Scaling the Uptake of
Agricultural Innovations:
The role of sustainable extension
and advisory services
Ag Sector Council ...
Major Themes Covered

 Issues to think about

 Important concepts
 Application of extension
principles in practice
Key Questions
 How do we define scale when thinking about
the adoption of agricultural technologies and
practices?
 How ...
Place-based Nature of Agriculture
Natural site:
Where species are able
to grow.

Socio-economic site:
Where species are
al...
The Farming Environment

Institutional
Social
Economic
Biological
Physical

Source: adapted from Shaner et al., 1982
Farming System Characteristics

Enterprises
Capital
Labor
Land
Household
Characteristics

Source: adapted from Shaner et a...
Adoption Domain
“recommendation domain”
Essential Nature of Scale in Agriculture
Every innovation has its
natural scale of expression

No innovative change is
per...
The Diffusion of Innovations

20%
Individual Pathways

Source: Felton in Cox and Alm, 2008
Multiple Sources/Multiple Providers

Source: Dedire, 2013
Process of Adoption
ADOPTION PROCESS

•
•
•
•
•

Awareness
Interest
Evaluation
Trial (adaptation)
Adoption
Q: How many dis...
The Time Dimension

?

Q: How many projects are
designed to allow adoption to
take place, let alone takeoff?

Source: Roge...
Essential Nature of Scale in Agriculture

Source:http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/sunshot/seeds_sandia.html
Essential Nature of Scale in Agriculture

Source:http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/sunshot/seeds_sandia.html
INNOVATION CHARACTERISTICS

•
•
•
•
•

Perceived advantage
Complexity
Riskiness
Trialability (lumpiness)
Observability

Q:...
A Scaling (learning) Process Approach
Effective
Efficient
Scaling-up

Time
Source: Korten, 1980
Scaling the Update of Innovations through
Sustainable Agricultural Extension
 Using what we know about human behavior to ...
This presentation was given by:

Brent M. Simpson
Department of Agriculture, Food and Resource
Economics, Michigan State U...
Terms of Use:

© Brent Simpson, Michigan State University and the MEAS project.
This work is licensed under a
Creative Com...
Disclaimer:
This presentation was made possible by the generous support of
the American people through the United States A...
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Scaling the Uptake of Agricultural Innovation and the Role of Sustainable Extension and Advisory Services. Nov. 20, 2013

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Presentation given by Dr. Brent Simpson, Michigan State University, and deputy director of the MEAS project, during the Agricultural Sector Council webinar on November 20, 2013. The topic focuses on the adoption (individual level) and uptake (aggregate level) of innovation - common patterns, human behavior, and the implications for agricultural extension and advisory services.

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Scaling the Uptake of Agricultural Innovation and the Role of Sustainable Extension and Advisory Services. Nov. 20, 2013

  1. 1. Scaling the Uptake of Agricultural Innovations: The role of sustainable extension and advisory services Ag Sector Council Webinar 20 November 2013 Brent M. Simpson Michigan State University Deputy Dir. Modernizing Extension and Advisory Services (MEAS) Project
  2. 2. Major Themes Covered  Issues to think about  Important concepts  Application of extension principles in practice
  3. 3. Key Questions  How do we define scale when thinking about the adoption of agricultural technologies and practices?  How do we design for the potential of scaling the up-take of agricultural innovations?  How do we sustain the momentum of scaling behavior change once it is initiated?
  4. 4. Place-based Nature of Agriculture Natural site: Where species are able to grow. Socio-economic site: Where species are allowed to grow • Elimination • Addition • Manipulation of the environment Source: von Maydell, 1990
  5. 5. The Farming Environment Institutional Social Economic Biological Physical Source: adapted from Shaner et al., 1982
  6. 6. Farming System Characteristics Enterprises Capital Labor Land Household Characteristics Source: adapted from Shaner et al., 1982
  7. 7. Adoption Domain “recommendation domain”
  8. 8. Essential Nature of Scale in Agriculture Every innovation has its natural scale of expression No innovative change is permanent Image Source: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/sunshot/seeds_sandia.html
  9. 9. The Diffusion of Innovations 20%
  10. 10. Individual Pathways Source: Felton in Cox and Alm, 2008
  11. 11. Multiple Sources/Multiple Providers Source: Dedire, 2013
  12. 12. Process of Adoption ADOPTION PROCESS • • • • • Awareness Interest Evaluation Trial (adaptation) Adoption Q: How many dissemination efforts are explicitly designed to facilitate individual adoption as part of their theory of change? Source: Rogers, 1964
  13. 13. The Time Dimension ? Q: How many projects are designed to allow adoption to take place, let alone takeoff? Source: Rogers, 1995
  14. 14. Essential Nature of Scale in Agriculture Source:http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/sunshot/seeds_sandia.html
  15. 15. Essential Nature of Scale in Agriculture Source:http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/sunshot/seeds_sandia.html
  16. 16. INNOVATION CHARACTERISTICS • • • • • Perceived advantage Complexity Riskiness Trialability (lumpiness) Observability Q: How many interventions incorporate the essential characteristics of the innovation into their diffusion strategy? Source: Rogers, 1963
  17. 17. A Scaling (learning) Process Approach Effective Efficient Scaling-up Time Source: Korten, 1980
  18. 18. Scaling the Update of Innovations through Sustainable Agricultural Extension  Using what we know about human behavior to support behavior change;  Using what we know about the diffusion of innovations to design projects;  Sustaining efforts long enough to allow ‘scaling’ to happen;  Working at scale, to achieve impacts of scale. Not either, or…it’s all, and. Applying what we already know is itself an innovation
  19. 19. This presentation was given by: Brent M. Simpson Department of Agriculture, Food and Resource Economics, Michigan State University on behalf of the Modernizing Extension and Advisory Services (MEAS) Project
  20. 20. Terms of Use: © Brent Simpson, Michigan State University and the MEAS project. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Users are free: • to Share — to copy, distribute and transmit the work • to Remix — to adapt the work Under the following conditions: • Attribution — Users must attribute the work to the author(s)/institution (but not in any way that suggests that the authors/ institution endorse the user or the user’s use of the work).
  21. 21. Disclaimer: This presentation was made possible by the generous support of the American people through the United States Agency for International Development, USAID. The contents are the responsibility of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the United States Government. www.meas-extension.org

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