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 “The man accused of killing at least 93 people in Norway described thevideo game Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 as "part...
 Video game genres: sportsstimulations, racers, adventures,puzzlers, miscellaneous,platformers,, beat ‘em ups andshoot ‘e...
Video games as most popularentertainment form (Prachett,2005),Time spent playing continuingto increase (Escobar-Chaves& ...
 Games are particularly attractive platforms toyoung people, they offer an attractive forum forlearning (Swing & Anderson...
89% of games in the market maycontain elements of violence, andalmost half of these games mayinclude a form of serious vi...
A reduction in helping/prosocialbehaviour and empathy and anincrease in condoning ofattitudes towards violence.Adults, a...
Which types of victims elicit higher levels of blame andlack of empathy and understanding from others ?Victims of sexual...
What is the impact of violentvideo game play on attitudestowards victims of crime?Address criticism of theresearch in th...
Sample: 206 participants (129 males and 76 females) The participants were aged between 12 and 24 years (mean = 16.85year...
Male and female meanvictim concern scores010203040506070Male FemaleOverallGeneralVulnerableCulpablePropertyConcern for Vic...
Significant negative correlation betweena) exposure and overall concern (r = -.167, p<0.05),b) exposure and concern for ge...
The results suggest that young people who play moreviolent video games have less concern for general victimsand for culpa...
 The long-term exposure to violent video games maylead to people developing particular views ofculpability and levels of ...
Most young people spend more time watching screenmedia than in any other activity apart from sleeping(Strasberg et al, 20...
16“I could play it for hours, I dont know what it is thatmakes it so addictive. I think its the fact that youplay the bad ...
 Anderson, C.A., & Dill, K.E. (2000). Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings andbehaviour in the labratory and in ...
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Bahaya video games kekerasan

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Bahaya video games kekerasan

