Centered in Italy in the early 16th Century the High Renaissance was one of the great explosions of creative genius in history. Leonardo was an Italian painter, draftsman, sculptor, architect, and engineer whose genius, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal. His Last Supper (1495–98) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503–06) are among the most widely popular and influential paintings of the Renaissance. His notebooks reveal a spirit of scientific inquiry and a mechanical inventiveness that were centuries ahead of their time.The unique fame that Leonardo enjoyed in his lifetime and that, filtered by historical criticism, has remained undimmed to the present day rests largely on his unlimited desire for knowledge, which guided all his thinking and behaviour. An artist by disposition and endowment, he considered his eyes to be his main avenue to knowledge; to Leonardo, sight was man's highest sense because it alone conveyed the facts of experience immediately, correctly, and with certainty. Hence, every phenomenon perceived became an object of knowledge, and saper vedere (“knowing how to see”) became the great theme of his studies. But he went even beyond that. He used his superb intellect, unusual powers of observation, and mastery of the art of drawing to study nature itself, a line of inquiry that allowed his dual pursuits of art and science to flourish.
Impressionism Centered in France in the 1860's to 1880's. Impressionism is a light, spontaneous manner of painting which began in France as a reaction against the restrictions and conventions of the dominant Academic art . Its naturalistic and down-to-earth treatment of its subject matter, most commonly landscapes, was a reaction to thee invention of the camera which made it easier to capture realistic likenesses. The hallmark of the style is the attempt to capture the subjective impression of light in a scene. The invention of tube paints made it easier for artists to paint landscapes. Oscar-Claude Monet French painter who was the initiator, leader, and unswerving advocate of the Impressionist style. In his mature works, Monet developed his method of producing repeated studies of the same motif in series, changing canvases with the light or as his interest shifted. These series were frequently exhibited in groups—for example, his images of haystacks (1891) and the Rouen Cathedral (1894). At his home in Giverny, Monet created the water-lily pond that served as inspiration for his last series of paintings . His popularity soared in the second half of the 20th century, when his works traveled the world in museum exhibitions that attracted record-breaking crowds and marketed popular commercial items featuring imagery from his art.
Images from the Floating World, Japan, Edo Period (1600s to 1867) Ukiyo-e (pronounced oo-kee-oh-ay) was a popular form of printed art in Japan during the Edo period, inexpensive and usually depicting scenes from everyday life. Ukiyo translates as &quot;the floating world&quot; - an ironic wordplay on the Buddhist name for the earthly plane, &quot;the sorrowful world&quot;. Ukiyo was the name given to the lifestyle in Japan's urban centers of this period - the fashions, the entertainments, and the pleasures of the flesh. Ukiyo-e is the art documenting this era.Ukiyo-e is especially known for its exceptional woodblock prints. After Japan opened trade with the West after 1867, these prints became very well-known and influential in Europe, especially in France.
Post-Impressionism France, 1880's to 1900 Post-Impressionism is an umbrella term that encompasses a variety of artists who were influenced by Impressionism but took their art in other directions. There is no single well-defined style of Post-Impressionism, but in general it is less idyllic and more emotionally charged than Impressionist work. Research Home Conducting Research Union List of Artist Names Full Record Display Click the icon to view the hierarchy. ID: 500115588 Record Type: Person Gogh, Vincent van (Dutch painter and draftsman, 1853-1890) Note: Except for some brief periods of formal instruction, van Gogh was self-taught; he collected prints and reproductions to study and copy, especially those of Millet . His life and work are legendary in the history of art, making him the quintessential misunderstood, tormented, even insane artist, who sold only one work in his lifetime but whose paintings achieved record auction sales prices after his death. Van Gogh was active as an artist for only ten years, during which time he produced around 1000 watercolors, drawings and sketches and nearly 1250 paintings. His styles included an early dark, Realist style and a later colorful, intense, expressionistic style. Almost more than on his oeuvre, his fame has been based on the extensive, diary-like correspondence he maintained, in particular with his brother, Theo.
