berlin, Travel journal” project Europe for Citizens Program Partnes • Fondazione ForTeS (coordinatore) - Italy • Sos razzismo italia – Italy • Sozial.Label E.V. - Germany • S.O.S. Racismo Gipuzkoa Asociacion - Spain • Egam-European Grassroots Antiracist Movement Association - France • Oltalom Karitativ Egyesulet - Hungary • Asociatia Tineri Parteneri Pentru Dezvoltarea Societatii Civil - Romania • Asinitas Onlus - Italy • Citizens In Action - Greece • Towarzystwo Amicus – Poland This project has been funded with support the Europe for Citizens programme of the European Union. This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

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