Alcohol use was found to increase re-victimization but the study did not find significant evidence of the occurrence of child sexual abuse. The study focused more on the abuse that occurs after substances are used.
In the study, 28 of the participants had experienced CSA. Study was conducted in a third world country and many women in the study were escaping abuse. Once the women escaped they were poor and left with little options and many of them turned to prostitution and crack.
The results indicated that 30.7% of the participants have experienced both sexual and physical abuse in their lives. The study was reliable in the sense that of the hungarian female population both substance users and non substance users were interviewed.
Study was able to differentiate what was excessive alcohol intake. Also, the study was able to disregard data where one or two drinks were consumed compared to many more. Where as, many other studies take down any alcohol use into account.
The study only included African American college aged men so this study could not generalize to the public. This study is groundbreaking in the sense that it does contain males as participants. Future research could include both men and women from different cultures and races.
Participants were put into two groups group 1: sober 6 months and then group two: sober 6–24 months. Out of the survey 44% had experienced CSA.
Out of the participants 55% were female and the mean age was 29. There were both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. The results also indicated that there was a greater risk of substance use in (DZ) than (MZ) pairs.
Participants were female drug users. The results indicated that 46% of prostitutes and 36% of just drug users had experienced CSA.
Participants were 202 Thai youth aged 16-25. The results indicated that 38% of the people reported childhood abuse.
Participants were 291 American Indian women. The findings indicated that 168 of the subjects had some sort of alcohol disorder and 123 were non alcoholic and non ASPD .
The Relationship Between Sexual Abuse And Addiction
The Relationship Between Sexual Abuse and Addiction By: Andrea Presnall Argosy University
Abstract <ul><li>This review examines ten different studies that investigate the relationship between sexual abuse and later substance use. The different studies that were chosen have samples located around the world with mostly women but a few samples contain men. The review also contains other factors influencing substance use like poverty, demographics, stress and the MOAO gene. All of these studies reinforce a common thread between sexual abuse and substance use. </li></ul>
Lutz-Zois, Phelps and Reichle (2011) <ul><li>Used 1,117 female college students to find out if child sexual abuse had any impact on adult sexual abuse. </li></ul><ul><li>Found that alcohol use lead to future re-victimization. </li></ul><ul><li>Strength: large sample size. </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness: results limited to women and students. </li></ul>
Bodnar, Dickson-Gómez, Gaborit, and Rodriguez (2006) <ul><li>Conducted interviews with 40 women who either were prostitutes or smoked crack to find out if there is a relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and later HIV status. </li></ul><ul><li>Drug use was a mediating factor. </li></ul><ul><li>Found that with CSA more drugs and at a higher frequency were used. </li></ul><ul><li>Strength: Explored survivors of CSA and an drug abusers that haven’t been abused as children. </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness: Small sample size. </li></ul>
Birkas, Csoboth and Purebl (2003) <ul><li>Study included 3,615 female hungarian youth. </li></ul><ul><li>This study explored the risk factors such as sexual and physical abuse and their impact on substance use. </li></ul><ul><li>Results: The abused participants were more likely to abuse substances under stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Strength: It broke down different substance abused and had a large sample size. </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness: Did not operationalize stress factors. </li></ul>
Sehgal, Simoni and Walters (2004) <ul><li>Conducted a mail survey with American Indian females (18-87 years old) to examine how trauma and HIV behaviors impact substance use. </li></ul><ul><li>Results: Particpants that had experienced CSA were more likely to drink excessively. </li></ul><ul><li>Strength: Random sampling technique within this population. </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness: American Indians already have a higher rate of alcohol use so the results may be exagerated to this population. </li></ul>
Amos et al. (2008) <ul><li>Distributed a survey to 181 African American college men to see if there is a relationship between sexual abuse and drug use. </li></ul><ul><li>Results: participants that have been sexually abused were 10 times more likely to have used drugs in the past year and 5 times more likely within the past month. </li></ul><ul><li>Strength: Included males. </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness: Did not operationalize frequency of substance use. </li></ul>
Chen (2009) <ul><li>Distributed a questionnaire to 54 recovering substance abuse females in Israeli prison. </li></ul><ul><li>Results: Inmates that had been CSA started using drugs younger and more types of drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>Strength: Use of descriptive statistics. </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness: Small sample size. </li></ul>