Expressionism Centered in Germany, C.1905 to 1940's. Expressionism is a style in which the intention is not to reproduce a subject accurately, but instead to portray it in such a way as to express the inner state of the artist. Research Home Conducting Research Union List of Artist Names Full Record Display Click the icon to view the hierarchy. ID: 500032949 Record Type: Person Munch, Edvard (Norwegian painter and draftsman, 1863-1944) Note: Munch, one of the most noted Norwegian artists, was concerned with the expressive representation of emotions and personal relationships in his work. He was associated with the international development of Symbolism during the 1890s and recognized as a major influence on Expressionism. His early work was conventionally naturalistic; by 1884, he belonged to the avant-garde circle of the painter Christian Krøhg. During stays in Paris between 1889 and1892 Munch was influenced by the symbolists, van Gogh, and, above all, Gauguin; it was during this time that he established his characteristic nervous linear style. An exhibition of more than 50 of Munch's work at the Berlin Kunstlerverein (Artists' Union) in 1892 was so scandalous that it was closed after a week with the repercussions leading to the formation of the Berlin Sezession in 1899. Much of the next ten years was spent in Berlin associating with writers such as Richard Dehmel and August Strindberg and creating works featuring his recurrent themes of sexual awareness, illness, jealousy, and insanity. These intense and disturbing works reflected not only Symbolist preoccupations but Munch's difficulties stemming from his own traumatic childhood during which his mother and sister died and his father nearly went mad. While in Berlin he produced his first prints, with lithographs and woodcuts becoming equally important to his painting. In 1908 he suffered a nervous breakdown and in 1909 he returned permanently to Norway, deliberately abandoning his disturbing themes as part of his recovery. His work became more outgoing, his palette brighter, and his themes more optimistic although his self-portraits retained the earlier intensity. After 1916 Munch became increasingly reclusive and his work regained some of its earlier urgency. He lived at Ekely outside Oslo; when he died he left over 20,000 works to the city. During Munch's lifetime there were many exhibitions of his work in Oslo, Prague, Stockholm, and German cities.
American painter specialized in flowers and the American West. O'Keeffe grew up and attended schools in her hometown of Sun Prairie, Wisconsin, and, from 1902, in Williamsburg, Virginia. Determined from an early age to be a painter, she studied at the Art Institute of Chicago (1904–05) and the Art Students League of New York (1907–08), and afterward she supported herself by doing commercial art . She then taught art at various schools and colleges in Texas and other Southern states from 1912 to 1916, and in the latter year her drawings were discovered and exhibited by the American photographer Alfred Stieglitz . Stieglitz praised and promoted her work, and the two artists began a lifelong relationship, marrying in 1924. The hundreds of photographs Stieglitz took of her form a notable and extended portrait series. O'Keeffe moved to New York City after meeting Stieglitz; she later spent periods in New Mexico, to which she moved after her husband's death in 1946. O'Keeffe's early pictures were basically imitative, but by the early 1920s her own highly individualistic style of painting had emerged. Frequently her subjects were enlarged views of skulls and other animal bones, flowers and plant organs, shells, rocks, mountains, and other natural forms. O'Keeffe delineated these forms with probing and subtly rhythmic outlines and delicately modulated washes of clear colour. Her mysteriously suggestive images of bones and flowers set against a perspectiveless space inspired a variety of erotic, psychologic, and symbolic interpretations. The precision and austerity of her works owe something to the Precisionist paintings of Charles Sheeler and Charles Demuth , but her ability to invest biomorphic forms with an abstract beauty was entirely her own. Her style is typified in such paintings as Black Iris (1926) and Cow's Skull, Red, White and Blue (1931).O'Keeffe painted her best-known works in the 1920s, '30s, and '40s, but she remained an active painter into the '80s. Her later works frequently celebrate the clear skies and desert landscapes of New Mexico. A retrospective exhibition of her art held at the Whitney Museum of American Art in 1970 assured her reputation as one of the most original and important artists in modern American painting.
