Handout kuliah1

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Handout kuliah1

  1. 1. HANDOUT 1 EKONOMI MIKRO ISLAM M. Luthfi Hamidi, SAg, SE, MA Sekolah Tinggi Ekonomi Islam SEBI 11 September 2013
  2. 2. Agenda • Personal introduction • Menyepakati silabus dan SAP • Kontrak perkuliahan • Menjelaskan Definisi Ekonomi Islam • Menjelaskan Konsep Dasar Ekonomi Islam • Menjelaskan Prinsip Ekonomi Islam
  3. 3. Short Introduction • Nama Lengkap : M. Luthfi Hamidi • Pendidikan : SAg (IAIN WS), SE (UNDIP), • MA (Islamic Banking and Finance, MIHE-Lougborough Uni, UK • Alamat : Jl. Indragiri Raya 448 Depok • Buku : Dolar Vs Euro (2003); Jejak-jejak • Ekonomi Syariah (2004); Gold Dinar (2007); The Crisis (2012) • Web : www.quranomics.com
  4. 4. Silabus dan SAP • Menyepakati silabus dan SAP • Silabus file://localhost/Volumes/LUTHFI/SEBI/kuliah1/9_silabus mikro ekonomi Islam.doc • SAP • file://localhost/Volumes/LUTHFI/SEBI/kuliah1/9_sap mikro ekonomi Islam.doc
  5. 5. Ekonomi? Trade-off Incentives Scarcity Exchange Information Distribution
  6. 6. Toward a Definition of Islamic Economics: Some Scientific Considerations 91 Chart No.1 The Structure of a Normal Science: The Case of Economics Normal Sciences Natural SciencesSocial Sciences A B C Y ZEconomics The Economic System The Paradigm Basis of The Micro Foundations The Philosophic Foundations Sumber: Arif (1985). Posisi Ekonomi
  7. 7. Sumber: Arif (1985).
  8. 8. Definisi Ekonomi • Ilmu Ekonomi: 4 Pendekatan (Definisi) (TR Jain et al, 2007) • Wealth Definition: • Adam Smith: Economics is an enquiry into the nature and causes of wealth of nations • J.B. Say: Economics is the science which treats of wealth • Welfare Definition: • Marshall: Economics is study of mankind in the ordinary business of life; it examines that part of individual and social action which is most closely connected with the attainment and with the use of material requisites of well being
  9. 9. Definisi Ekonomi • Scarcity Definition: • Lord Robbins: A science that studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses • J. Harvey says: The study of how people allocate their limited resources to provide for their wants • Growth-Oriented Definition: • Samuelson: Economics is study of how people and society end up choosing with or without the use of money to employ scarce productive resources that could have alternative uses, it produces various commodities over time and distributes them for consumption, now or the future, among various persons and groups in society. It analyses costs and benefits among improving patterns of resource allocations. • Stiglitz-Walsh: Economic studies how individuals, firms, government, and other organizations within our society make choices, and how these choices determine society’s use of its resources.
  10. 10. Definisi Ekonomi Islam • Ilmu Ekonomi Islam • Hasanuz Zaman defines Islamic economics as "the knowledge and application of injunctions and rules of the Shari'ah that prevent injustice in the acquisition and disposal of material resources in order to provide satisfaction to human beings and enable them to perform their obligations to Allah and the society.” (Zaman, 1984). • "Islamic economics aims at the study of human falah achieved by orgainising the resources of earth on the basis of cooperation and participation." (Akram Khan1984). • Islamic economics identifies a study of human behavior with regard to acquiring and using resources for the satisfaction of necessities, needs and other desires. This study is based on the assumptions of the Islamic paradigm (Kahf, n.d.)
  11. 11. Definisi Ekonomi Islam • Islamic economics is "a systematic effort to try to understand the economic problem and iman's behaviour in relation to that problem from an Islamic perspective." (Ahmad, 1992). • Islamic economics is "the Muslim thinkers' response to the economic challenges of their times. In this Endeavour they were aided by the Qur'an and the Sunnah as well as by reason and experience." (Siddiqi, 1992) • Branch of knowledge which helps realize human well- being through an allocation and distribution of scarce resources that is in conformity with Islamic teachings without unduly curbing individual freedom or creating continued macroeconomic and ecological imbalances (Chapra, 1996)