Bucholz et al. (2006) <ul><li>I nterviewed 6050 sets of twins to determine the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and drug use . </li></ul><ul><li>Results: 6% of men and 17% women reported CSA and out of this sample tobacco and marijuana were common. </li></ul><ul><li>Strength: Sample selection (twins both male and female) and sample size. </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness: CSA estimates were on a self report basis. </li></ul>
Abdallah (2006) <ul><li>The study was conducted to find out if CSA and perpetration of violence would later lead to cocaine addiction. </li></ul><ul><li>Results: Also, the findings show that all of the victims of CSA had more severe addictions to cocaine than the other participants that didn’t experience CSA. </li></ul><ul><li>Strength: Use of -IV criteria for Cocaine Dependence (304.20). </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness: Sample was limited to women. </li></ul>
Harpham, Jirapramukpitak and Prince (2005) <ul><li>Conducted a study to find if there is a relationship between childhood abuse and the later development of mental disorders including substance disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>The results were that out of all these different types of abuse these percentages abuse substances: 8.4% for no childhood abuse, 16% for one kind, 26.5% for two kinds and 66% for all three kinds of child abuse uses substances. </li></ul><ul><li>Strength: Depth of abuse related to different types of drugs used. </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness: The frequency of drug use was not analyzed. </li></ul>
Catena (2008) <ul><li>Examined the relationship between the MAOA gene, CSA, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and alcoholism. </li></ul><ul><li>The results were that MAOA had a strong correlation with CSA. </li></ul><ul><li>Strength: The use of genetics to relate CSA to alcoholism. </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness: That the prevalence of alcoholism in the Native American population could have been a cofounding variable. </li></ul>
Conclusion <ul><li>The findings from this literature review suggest a correlation between CSA and substance use. Future research in this topic should emphasize larger sample sizes and random sampling to develop more reliable results. Also, future research should emphasize the use of both genders since CSA and substance use have occurred in both. Although this link cannot be proven there is a correlation. </li></ul>
References <ul><li>Abdallah, A., Bogetto, J., Callahan, C., & Cottler, L., Spitznagel, E., & Vaddiparti, K. (2006). The effects of childhood trauma on sex trading in substance using women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 35 (4), 451-459. doi:10.1007/s10508-006-9044-4 </li></ul><ul><li>Amos, C., Peters, R., Martin, Q., Regina, J [DH1] ., Williams, J., & Yacoubian, G. (2008). The link between recent sexual abuse and drug use among African American male college students: Its [DH2] not just a female problem in and around campus. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 40 (2), 161-166. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/207970904?accountid=34899 </li></ul><ul><li>Birkas, E., Csoboth, C., & Purebl, G. (2003). Physical and sexual abuse: Risk factors for substance use among young Hungarian women. Behavioral Medicine, 28 (4), 165-71. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/195232448?accountid=34899 </li></ul><ul><li>Bodnar, G., Dickson-Gómez, J., Gaborit, M., & Rodriguez, K. (2006). [DH3] Childhood sexual abuse and HIV risk among crack-using commercial sex workers in San Salvador, El Salvador: A qualitative analysis. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 20 (4), 545-574. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/205133063?accountid=34899 </li></ul>
References <ul><li>Bucholz, K., Heath, A., Lynskey, M., Madden, P., Martin, N., Nelson, E., & Statham, D. (2006). Childhood sexual abuse and risks for licit and illicit drug-related outcomes: A twin study. Psychological Medicine, 36 (10),1473-1483. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/204490674?accountid=34899 </li></ul><ul><li>Catena, M., Ducci, F., Enoch, M., Goldman, D., Hodgkinson, C., Robin, R., & Xu, K. (2008). Interaction between a functional MAOA locus and childhood sexual abuse predicts alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder in adult women. Molecular Psychiatry,13 (3), 334-347. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4002034 </li></ul><ul><li>Chen, G. (2009). Patterns of crime and substance abuse among Israeli ex- addict female inmates. Asian Journal of Criminology, 4 (1), 47-60. doi:10.1007/s11417-008-9055-2 </li></ul><ul><li>Harpham, T., Jirapramukpitak, T., & Prince, M. (2005). The experience of abuse and mental health in the young Thai population. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 40 (12), 955-63. doi:10.1007/s00127-005-0983-1 </li></ul>
References <ul><li>Lutz-Zois, C., Phelps, C., & Reichle, A. (2011). Affective, behavioral, and social-cognitive dysregulation as mechanisms for sexual abuse revictimization. Violence and Victims, 26 (2), 159-176. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/875531863?acc ountid=34899 </li></ul><ul><li>Sehgal, S., Simoni, J., & Walters, K. (2004). Triangle of risk: Urban American Indian womens sexual trauma, injection drug use, and HIV sexual risk behaviors. AIDS and Behavior, 8 (1), 33-45. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/211195390?acc ountid=34899 </li></ul>