A flamboyant painter and sometime writer, sculptor and experimental film-maker, Salvador Dali was probably the greatest Surrealist artist, using bizarre dream imagery to create unforgettable and unmistakable landscapes of his inner world. His most famous work is The Persistence Of Memory .Dali often clashed with André Breton and other members of the &quot;official&quot; Surrealist circle over the content of his paintings and the right-wing views he sometimes espoused, and was kicked out of the group in 1934. Breton coined a brilliant anagram for Dali's name: Avida Dollars (which more or less translates to &quot;Eager for Dollars&quot;); Dali shot back, The only difference between me and the Surrealists is that I am a Surrealist . n full Salvador Felipe Jacinto Dalí Y Domenech Spanish Surrealist painter and printmaker, influential for his explorations of subconscious imagery.As an art student in Madrid and Barcelona, Dalí assimilated a vast number of artistic styles and displayed unusual technical facility as a painter. It was not until the late 1920s, however, that two events brought about the development of his mature artistic style: his discovery of Sigmund Freud's writings on the erotic significance of subconscious imagery, and his affiliation with the Paris Surrealists, a group of artists and writers who sought to establish the “greater reality” of man's subconscious over his reason. To bring up images from his subconscious mind, Dalí began to induce hallucinatory states in himself by a process he described as “paranoiac critical.” t in an eerily calm landscape.
Cubism, Europe, 1908-1920. Cubism was developed between about 1908 and 1912 in a collaboration between Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso . Their main influences are said to have been Tribal Art (although Braque later disputed this) and the work of Paul Cezanne . The movement itself was not long-lived or widespread, but it began an immense creative explosion which resonated through all of 20th century art.The key concept underlying Cubism is that the essence of an object can only be captured by showing it from multiple points of view simultaneously. in full Pablo Ruiz y Picasso Spanish expatriate painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, and stage designer, one of the greatest and most influential artists of the 20th century. For nearly 80 of his 91 years Picasso devoted himself to an artistic production that contributed significantly to and paralleled the whole development of modern art in the 20th century.
Optical Art1950's to 1960's. Optical Art is a mathematically-themed form of Abstract art, which uses repetition of simple forms and colors to create vibrating effects, moiré patterns, foreground-background confusion, an exaggerated sense of depth, and other visual effects. In a sense, all painting is based on tricks of visual perception: manipulating rules of perspective to give the illusion of three-dimensional space, mixing colors to create the impression of light and shadow, and so on. With Optical Art, the rules that the viewer's eye uses to try to make sense of a visual image are themselves the &quot;subject&quot; of the artwork. Escher's work deals extensively with various forms of visual tricks and paradoxes. His figurative work consisted mainly of representations of nature and had a severe, stylized aloofness, exaggerated by techniques such as the scratch drawings in which he made incisions into an inked surface on parchment-type paper
Social Realism, America, 1930's Social Realism is a naturalistic realism focusing specifically on social issues and the hardships of everyday life. The term usually refers to the urban American Scene artists of the Depression era, who were greatly influenced by the Ashcan School of early 20th century New York.Social Realism is somewhat of a pejorative label in the United States, where overtly political art, not to mention socialist politics, are extremely out of favor.
architect and writer, the most abundantly creative genius of American architecture . His “Prairie style” became the basis of 20th-century residential design in the United States.
Born July 6, 1907 in Mexico, Frida Kahlo survived many difficult events in her life, including contracting polio as a child a long recovery from a serious car accident, two failed marraiges and several miscarriages. She used these experiences, combined with strong Mexican and Native american cultural influences, to create highly personal paintings. Kahlo used personal symbolism mixed with surrealism to express her suffering through her work and considered herself a realist. She died July 13th, 1954 of pulmonary embolism.
