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Moral Issue of Corruption in the Philippines

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  1. 1. CORRUPTION Enjoying Good School; Enduring Bad Governance <ul><li>Moral Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>PhD Class </li></ul><ul><li>Cavite State University </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd Sem SY 2009-2010 </li></ul><ul><li>ARMANDO D. ISON </li></ul>
  2. 2. Filipino’s have certain characteristics that make them Filipinos
  3. 3. How do you call a Filipino abroad?
  4. 4. <ul><li>Filipinos cannot resist buying items on sale even if they don’t need them. </li></ul><ul><li>Use outlines of feet drawn on paper for buying shoes for friends </li></ul><ul><li>Like everything imported </li></ul><ul><li>Take more time having wedding pictures taken than for the wedding itself. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Yes that’s us. Why? Pinoy kasi
  6. 6. <ul><li>You are a Filipino if your roads are like moon holes. </li></ul><ul><li>You are also a Filipino if there are more patients than beds in public hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>If in a state run schools, students share one old textbook </li></ul><ul><li>Pinoy ka kapag nakakita ka ng mahabang pila ng tao para lang sa isang paracetamol…. atbp </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>If you’re being solicited for a bribe and you don’t relent, you’re told </li></ul><ul><li>Pare, “Para ka namang hindi Pinoy.” </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Is this really the best type of being human that we can be? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you sure this is the best way of being a Filipino? </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>“ In all areas of national endeavor, there is need for imagination, careful planning, thoroughness, hard work, sweat, integrity, dedication, self-discipline and the willingness to sacrifice all for the common good….. All the funds in the world will be to no avail if we suffer from lack of these intangible forces that make a nation great .” </li></ul><ul><li>Sen. Jovito Salonga. </li></ul><ul><li>The Intangibles that make the Nation Great </li></ul>
  10. 10. What is corruption? from a latin word corrum – heart, inside rumpere – split “ inner split within you” believe/preach preach/practice public/private
  11. 11. Why corruption is a moral issue?
  12. 12. Corruption is a moral issue <ul><li>because it is consider as WRONG, SINFUL, EVIL according to some code or theory of ethics. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Thou shall not steal” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Corruption is the misuse/abuse of entrusted power for private gain.” </li></ul><ul><li>It is clear betrayal of public trust. It breaks promises of impartiality made when they were invested with the authority to govern. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Corruption is a moral issue <ul><li>- it involves a specific kind of experience, a special kind of feelings. ( hiya, takot ) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Conscience” </li></ul><ul><li>It generate a sense of shame, a sense of guilt. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Corruption is a moral issue <ul><li>- because it creates a situation which affect other people. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Corruption retards economic and social development, lowers the quality of public services and infrastructure and raises the prices of goods and services.” </li></ul>
  15. 15. Corruption is a moral issue <ul><li>- it is an action which has the potential to help or HARM other people including yourself. </li></ul><ul><li>The poor people could not avail themselves of the basic government services like health and education problems. </li></ul><ul><li>In some cases corruption literally KILLS. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Corruption is an age old problem. </li></ul><ul><li>It has been the problem of our country for so many years. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Filipinos in Japan </li></ul><ul><li>You want us to be a Christian? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think it could make us a better person? </li></ul><ul><li>Look at yourself? </li></ul><ul><li>Look at your country? </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Philippines as the only Christian Nation in Asia </li></ul><ul><li>85% are Christian yet </li></ul><ul><li>85% ang nandaraya </li></ul><ul><li>85% ang dinadaya </li></ul><ul><li>If before we are ranked as no. 8 most corrupt country in Asia, last night I was surprised to know that we are no. 1 na pala, he,he,he, lumala pa) </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Philippine 9.40 </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesia 8.0 3. </li></ul><ul><li>Thailand 8.03 </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>India </li></ul><ul><li>Korea </li></ul><ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><li>Malaysia </li></ul><ul><li>Taiwan </li></ul><ul><li>Macau </li></ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Hongkong Singapore 1.20 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  20. 