  12. 12. Studi Kasus Kisah Kulkas Bekas
  13. 13. Studi Kasus Kisah Mobil Baru
  14. 14. Definisi Ekonomi Islam • Mempelajari pengelolaan sumber daya berikut alternatif penggunaannya berdasarkan petunjuk Allah dan Rasul- Nya agar memberi manfaat seluas-luasnya (barakah) bagi manusia dan lingkungannya saat ini (dunia) dan hidup setelah mati (akhirat) dengan menggunakan pendekatan nalar (‘ilmul yaqin) maupun pengalaman spiritual (‘ainul yaqin) (Quranomics, 2013). • • “Bisa jadi kamu membenci sesuatu, padahal ia amat baik bagimu, dan bisa jadi kamu menyukai sesuatu, padahal ia amat buruk bagimu. Allah mengetahui, sedang kamu tidak mengetahui.”(QS. Al Baqarah: 216)
  15. 15. Madzhab Ekonomi Islam • Madzhab Baqir as-Shadr: ekonomi konvensional tidak pernah bisa sejalan dengan Islam. Filosofinya kontradiktif satu sama lain. • Misal: tidak ada kelangkaan, • menolak pendapat bahwa keinginan manusia itu tidak terbatas • Menolak istilah Islamic economics
  16. 16. Madzhab Ekonomi Islam • Madzhab Mainstream: Hampir sama dengan ekonomi konvensional menempatkan kelangkaan sumber daya sebagai penyebab masalah ekonomi. Perbedaannya dalam cara penyelesaiannya, yakni bukan dengan mempertuhankan hawa nafsunya, sebaliknya panduan Allah melalui Al-Quran dan Sunnah.
  17. 17. Madzhab Ekonomi Islam • Madzhab Alternatif-Kritis: • Madzhab Baqir dikritik menemukan sesuatu yang sudah ditemukan orang lain. • Madzhab mainstream dikritik jiplakan neoklasik dengan mengganti variabel riba dengan zakat dan niat • Kritik tidak hanya perlu dilayangkan untuk kapitalisme maupun sosialisme, tapi juga ekonomi Islam yanag belum tentu benar karena hasil dari tafsiran manusia.
  18. 18. Fondasi Filosofi Ekonomi Islam • Menurut Asutay (2007), ada 7 fondasi: • Tawhid (God’s unity and sovereignty): vertical dimension of Islam • Al-‟adl wa‟l-ihsan (Equilibrium and Beneficence or Socio-Economic Justice) • Ikhtiyar (Free-will): • Fard (Responsibility) • Rububiyyah • Tazkiyah • Khilafah • Maqasid al-Shari‟ah
  19. 19. Fondasi Filosofi Ekonomi Islam Menurut Karim (2007) Nilai Universal Ekonomi Islam • Tauhid • „Adl (keadilan) • Nubuwwah (kenabian) • Khilafah (Pemerintahan) • Ma‟ad (Hasil)
  20. 20. Sumber: Karim, 2007 Bangunan Ekonomi Islam
  21. 21. Referensi Arif, Muhammad (1985). ‘Toward a Definition of Islamic Economics: Some Scientific Considerations’. Journal Research in Islamic Economics., Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 79-93 Asutay, Mehmet (2007). ‘A Political Economy Approach to Islamic Economics: Systemic Understanding for an Alternative Economic System’, Kyoto Bulletin of Islamic Area Studies, 1-2, pp. 3-18 Chapra, Mohammad Umar (1996) What Is Islamic Economics? Islamic Development Bank Islamic Research and Training Institute. Lecture Series No. 9 Hamidi, M. Luthfi (2012). The Crisis. Krisis Manalagi yang Engkau Dustakan. Jakarta: Republika Kahf, Monzer (n.d.) Relevance Definition And Methodology of Islamic Economics. Bisa diakses di http://monzer.kahf.com/papers/english/methodology_malaysia.pdf Karim, Adiwarman (2007). Ekonomi Mikro Islami. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada Khan, M. Akram (1984), "Islamic Economics: Nature and Need". Journal of Research in Islamic Economics. Vol. 1, No. 2; Winter Mankiw, N. Gregory (2012). Principles of Economics. 6th . Mason: South-Western Cengage Learning TR Jain, ML Grover, Dr. VK Ohri, Dr. OP Khann, (2007) Economics for Engineers. New Delhi: V.K. (India) Enterprises Zaman, S.M. Hasanuz, "Definition of Islamic Economics". Journal of Research in Islamic Economics, Vol. 1, No. 2; Winter 1404H/1984CE.

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