Abstract Expressionism Centered in New York City, 1946 to 1960's. Abstract Expressionism is a type of art in which the artist expresses himself purely through the use of form and color. It non-representational, or non-objective, art, which means that there are no actual objects represented. Now considered to be the first American artistic movement of international importance, the term was originally used to describe the work of Willem de Kooning , Jackson Pollock and Arshile Gorky .The movement can be more or less divided into two groups: Action Painting , typified by artists such as Pollock, de Kooning, Franz Kline , and Philip Guston , stressed the physical action involved in painting; Color Field Painting , practiced by Mark Rothko and Kenneth Noland , among others, was primarily concerned with exploring the effects of pure color on a canvas ote: Pollock was one of the leading proponents of Abstract Expression in the 1940s and 1950s. His art, lifestyle, and untimely death have been elevated to the status of legend. In 1928, he studied at the Manual Arts High School in Los Angeles, and during this time was exposed to European modernism, analytical psychology, and Surrealist automatism. In 1930, he settled in New York, and studied with the Regionalist painter Thomas Hart Benton. During the 1930s he lived in poverty and worked as a mural assistant for the Works Progress Administration Federal Art Project. His work before 1938 shows the influence of Benton, Albert Pinkham Ryder, and the Mexican muralists. In 1938, he was hospitalized for alcoholism during which time he used automatic drawing as therapy. From this, Pollock developed his early style, one of totemic male and female figures and images of eyes or mythic beasts that constituted a personal iconography. A fine example of this period is &quot;Guardians of the Secret,&quot; a work of late-Surrealist style and frenetic brushwork that would hint at his later mature style. He met the painter Lee Krasner in 1941 and they married in 1945. Pollock is best known for working methods of pouring or dripping paint onto a large canvas on the floor, moving about it as he worked, the entire art process being a kind of performance. Typically moving from left to right as if &quot;writing&quot; the work, Pollock laid the key vertical and horizontal elements down first, mostly black or white, and then intertwined subsequent colors within it. This method of organizing a space into panels echoes Benton's theories of mural composition. Pollock was one of the first celebrity painters of the Post-War era in the USA, his free-form style and dramatic personality capturing the spirit of the Beat Generation of the early 1950s. He was killed in a car accident in 1956.
Born Andrew Warhola, August 6, 1928, in the industrial city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Andy Warhol is best known for his exploration of Pop Art, mass producing images of mass produced objects.His most famous works depicted Campbell's soup cans. Enlarged, hand-painted or silkscreened, framed, and hung in an art gallery, Warhol succeeded in turning these mundane images into ironic &quot;art&quot;.Warhol experimented in media such as film, sculpture, paint, and silkscreen, but perhaps his greatest work was his invention of himself as an international celebrity and pop culture icon.
Chuck Close b. 1940 Monroe, Washington ainter; photographer; printmaker merican huck Close began studying art when he was about ten years old. At school, drawing and painting were the few areas he excelled in and found rewarding. Throughout the 1960s, Close studied Abstract Expressionism in the United States and Europe. After years of painting abstract images, Close became frustrated by his inability to paint original shapes or use more than the same few colors. His portrait painting evolved from early investigations that explored the relationship between reality and illusion. lose began painting portraits of his family and friends on extremely large-scale canvases in 1970. Rather than working with live models, Close uses photographs of his subjects as the foundation for their portraits. He precisely incorporates every detail of the photograph, allowing himself limited interpretive freedom and providing a disciplinary &quot;. . . set of right and wrongs.&quot; According to this literal standard, an accurately depicted detail is right; anything not in the photograph is wrong and should not be depicted in the painting. Although Close follows the same process for each portrait, he has experimented with various materials and techniques to achieve the effects he desires.
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Leonardo da Vinci High Renaissance
Leonardo da Vinci Mona Lisa 1506 High Renaissance , ITALY