20. Unresolved National Scandals <ul><li>ZTE-NBN deals – $329 M </li></ul><ul><li>32 km North Railway - $503 M </li></ul><ul><li>South Rail Anomaly- $70 M </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer Fund Scam – P728 M </li></ul><ul><li>PEA – AMARI – $6.5 M </li></ul><ul><li>Cebu Lampost P365 M </li></ul><ul><li>Diosdado Macapagal road – P1.1 B </li></ul><ul><li>Walis sa Paranaque – P2.9 M </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>LTO Car Smuggling </li></ul><ul><li>BOC X-ray machines </li></ul><ul><li>DND Helicopters </li></ul><ul><li>PIATCO-NAIA 3 terminal </li></ul><ul><li>DOH Medicine spoilage </li></ul><ul><li>Garci-Bedol Cover Up </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer Fund Scum </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Graft and Corruption flourishes because of the culture of impunity. Have you heard of any big fish being convicted of corruption and plunder, except for deposed President Joseph Estrada? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, he was convicted of plunder, but he did not spend even a day in a real prison. Only six weeks after his conviction, he was pardoned by President Arroyo. </li></ul><ul><li>Was that any way to set an example for other grafters in government and the would be grafters and plunderers? </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Noynoy—Hindi ako magnanakaw (I will not steal), </li></ul><ul><li>Villar—Hindi na ako magnanakaw (I will not steal anymore), </li></ul><ul><li>Gibo—Hindi ko kayang magnakaw (I cannot steal), </li></ul><ul><li>Gloria—Wala na kayong nanakawin (There’s nothing left to steal)…. </li></ul>Joke time:
  24. 24. <ul><li>What does it mean: </li></ul><ul><li>It means that </li></ul><ul><li>all the EFFORTS (kung meron man) </li></ul><ul><li>Is not ENOUGH </li></ul><ul><li>It is not working….AND </li></ul><ul><li>It is not working for the POOR. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Enjoying Good Schools Enduring Bad Governance
  26. 26. <ul><li>A friend of mine approach me one day, crying; Andoy, I just want to be a teacher, but I was told that my application is pressed down under the heap of other applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Why? You have all the credentials necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Apparently the Superintendent, was asking for her 3 months salary. </li></ul><ul><li>She refused </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>My friend consulted her relatives and former teachers and even her mother who goes to church everyday. </li></ul><ul><li>All of them as if in chorus , told her to be practical </li></ul><ul><li>Sign your checks for the first 3 months, drop in your superintendent’s drawer, wait for the 4 th month, and get on with a real LIFE. </li></ul>
  28. 28. The institution that is supposed to be the custodian and promoter of good values suffers from distorted value system.
  29. 29. <ul><li>A world Bank Study in 200 estimated that in 20 years, the Philippines lost $48 Billion because of corruption, and the amount surpassed the entire foreign debt of $ 40.6 Billion </li></ul>In addition to stories we need some basic statistics
  30. 30. <ul><li>Corruption has also infected schools. The latest Global Corruption Barometer Survey (2005) of the Berlin Based Transparency International (TI) reveals an increasing incidence of corruption in many schools and universities worldwide, including bribes to secure a student’s admission to school or to pass university exams, or selling diplomas and other academic credentials. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>The report importantly notes that such anomalous “practices in schools and universities contradicted basic values of integrity, equity, and public good, and risked perpetuating the problem by fostering a negative perception of authority and institutions.” </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>When the students are exposed and formed to corruption and have lost respect to campus institutions, they can easily lose respect to the broader institutions of governance when they are brought into the mainstream society. </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>According to an earlier report of the Philippine Center of Investigative journalism, up to 65% of the textbook funds are reserved as bribe money. The range of bribery runs from 20% to 65%. In the purchase of medicines, books, magazines, and other instructional materials, the kickbacks are distributed to supplier 40%, congressional aide 5%, head of implementing agency 10%, and legislators 45% (Parenno 1998) </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Armando Ang documents a host of other anomalies especially in the department of education, from kickbacks in the construction of buildings to the procurement of textbooks and the exploitation of teachers through bribery and leaking examination questionnaires. </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>In the year 200, a whooping 21 Billion pesos of the government's procurement budget apparently went to the pockets of legislators. </li></ul><ul><li>21 B of pesos has equivalents. It could mean 44,716 new classrooms, 21 million new books, new desks, new computers. Then the backlog for classrooms and computers could have been remedied. