Centered in Italy in the early 16th Century the High Renaissance was one of the great explosions of creative genius in history. Leonardo was an Italian painter, draftsman, sculptor, architect, and engineer whose genius, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal. His Last Supper (1495–98) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503–06) are among the most widely popular and influential paintings of the Renaissance. His notebooks reveal a spirit of scientific inquiry and a mechanical inventiveness that were centuries ahead of their time.The unique fame that Leonardo enjoyed in his lifetime and that, filtered by historical criticism, has remained undimmed to the present day rests largely on his unlimited desire for knowledge, which guided all his thinking and behaviour. An artist by disposition and endowment, he considered his eyes to be his main avenue to knowledge; to Leonardo, sight was man's highest sense because it alone conveyed the facts of experience immediately, correctly, and with certainty. Hence, every phenomenon perceived became an object of knowledge, and saper vedere (“knowing how to see”) became the great theme of his studies. But he went even beyond that. He used his superb intellect, unusual powers of observation, and mastery of the art of drawing to study nature itself, a line of inquiry that allowed his dual pursuits of art and science to flourish.
A flamboyant painter and sometime writer, sculptor and experimental film-maker, Salvador Dali was probably the greatest Surrealist artist, using bizarre dream imagery to create unforgettable and unmistakable landscapes of his inner world. His most famous work is The Persistence Of Memory .Dali often clashed with André Breton and other members of the &quot;official&quot; Surrealist circle over the content of his paintings and the right-wing views he sometimes espoused, and was kicked out of the group in 1934. Breton coined a brilliant anagram for Dali's name: Avida Dollars (which more or less translates to &quot;Eager for Dollars&quot;); Dali shot back, The only difference between me and the Surrealists is that I am a Surrealist . n full Salvador Felipe Jacinto Dalí Y Domenech Spanish Surrealist painter and printmaker, influential for his explorations of subconscious imagery.As an art student in Madrid and Barcelona, Dalí assimilated a vast number of artistic styles and displayed unusual technical facility as a painter. It was not until the late 1920s, however, that two events brought about the development of his mature artistic style: his discovery of Sigmund Freud's writings on the erotic significance of subconscious imagery, and his affiliation with the Paris Surrealists, a group of artists and writers who sought to establish the “greater reality” of man's subconscious over his reason. To bring up images from his subconscious mind, Dalí began to induce hallucinatory states in himself by a process he described as “paranoiac critical.” t in an eerily calm landscape.
Optical Art1950's to 1960's. Optical Art is a mathematically-themed form of Abstract art, which uses repetition of simple forms and colors to create vibrating effects, moiré patterns, foreground-background confusion, an exaggerated sense of depth, and other visual effects. In a sense, all painting is based on tricks of visual perception: manipulating rules of perspective to give the illusion of three-dimensional space, mixing colors to create the impression of light and shadow, and so on. With Optical Art, the rules that the viewer's eye uses to try to make sense of a visual image are themselves the &quot;subject&quot; of the artwork. Escher's work deals extensively with various forms of visual tricks and paradoxes. His figurative work consisted mainly of representations of nature and had a severe, stylized aloofness, exaggerated by techniques such as the scratch drawings in which he made incisions into an inked surface on parchment-type paper
Drawing 12 artists
Calligraphic Line Graceful, flowing line According to Stanley-Baker : "Calligraphy is sheer life experienced through energy in motion that is registered as traces on silk or paper, with time and rhythm in shifting space its main ingredients".
<ul><li>Islamic calligraphy is the artistic practice of handwriting , or calligraphy , and bookmaking in the lands sharing a common Islamic cultural heritage. This art form is based on the Arabic script , which for a long time was used by all Muslims in their respective languages. They used it to represent God because they denied representing God with images. Calligraphy is especially revered among Islamic arts since it was the primary means for the preservation of the Qur'an . Suspicion of figurative art as idolatrous led to calligraphy and abstract depictions becoming a major form of artistic expression in Islamic cultures, especially in religious contexts. The work of calligraphers was collected and appreciated. Adapted from Wickipedia </li></ul>
Islamic calligraphy primarily from Turkey and Iran
<ul><li>East Asian calligraphy is a form of calligraphy widely practised and revered in China , Japan , Korea , and Vietnam . The East Asian calligraphic tradition originated and developed from China . East Asian calligraphy and ink and wash painting are closely related, since accomplished using similar tools and techniques. Chinese painting and calligraphy distinguishes themselves from onther culture's arts by their emphasis on motion, and their charge with dynamic life. Adapted from Wickipedia </li></ul>