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2.  “The man accused of killing at least 93 people in Norway described thevideo game Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 as "part of my training-simulation" in his 1500-page manifesto published online just before themassacre” (Birmingham Metro, 2011) “Stefan Martin-Urban... pulled a pistol from behind his back andmethodically shot strangers, his behaviour was eerily similar to charactersin the video games he played obsessively”. (Denver Post, 2009) In 2006, a bill prohibiting the sale or rental of games that portray “killing,maiming, dismembering or sexually assaulting an image of a humanbeing” to people younger than 18 years old was passed in California. Thiswas overturned in 2011. But is this just Moral Panic? What is the impact of violent video games on gamers?2
  3. 3.  Video game genres: sportsstimulations, racers, adventures,puzzlers, miscellaneous,platformers,, beat ‘em ups andshoot ‘em ups (Griffiths, 1993) Effects video games larger thanthose associated with TV & filmviewing Increasingly sophisticatedgraphics: less abstract Interactive nature of games Online and portable Structural characteristics Video game addiction3
  4. 4. Video games as most popularentertainment form (Prachett,2005),Time spent playing continuingto increase (Escobar-Chaves& Anderson, 2008).Almost 30% of 9 year oldboys (compared with 12% ofgirls) were reported asspending one or more hoursdaily playing these games(Growing Up in Ireland, 2011)Disregard stereotype of male,teenage gamer profile(Griffiths, Davies and Chappell, 2003)But what are the effects ofplaying....is it something ofconcern?Research withchildrenBoys Girls(1985)Harris & Williams4 hoursper weeksimilar(1996) Buchanan& Harris7 hours 4.5hours(2007) Anderson,Gentile & Buckley13 hours 5.5 hours(2008)Gentile et al.12.4hours14.6hours4
  5. 5.  Games are particularly attractive platforms toyoung people, they offer an attractive forum forlearning (Swing & Anderson, 2008). Video game industry has started to recogniseand design games aimed at improvingi) Cognition and learning: support multi-sensory, active, and experiential and problem-based learning & activation of prior knowledge.ii) Health Benefits: Physiotherapy/OT/Distractiii) Social Benefits: Displacement hypothesis 5
  6. 6. 89% of games in the market maycontain elements of violence, andalmost half of these games mayinclude a form of serious violencetaking place against anothercharacter (Children Now, 2001).Aggressive Behaviour,Aggressive CognitionAggressive Affect.School performance, peerrelations, ability to take othersperspective and/or sympathise ,increased arousal.6
  7. 7. A reduction in helping/prosocialbehaviour and empathy and anincrease in condoning ofattitudes towards violence.Adults, adolescents & childrenCorrelation with more positiveattitudes towards violence inwars, intimate partner violenceand general normativeaggressive beliefs Neural desensitization toviolence predicts increasedaggression following violentvideo game exposure(Engelhardt, 2011)7
  8. 8. Which types of victims elicit higher levels of blame andlack of empathy and understanding from others ?Victims of sexual violenceGender differencesVictims who are children: Bullying researchPrevious research has explored the impact on youngpeople’s attitudes towards criminals (Lee et al, 2010) andtowards crimeViera & Krcmar (2011) the structure of violent videogames limit children’s abilities to develop perspectives ofvictimsGreitemeyer & McLatchie (2011) : Dehumanising process8
  9. 9. What is the impact of violentvideo game play on attitudestowards victims of crime?Address criticism of theresearch in the fieldGamers who play violentvideo games will exhibit lessconcern for different types ofvictims than gamers whoplay non-violent videogames.Gender and Age differencesin concern scores9
  10. 10. Sample: 206 participants (129 males and 76 females) The participants were aged between 12 and 24 years (mean = 16.85years; SD = 2.57 years).Materials:i) Victim Concern Scale: Clemments et al (2006); 21-item scale askingparticipants to rate their concern for different types of victims. General Victims Vulnerable or Violent Crime Victims Property Theft Victims Culpable Victimsii) Violent Video Game Exposure: Dill & Anderson (2000):an overall violent video game exposure score for each participant10
  11. 11. Male and female meanvictim concern scores010203040506070Male FemaleOverallGeneralVulnerableCulpablePropertyConcern for Victims010203040506070Victim Concern11
  12. 12. Significant negative correlation betweena) exposure and overall concern (r = -.167, p<0.05),b) exposure and concern for general victims (r = -.302,p<0.05)c) exposure and victim concern for vulnerablevictims , r =.154, p<0.05 )d) for culpable victims, r =-.238, p<0.05.This showed that high levels of violent game playwere associated with lower levels of overall victimconcern, concern for general victims, vulnerablevictims and for culpable victims.12
  13. 13. The results suggest that young people who play moreviolent video games have less concern for general victimsand for culpable victims, and these effects cannot beexplained by gender or age differences in the participantsample.Young people who play violent video games also reportedless concern for victims overall and for vulnerable victimsand this effect was not due to age differences.* Males: less concern for culpable and general victimsAge differences in terms of types of victims This study is the first to explore directly young people’sexposure to violent video games and their concern forvictims of crimeLess concern for what could be considered the less seriouscrimes or those who they may believe may be less affectedby these crimes.13
  14. 14.  The long-term exposure to violent video games maylead to people developing particular views ofculpability and levels of blame, with higher levels ofculpability(and therefore less concern) evident asyoung people played more violent video games Individual experiences that people have playingviolent video games Gender differences Greater exploration of attitudes Long term effects14
  15. 15. Most young people spend more time watching screenmedia than in any other activity apart from sleeping(Strasberg et al, 2009).Build protective factorsParental role in monitoring the media use.” A new bill has been submitted to the U.S. House ofRepresentatives that will require most video games toinclude a warning label that states: "WARNING:Exposure to violent video games has been linked toaggressive behaviour.“ CBS NewsMarch 20th2012But what about attitudes?Definition of harm and impact of harm changing?Individual and Societal Implications of findings15
  16. 16. 16“I could play it for hours, I dont know what it is thatmakes it so addictive. I think its the fact that youplay the bad guy and have to complete all themissions and try not to get caught. Its not reallyhurting anyone though, right?”Female Gamer (Aged, 20 years)
  17. 17.  Anderson, C.A., & Dill, K.E. (2000). Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings andbehaviour in the labratory and in life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 772-790. Anderson, C. A., Gentile, D. A., & Buckley, K. E. (2007). Violent video game effects on childrenand adolescents: Theory, research, and public policy. New York: Oxford University Press. Clements, C. B., Brannen, D. N., Kirkley, S. M., Gordon, T. M. and Church, W. T. (2006), Themeasurement of concern about victims: Empathy, victim advocacy and the Victim Concern Scale(VCS). Legal and Criminological Psychology, 11: 283–295. Engelhardt, C.E., Bartholow, B.D., & Saults, J.S. (2011). Violent and nonviolent video gamesdifferentially affect physical aggression for individuals high versus low in dispositional anger.Aggressive Behavior, 37, 539-546. Gentile, D. A., Anderson, C. A., Yukawa, S., Ihori, N., Saleem, M., Ming, L. K., Liau, A. K., Khoo,A., Bushman, B. J., Huesmann, L. R., & Sakamoto, A. (2009). The effects of prosocial videogames on prosocial behaviors: International evidence from correlational, longitudinal, andexperimental studies. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35(6), 752-763. Greitemeyer, T. and McLatchie, N. (2011). Denying humanness to others: A newly discoveredmechanism by which violent video games increase aggressive behavior. Psychological Science,22(5):659-665. Griffiths, M. D. (1993). Are computer games bad for children? The Psychologist: Bulletin of theBritish Psychological Society, 6, 401–407. Harris, M.B. & Williams, R. (1985). Video games and school performance. Education, 105(3),306-309. Strasburg, V.C., Wilson, B.J. & Jordan, A.B. (2009). Children, Adolescents and the Media. (2ndEd). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Viera, E.T. & Krcmar, M. (2011) The Influences of Video Gaming on US Childrens MoralReasoning About Violence Journal of Children and Media, 5(2), pp 113-13117

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