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Philippines Daily Inquirer 15, April 2005 point out that fake diplomas and academic credentials are being manufactures at Recto or Quiapo Area. </li></ul><ul><li>At University Belt, students are submitting copied papers in Rizal course. Some copied lyrics from song hits magazines, and they got a passing grades! </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>According to an earlier report of the Philippine Center of Investigative journalism, up to 65% of the textbook funds are reserved as bribe money. The range of bribery runs from 20% to 65%. In the purchase of medicines, books, magazines, and other instructional materials, the kickbacks are distributed to spllier 40%, congressional aide 5%, head of implementing agency 10%, and legislators 45% (Parenno 1998) </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>This is true even in graduate schools. Plagiarisms are being commited left and right. </li></ul><ul><li>Some Government officials, who are trying to get their graduate degrees, ask their secretaries to do research papers for them. </li></ul><ul><li>If that is possible in their academic life, I wonder how they do in their public office? </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Jesuits Cross Sectoral Studies of Corruption in the Phil. 2002conducted a study from Baguio to Basilan and the results include rampant cheating in exams and take home assignments, plagiarism, selling of tickets and illegal collection of fees and illegal deductions from teacher’s salaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Other anomalies that emerged from the research include illegal use of PTCA funds, illegal use of class funds, teachers and school administrators getting commissions from suppliers of school supplies or printing press of yearbooks </li></ul><ul><li>and school papers, non-remittance of teacher’s benefits premium (SSS). We should also include the recent scandal on the leakage in the Nursing examinations and the 1 billion worth of insurance that was collected from the lowly teachers. Tampering of ballots during the time of Marcos , </li></ul>
  40. 40. All these sad stories in the world of Education in the Philippines are both a product of a society that has very minimal respect for truth and dignity.
  41. 41. <ul><li>This does not of course, mean that each individual education personnel is corrupt. As a matter of fact I see so many ordinary teachers and educators who like us try to live a life of integrity despite the odds. </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>What do I mean by Good Schools, Bad Governance </li></ul><ul><li>The answer lies on the speech delivered by Dr. Jose M. Tiongco, the guest speaker during the 9 th commencement exercises at the UP Mindanao April 22 2006. </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>He praises the high standard of education the peoples’ scholar receive from the prestigious school and yet questions the fruit of his investment, in terms of “ dedication and integrity” of the graduates </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>What is the point here: </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect on the connections. </li></ul><ul><li>Masakit ang likod bakit paa ang pinipisil? </li></ul><ul><li>2. See the Connections. </li></ul><ul><li>Buhay-Pamilya-Eskwelahan-Bansa-Daigdig. </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>3. Do a lot of self reflections </li></ul><ul><li>Who we are? </li></ul><ul><li>What we value? </li></ul><ul><li>Are we aware of our unhealthy blind spots? (Merry Go round) </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>4. Clarify our Social Mission </li></ul><ul><li>A. Human Formation </li></ul><ul><li>Train the young who will someday become social agents in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Social Transformation </li></ul><ul><li>Direct institutional involvement in changing present social structure. </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>What can we do in schools? </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>Hanapin at harapin ang corruption sa school. </li></ul><ul><li>Cheating </li></ul><ul><li>Plagiarism </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting Classes </li></ul><ul><li>Bullying </li></ul><ul><li>Election of Student Council </li></ul><ul><li>School Fund mismanagement </li></ul><ul><li> (annual, book, school paper, club funds atbp) </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>Chronic cheaters in exam will most probably end up cheating in government. Plagiarists in schools will most probably end up as falsifiers of official documents. Bullies will most probably end up as extortionists. Malpractices in campus elections will most probably find their way in electoral frauds during the local and national elections of government officials. </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>This calls for a serious training in good citizenship values such as a strong sense of personal integrity, honesty, credibility, transparency, equity, sense of justice, consciousness of the common good, ascendancy and simplity, things which Senator Jovito Salonga calls “the intangible forces that makes a nation great.” </li></ul>
  51. 51. EDUCATION FOR INTEGRITY Directing our attention to some curricular and co-curricular programs that, if we are not alert, may actually reinforce corrupt behavior instead of promoting citizenship values.
  52. 52. Aggressive Anti-Cheating Policy <ul><li>Cheating in a major examination will be punished with a failing grade in the course. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition the student will not be allowed to enroll in the following semester. </li></ul><ul><li>“ to remind all of the importance of honesty and personal integrity in our lives” </li></ul><ul><li>“ and to encourage and protect those who do not cheat.” </li></ul><ul><li>Fr. Antonio Samson, SJ </li></ul>
  53. 53. Sportsmanship and Citizenship <ul><li>Schools do not have programs that are intentionally designed to hone corruption. Yet, some of our identity-marking and energy generating activities in schools are vulnerable to distortion of values and disproportionate allocation of funds. </li></ul><ul><li>“ To what extent is our sports development promoting good citizenship and integrity?” </li></ul>
  54. 54. Highlighting integrity as personal as well as corporate spirituality <ul><li>One popular preaching about God’s love is to tell these students that God loves them “unconditionally.” Even if you don’t change, God’s love for you will never change. </li></ul><ul><li>This teaching is from a false religion because it does not draw out the noble in the person. </li></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>Problems in the exposure program of the school. (it should not be dipping into the mud, every weekend, playing with the kids, cleaning the roads, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure program must have a relevance on their chosen careers. (engineering students could be tapped in double-checking quality materials in some government construction. </li></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><li>Challenged some accountancy students to avoid having two financial statements. </li></ul><ul><li>A code of professional ethics must serve as a bridge to the theoretical textbooks on morality and the dilemmas of actual practice on their profession. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Teaching reverence for the value of words <ul><li>Mapanganib itong kawalan ng paggalang sa tamang salita. Ang lipunang walang paggalang sa salita, malamang ay wala ring paggalang sa panunumpa! Kung walang paggalang sa panunumpa malamang wala ring galang sa lagda. (Vox populi Vox Dei) </li></ul><ul><li>Ang layo-layo na natin sa karunungan at kadakilaan ng Kartilla ng Katipunan noong 1896. “Sa taong may hiya ang salita’y panunumpa.” </li></ul>
  58. 58. Integrity in Public Life: Reorientation of our Alumni Program <ul><li>We teach our students excellence, then excellence is equated with success, which is then reduced to financial success, and financial success is measured by how much our alumni are capable of donating back to school </li></ul>
  59. 59. PTCA and Alumni Champions <ul><li>During alumni homecoming, we announced who donated how much, regardless of where the alumnus got it. The way we glorify alumni who sponsored one truck of beer during alumni programs, the way we introduce some big shot alumni even though they come late - --- all this sends signal which ultimately reveal how schools actually appraise their products. </li></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>Sometimes alumni feel the school is only after their money. If I am an ordinary public servant, one who, because I take seriously the school’s call for integrity, cannot even buy half a page of the yearbook, then for all practical purposes, I do not exist in the horizon of the alumni program. But for all we know, these alumni who work in public service could very well be the school’s authentic contribution to society. </li></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>We are now being challenged to find a way to value our alumni, not by the amount they donate back to school, but by the way they bring their alma mater’s principles into a wider society. </li></ul>
  62. 62. <ul><li>Makes A Difference. Be like a Chicken. </li></ul><ul><li>Sa lahat ng paraan, maging halimbawa ka ng mabuting ugali at maging tapat ka at kagalang-galang sa iyong pagtuturo. Nararapat na pananalita ang lagi mong gagamitin, upang hindi mapintasan ninuman ang sinasabi mo. Kayat mapapahiya ang ating mga kalaban sapagkat wala silang masasabing masama laban sa atin. </li></ul><ul><li>Titus 2:7 </li></ul>
  63. 63. References <ul><li>Alejo, Albert E, 2005. “Enjoying Good Schools, Enduring Bad Governance: Realigning Values Formation with Good Governance and Conscientious Citizenship.” A Lecture Workshop </li></ul><ul><li>Chua, Yvonne T., 1999. Robbed: An Investigation of Corruption in the Philippine Education. Manila: Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism </li></ul><ul><li>Ang, Armando. 2005. Greed and Scams, Inc. (Corruption, Deception, Forgery, Fraud, Hoax, Kickback, Quakery, Swindle, Rip-off, etc. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Educating teachers for diversity at </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>